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  1. 1. Team Details Thalvaipati.Tejdeep Chaitanya.korada Vinayreddy.kalluri Syed Rubia Farheen Swetha Bodagala VIT UNIVERSITY INDIA MANTHON TOPIC: Enhancing the quality of primary education Team Name : Challengers
  3. 3. EXISTING EDUCATION SYSTEM Early childhood education in India is subject to two dangerous but contrary deficits. On the one side ,in India millions of young children in lower income groups, especially rural and girl children, including nearly 58% of first grade applicants never complete primary school. Even among those who are studying, poorly qualified teachers, very high student-teacher ratios, insufficient teaching materials and out-mode teaching methods result in a truncated quality of education that often imparts little or no real learning. It is not surprising for students finishing six years of primary schooling in village public schools to lack even unripe reading and writing skills. On the other side of the educational and social field, children studying in urban schools, especially middle and upper class children in private schools, are subjected to extreme competitive pressures from a very early age to attain basic language skills and memorize vast amounts of information in order to qualify for admission into the best schools. Parents and teachers exert intense pressure on young children to acquire academic skills at an age when children should be given freedom and encouraged to learn as a natural outcome of their inborn curiosity, playfulness and enthusiasm to experiment. Rising concern over compulsory learning at an early age is encouraging many educators to advocate dramatic steps to counter the obsession with premature and forced teaching practices Most of our country‟s children are served by the public education system both in towns as well as in villages. Over the years, while we have made increasing commitments in financial terms towards school education in the primary sector, the corresponding outcomes in terms of quality have been quite a failure. Numerous studies point to teacher related issues. These can be identified as lack of discipline which includes absence and non punctuality, lack of motivation, and lack of quality. The other issues that studies point to, such as lack of infrastructure can be made good over the next few years under the Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan but the problem of human resource as pointed out needs to be addressed directly. The following challenges remain in India‟s primary education: • Quality of Education: Half of the children in schools are nowhere near their class-age appropriate learning levels • Lack of trained teachers : In many states of India, this has become a major challenge ,where institutions for teacher education are not widely present. Schools are therefore forced to hire less qualified teachers, which in turn affects the quality of teaching • Issue of Language: Getting teachers to understand and communicate in a “mother tongue” and yet teach in official language is a difficult task. • Literacy levels: According to 2011 census, literacy in India is 74.04%. In other words, nearly a quarter of parents are still illiterate. Their motivation to send their child to school or to monitor their child in school is low. This is demonstrated through irregular student attendance, low learning levels, and dropouts. • A sample survey titled 'Learning Blocks' conducted by non-governmental organization Child Relief and You (CRY) has publicized that primary and upper primary schools in the country do not meet basic requirements expected in an educational institution.
  4. 4. CONTINUED. The study was conducted in 750 schools across 71 districts in 13 states, including Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh, Kerala and Karnataka, and three metro cities - Delhi, Kolkata and Chennai. • The study found more than 75% of schools lacked furniture and fixtures like tables, chairs and benches, and in 41% of schools, students were taught in open space. Experts said the reason for teaching outside the classroom could be attributed to poor condition of the classroom, non-availability of teachers or inadequate number of classrooms. In the absence of a boundary wall, teaching outside the classroom could distract children and cause disturbance while teaching.  Our study also rates schools poorly on hygiene. While 11% of schools don't have toilets, and of those available 34% are unusable, almost one of two schools doesn't have water near toilets. In the north, almost 70% of schools did not have water near toilets. And, half the schools do not have soap near toilets for children to wash their hands after using the toilet. Healthcare experts advocate hand washing after using the toilet to ensure that children do not fall prey to diseases like diarrhoea. Another area of concern is that close to 80% of schools surveyed did not have cleaning staff to keep the toilets clean. The study also found that only 7% of schools with a large number of tribal children have cleaning staff. "Lack of cleaning staff in schools indicates that children are forced to study in unhygienic surroundings. It also means that children are asked to do the cleaning.  About 44% had no electricity, particularly in schools in the east where almost 74% schools did not have electricity. The study also found that three years after the Right to Free and Compulsory Education Act 2009 came into force, schools across the country still did not meet the mandatory requirements. Shortfalls in existing primary Education system:  28% primary schools don‟t have principals.  49% have common toilets for staff and students.  11% schools don't have toilets  9% did not have school management committees, and in 53% of the schools they were not involved in monitoring use of grants  21% of primary schools and 17% of upper primary schools reported involvement of teachers in activities other than teaching  74% schools don't have a library.  60% don't have playgrounds.  66% demanded proof of previous studies and 46% asked for transfer certificate  18% don't have a designated kitchen to prepare midday meals.  20% don't have drinking water.
