Hegel: Idealist? i·de·al·ism (-d-lzm) n.1. The act or practice of envisioning things in an idealform.2. Pursuit of ones ideals.3. Idealized treatment of a subject in literature or art.4. Philosophy The theory that the object of externalperception, in itself or as perceived, consists of ideas.
Meaning of Idealism• Idealism is born out of Plato’s “Theory of Ideas”• As a philosophical doctrine ,idealism recognizes ideas, feelings and ideals more important than material objects and at the same time emphasizes that the human development should be according to moral, ethical and spiritual values so that he acquires the knowledge.• According to Idealism, the essential nature of man is spiritual which is reveled in mental, religious and aesthetic areas.• Idealism emphasizes the study of man more and more because man is endowed with higher intellectual powers and show greater level of intelligence and discrimination and by his own moral and spiritual activities he has created.
• Two forms of the real world: Idealist believe that there are two forms of the world i.e. material & spiritual world, according to which spiritual world is real and ultimate .To know the real world is the reality of mind and soul i.e. is the self realization of the main aim of human life.”Idealism holds that the order of the world is due to the manifestation in space& time of an eternal and spiritual reality.”-Horne• Ideas are more important than the objects: Idealist have given more importance to idea rather than the objects.”Ideas are the ultimate cosmic significance. They are rather the essence or archetypes which form to cosmos. These ideas are eternal and unchanging”.-Plato.
Fundamental Principles Of Idealism Full support to the principle of unity in diversity Importance of Two forms of the Personality development world Ideas are more important than words Faith of Spiritual Powers Importance of man over nature
• Importance of man over nature: Man(who us a thinker and can experience about material phenomenon and laws)is more important then the object (nature).Since man is intelligent hence he can create his own world of virtues and his creativity.”The spirit or cultural environment is an environment of man’s own making, it is a product of man’s creative activity”-R.R.Rusk• Faith in Spiritual Values: They believe in three values truth,beauty,goodness(undying and permanent).When people are in pursuit of these highest spiritual values they achieve their highest spiritual values.”Goodness,truth,and beauty are seen to be absolute each existing in its own right and entirely desirable in itself.”-J.S.Ross.
Contd.• Importance of Personality Development: Idealist give too much importance on the SELF of the individual and on the personality of the individual . According to them development of personality means achievement of perfections of an individual which can be also called as self-realization of self which can be achieved through the society through love,sympathy,fellow feeling, no discrimination on the basis of caste,creed,race etc.In short Idealism believes in the welfare of the whole community.”Thus, the grandeur and the worth of human life at its best are emphasized by Idealism. Human personality is of supreme value and constitutes the noblest work of God.”- J.S.Ross.
Contd.•Full support to the principle of unity in diversity: They believein unity in diversity i.e. the unifying factor is of supreme naturewhich can be called as the universal consciousness or divinity.Idealist call this power as power as God which issupreme,omnipresent,omnipotent.Realization of this supremeforce is ones self is to attain divinity and the fullest extent ofpersonality which may be called as spiritual fulfillment.•‘An Idealistic philosophy of education ,then is an account ofman finding himself as an integral part of universemind.”Prof.H.N.Horne.
Idealism in Education• Credit goes to Plato & Frobel.• According to them,”Ideaism pervades creation and it is an undying ,unlimited and ultimate force which reigns supreme over all mind and matter.”• They all advocate its greatest importance in education and lay more emphasis on aims and principles of education than on methods, aids ,devices.
Aims of Education To ensure To cultivateSelf Realization spiritual Truth,Beauty,GoOR development odnessExaltation ofPersonality Conservation of Preparation for aConservation,Pro inborn nature holy lifemotion,and into spiritualtransmission of nature.cultural heritage Development of intelligence and rationality
Aims of Education• Self Exhaltation:Idealist lay great stress on the exhaltation of the human personality i.e. is Self Realization which involves knowledge of the self.Acc. To Ross, "The aim of education especially associated with idealism is the exhaltation of personality or self realization, the making actual or real the highest potentialities of the self.• To ensure spiritual development: More importance to spiritual values than material attaintments.Tr should organize education so as to develop the child spiritually.
Contd.• To cultivate Truth,Beauty,Goodness: Individual should be in pursuit of high ideals thus he(child) will become more spiritually developed. Edn should strive to develop the child morally& spiritually so that he achieves self realization.• Preparation of holy life: An environment should be provided which is conducive for the development of spiritual values in a child. A holy life will naturally lead the child to spiritual development and self realization.According to Frobel, "The object of education is the realization of a faithful,pure,invoilable and hence holy life.”
Contd.• Conservation, promotion and transmission of cultural heritage:• Man has an capacity of assimilating knowledge of the world. Hence his mental, intellectual capacities develop cultural, social & artistic values in human life.• Man’s achievement in different fields like art and culture are of great significance.• The cultural treasure belongs to the whole humanity and its purpose is to preserve,debelop,and transmit it in all corner of the world.• According to idealist the child should get acquainted with the cultural heritage so that he conserves,promotes,and transmits it to the future generation.
Contd.• Conservation of inborn nature into spiritual nature:• According to Idealist, the inborn instincts and inherenttendencies of a child should be sublimated into spiritual qualities and values.• As a result the child will be developed.• Hence the child will attain the fullest development of his personality.• Hence it is necessary to sublimate the inborn raw tendencies of the child to spiritual qualities.
Contd.• Development of intelligence and rationality:• According to Adam man can understand the purpose as well as the plan and organization since he understands the purpose of all objects and natural phenomenon.• Since there are set principles working in this creation, man tries to discover and understand these principles so that on the basis of moral elements the world remains organized.• Out of these principles the idealist give more importance to the principle of unity in diversity which underlines the creation of an implicit force in the whole universe. A highly developed (intelligence)mind can perceive and the all prevailing force called as GOD.