  5. 5. CAUSES OF THE PROBLEM: While tablets and smart screens enter a few classrooms in corporate sectored schools, nearly one-fourth of schools in India function without blackboards The main factors that effected the enhancing the quality of primary education in India are as follows: • Government failed in bringing down the child labour. • Metrics for quality of education/ competency have received less attention. • High drop out rate ,lack of sufficient separate toilets for boys and girls, lack of proper drinking water. • Lack of awareness among the people about primary education in most of tribal areas. • Failed in implementing Right to education Act in rural and in tribal areas and most places in India. • Decreasing the Quality of „successful‟ students.  Teacher Absence: There exists poor governance and oversight to monitor performance of existing teachers. Teacher absence rates were over 25% across India in 2003, a survey that covered the same areas in 2010 found that teachers‟ absence in rural India was still around 24% • Quality of instruction: There is no quality and standards of education as well as teachers in government schools. • Reservation system should be eradicated while recruiting the teachers for schools through written exam. • Lack of Educational facilities in schools .e.g., classrooms, libraries, drinking water, toilets  Socio-cultural factors like discrimination against the girl child, prevalence of child labour and cast differences play a major role in hindering the access to quality primary education. . • ATTENDENCE: Even if the child gets enrolled in a school, there is no guarantee that (s)he will attend .There are number of factors that keep the child away • The child needs to work, at home or in the family enterprise (farming, trading etc.) and the pedagogy is so boring and the subjects so irrelevant that no self-respecting child will be lured to stay on. Teachers are often uninterested in teaching. Their knowledge is limited. • Poor infrastructure and poor funding for developing primary education. • No proper interaction between student and teacher and parent. DREATH OF TRAINED TEACHERS • There is shortage of trained teachers to make Elementary Education Universal and compulsory.
  6. 6. INNOVATIVE SOLUTION FOR PROPOSED SYSTEM IMPROVEMENT OF SCHOOL FACILITIES: Community participation should be the only means of undertaking any civil works in improvement of school facilities and The Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan would first of all try to mobilize resources under Rural Employment Programme and other developmental schemes for constructing school buildings, the community would have to come forward to preserve school facilities if any investment is proposed in a village. The school infrastructure has to be well conserved. The Lok Jumbish Project has had significant success by adopting this procedure. The allocation for civil works will not exceed 33% of the approved Perspective Plan “There are large number of schools that cannot be repaired under the available maintenance grant. To facilitate the availability of funds for major repairs, civil works component allows major repairs up to Rs.150 crore per annum under SSA subject to the conditions.” DRINKING WATER AND TOILET FACILITIES: Facility of drinking water and toilet facilities is one of the basic requirements in a primary school. There are a number of studies now available to establish the contribution of these facilities in access and holding of children. There is almost a direct correlation between the drop-out of girls at upper primary level and the availability of sanitation facilities within the school. It is unlikely that the gap with regard to toilet and drinking water can be fully met through SSA funds. Hence convergence with other schemes, specially of the Ministry of Rural Development, Government of India is crucial to achieve 100% coverage of such facilities. IMPROVEMENT OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION AND SPORTS FACILITIES: The importance of physical education in the curriculum for primary and upper primary schools cannot be over highlighted. It has been recognized that exercise and play are crucial inputs into the overall physical and social development of children in the 6-14 year age group. Eradicating Social evils and Awareness :  Awareness programs should be done by school administration or teachers before the school starts to bring awareness among the parents about the value of the education which help in growth of their children. The support of schooling by parents and community member can be cultivated through creative programming that facilitates contact and collaboration in local issues .Large scale media and offline campaign to support. o Counselling with parents (different in each context) such as to celebrate small achievements of disabled children or not to neglect education of children as far as possible
  7. 7. MAIN POINTS IN PROPOSED • As of now in many states, in every district for every mandal there will be a mandal educational officer(MEO) who monitors each and every activity related to education in certain villages, mandal. But, these days there are very less regular MEO‟s and the work done by the MEO‟s was given to Headmasters as part-time of that particular area which makes them difficult to monitor all the things as they have minimum knowledge upon it and loads of work, So the govt. should take measures to regularize MEO posts as they are very less. • Transferring the public education system into the hands of the Panchayat system entirely is the best solution.  The caste system also plays a role in the quality of teaching imparted to students. Especially in areas where children belong to castes lower down in the social hierarchy and teachers belong to dominant castes, the social attitudes towards the former are reproduced inside schools. This further de-motivates students from education, and compounds further the problem of non-enrolment, low attendance and dropping out of those enrolled. This caste system should be eradicated  The school system is not without „corruption‟. Misuse of school funds as well as recruitment of relatives and friends as teachers are not uncommon – there is a market in public employment in India, where positions can be bought by means of social connections and bribes. Even in states that are better off in terms of physical infrastructure and other teaching/learning inputs, weak accountability plagues the system and negatively influence learning outcomes  The ultimate goal of education. Some steps in improving the management of the school system has been taken in some states via administrative decentralization, that is by giving control of local schools to village level bodies such as the gram panchayats and the formation of village education committees. • Strengthen the capacity of national, state and district level institutions and organizations for planning, management and evaluation of primary education. • RESIDENTIAL HOSTELS FOR CHILDREN IN REMOTE AND SPARSELY POPULATED BLOCKS OFTRIBAL, DESERT AND HILLY DISTRICTS. DRINKING WATER AND TOILET FACILITIES: The main problem that India facing in developing primary education system is DRINKING WATER AND TOILET FACILITIES • Department of Drinking Water Supply in the Ministry of Rural Development, Government of India has got provision under Accelerated Rural Water Supply Programme (ARWSP) to cover rural schools with drinking water facility. Further, Total Sanitation Campaign (TSC) provide toilet and urinals for rural schools. In this regard, there is a need to make a realistic assessment of the total number of schools to be covered at the State, district and village panchayat levels. The agencies responsible for implementing DPEP and SSA and drinking water and sanitation programmes will coordinate their efforts to ensure coverage of all schools.
  8. 8. IMPLEMENTATION OF THE SOLUTION Increasing Quality Learning Environments: Infrastructure : School infrastructure does influences the quality of various elements of educational process and the size and organization of the class can also influences the construction methods of teacher, for instance arranging seats in a circle to enable maximum interaction instead of lecturing the children sitting in rows. Children learning is influenced by the availability of text books and learning materials, space and furniture available for studying and school should maintain hygienic condition for education. Increasing the Quality and standards of Teacher: Teacher are one of the most important factors in helping children to learn Improvising Knowledge of content and circular: Teacher draw on their knowledge of subject matter and curriculum to make sound decision about what is important for students to learn. There will be more impact on visual learning and e-learning in comparison with blackboard learning. Increase in schools for special children and also in teachers for special kids. A large portion of the teaching materials should be produced at the school by the teachers, who customize their teaching aids to suit the interests and knowledge levels of the students. Improvising Design of Curriculum:  Training the teachers but also ensure that the teaching is delivered in the way it is expected with tools necessary, this type of training will show impact on students learning way. Government schools are not really lagging much behind the private schools but they have to be improved.  One of the solutions expressed was to have low cost chain of primary schools from private sector as it was felt that govt has its own limitations in providing professionally run educational services. The system of education provided at the each and every School should be based on the following approach: • The most important aspect is the attitude of the teacher, which should be that learning is a form of play which fosters the blossoming of the child‟s natural development. Learning should and can be made interesting, enjoyable, fun.  First attention should be given to the health and nutrition of the children to ensure that they have the physical energy and natural attention span needed for learning. Nutritional and medical supplements are provided to under nourished children from low income families. Free exercising and play are encouraged to build strength and stamina.  Children learn spontaneously when their interest and curiosity are awakened. „Teaching‟ is confined to brief periods according to the natural attention span of each child, which is normally 15-30 minutes daily during the first two years. It is never extended beyond the child‟s span of interest.  The student-teacher ratio is kept very low to enable the teacher to work with small groups of 4-5 children at a time while the others are absorbed in learning games or recreational play. The most effective ratio is five students per teacher during pre-school, LKG and HKG and twenty students per teacher during standards 1 to 5. However, since the teaching methods are intense, each student actually need attend only 2½ to 3 hours of class per day, enabling each teacher to effectively handle double the number of students.
  9. 9. Continuation  The act of teaching consists primarily of presenting sensory images, objects and information to the child in a pleasant and interesting manner and permitting the child to observe and inquire about the subject, without compelling the child to memorize. Colored flash cards with large images are utilized as convenient, low cost teaching aids.  Rapid acquisition of basic reading and verbal skills in multiple languages occurs naturally by exposing the child to whole words as objects repetitively for very brief periods. In this manner at a young age even children of illiterate parents learn several languages as effortlessly as they normally learn to speak their native tongue.  Story telling is used to make learning fun and to communicate basic values of goodness, beauty, harmony, responsibility and right conduct.  Information on people and other living things, places, history, geography, and other cultures are presented to the child in the form of stories, pictorial information and explanations combined together to present facts in a living, integrated context rather than as a series of separate divorced subjects.  Rapid acquisition of basic math skills is achieved through the use of number line method which enables the child to physically experiment and act out different combinations of addition and subtraction.  This can be typical for the government for releasing funds so they can utilize the funds available through programs driven by either NGOs or social enterprises. Merits of the proposed solution: • Providing all children with access to primary education, Reducing dropout rates at the primary school level to less than 10%. • The learning process of the students will be based on the objects than the blackboard teaching and it helps the primary school teachers to be more interactive with the students • Raise the average achievement of students in language and mathematics by 25% and by 40% in other subjects. The proposed system of ours discuss the student and teacher ratio so that the teacher can understand the personal status of the student • If the strength of the teacher and student matches then only personal type of approach increases the learning ability of the student.  Advanced curriculum with less burden The act of teaching consists primarily of presenting sensory images, objects and information to the child in a pleasant and interesting manner and permitting the child to observe and inquire about the subject, without compelling the child to memorize  Teacher compensation will be reduced whenever he puts absence to schools. • Increase frequency of inspection – local communities, PTAs to monitor • Awareness programme helps for the more enrollment of the student and which leads to decreasing of dropout.
  10. 10. FINANCIAL REQUIREMENETS: In order to implement for expansion of the primary school and establishment of training center and additional financial resources are needed under the following categories: For the School:  Construction of an additional two class rooms per year for each of the next three years with furniture.  Purchase, production and replacement of books and teaching materials for the new classes, computer aided based tools for learning. For the Training Centre: • Construction and furnishing of a 12 room dormitory for trainees and instructors with a kitchen, dining room, classroom, computer work room and office. • Acquisition of a computer and color printer for design and production of teaching materials. • Purchase of materials for production of teaching materials by the new trainees, which they can take with them when they complete the course. • Purchase of books for the trainees to take with them when they leave and utilize for teaching. • Food and living allowance for trainees, assuming that these expenses are not covered by sponsoring institutions. SOURCES OF FUNDING: Leading schools can depute trainees to learn the new methods and pay a fee of Rs 25,000 for each person trained, to cover their maintenance costs during the training program, a training stipend, and the cost of teaching materials required for them to bring back when they complete the course.10 to 15 industrial houses can be approached to contribute funds for the programme. In exchange, several trainees can be deputed to employ the new methods at new or existing schools operated by these companies. Financial assistance may be obtained from Indian and international institutions such as the Rajiv Gandhi Foundation and the Ford Foundation. SUPERVISATION FOR FINANCIAL REQUIREMENTS: There should be financial committee for each and every districts in India in order to check the funding towards the primary schools whether they are going in a proper manner or not and this committee will check that all the fund that kept on school is utilized without any “corruption”.