Idealism and Discipline• Idealist believe that there is no discipline without spiritual development. They believe that impressionistic discipline is the best type of discipline.• The teacher is to gain respect, be affectionate & sympathetic, motivate, sublimate instincts will lead the child to self discipline for development.• On one hand idealist emphasize on sympathetic control on undesirable activities but on the other hand it grants regulated liberty for spiritual development.
Merits of Idealism• Made significant contribution in the field of education i.e. aims of education.• Emphasized on high values satyam,shivam,sudaram which lead to high moral character of the child.• Aims at self realization of individuals by their own efforts. Hence promotes universal education.• The teacher is assigned an important role of developing the child’s personality to the fullest.• It respects individuality of the child & stimulates his creative energies. Thus it has influenced other philosophies.• Emphasizes on the principle of self discipline which leads to the fullest development (self) of the individual.• School became an important social organization due to the idealist philosophy.
Demerits of Idealism• Is an abstract philosophy& prepares the child for the next world.• Concerned with ultimate end of life& avoids real problems of day to day life.• It lays more importance on thinking & mental activities which increases the importance of intellectualism unnecessarily.• They emphasize on the achievement of immortal high ideals(Truth,Beauty,Goodness)which are not immortal and conditioned by the condition of the society & needs of the individual.• Idealistic philosophy gives more importance to the teacher rather than the child.• Idealistic methods of teaching give more importance to cramming.• Idealistic philosophy give more importance to humanities for spiritual development rather than scientific subjects.
Create a town plan for a community of idealists.Your town should include:1. A list or laws / rules2. Entertainment facilities3. Housing4. ShopsEXT: You might want to think about howeducation would be taught in your town.
Market LiberalismMost of the theoretical approaches you will findlisted in the specification are broadly criticalperspectives. But what are they critical of? For themost part, they are theories that find fault in theway things are, the status quo; they see problemsand inequalities in the dominant structures ofpower. Market Liberalism, however, is broadlysupportive of ‘the way things are’ and tends toassert not only the economic benefits of capitalismbut also its social, cultural and political benefits.
What is Capitalism?Capitalism is certainly a subject that inspires strong opinions andemotions, as witnessed at the frequent anti-capitalistdemonstrations held at locations around the world. Lisbon, May 2009
Pro-capitalist demonstrations, such as the one conducted by afew Young Conservatives in this image may be less common andless well attended, but this should not disguise the fact that mostinstitutions (for example political parties, corporations andnewspapers) are broadly in favour of capitalism.
What is Capitalism?Capitalism is an economic system that emerged in18th century Europe to become, by the early 21stcentury, the world’s dominant form of economicorganisation. It is a system in which people aredriven to produce goods and services for a profit.The three pre-requisites for production are:• land• capital (money)• labour
What is Capitalism?Within a capitalist system, the first two of these, land andcapital, are concentrated in the hands of a minority whoare able to make profits by purchasing the third factor ofproduction: labour. Land and labour are privately ownedby individuals or companies but labour is owned by all ofus: everyone has the capacity to sell their own labour.Labour power (which can be either physical or mental) isexchanged for payment (wages). The goods or servicesthat are produced in this way are then sold on the openmarket; a market in which the majority of buyers(consumers) are those same workers who sell their labourto the owners of capital – the capitalists.
• The market is regulated by the laws of supply and demand whilst competition between providers ensures that price and quality are controlled. This idea of a ‘free market’ is right at the heart of capitalism.• So far, we have developed only a simple model of the basics of capitalism, but these basics really are essential if you are to understand the implications that capitalism has for communication and culture and the critical perspectives we shall be discussing later in the chapter. Just to make sure that you have fully grasped these principles, let’s try a made up example of how capitalism works.
Flimflam JamWhen Flimflam are ready to set a price for their jam, they have to take variousfactors into consideration, most importantly:• The cost of production and labour. In order to make a profit, the income from sales must exceed these costs• The price and availability of other jams in the marketplace. If there is a shortage of jam, prices will be higher but if the market is flooded, prices will go down. These forces are the so-called laws of supply and demand.
Sometimes, national governments restrict the freedom of trade bypassing laws to protect their domestic industries. This would mean, forexample, stopping imports from coming in to a country so that home-based industries would not have to face competition from foreigncompetitors who may be able to produce goods that are cheaper orbetter quality.Another way in which the state can intervene is to remove wholesectors of the economy from the market in order to create a ‘publicsector’ alongside the privately owned parts of industry. In the UK, thefollowing institutions are located wholly or partly in the public sector:• The NHS• Armed Services• Education• The police• Civil service• Local Government• The Roads• The BBC• Prisons
Mixed EconomyBritain, then, is a country that has both public and privateindustries, other wise known as a mixed economy. Thepolitical approach that favours a mixture of public andprivate enterprise is called the social market position.There have been fierce debates for many years about thisbalance, with the Conservative Party generally favouringmore emphasis on private enterprise and the LabourParty generally more supportive of the public sector.When the Conservatives under Margaret Thatcher wonpower in 1979 they set about transforming thepublic/private balance by initiating a programme ofprivatization.
Many companies and economic sectors were shiftedinto the private sector in a process that critics called a‘sell-off’ of the nation’s assets. The coal industry, thesteel industry, BT, the utilities (gas, water andelectricity), British Airways and the railways all foundthemselves in private hands over the course of thenext decade. Most interestingly, from our point ofview, the arguments put forward in favour ofprivatization were not just economic but also cultural.The culture associated with the public sector wascondemned as being lazy, self-serving, bureaucratic, backward-looking andinefficient. In contrast, private enterprise wassystematically associated with virtues such asdynamism, efficiency, risk-taking and cutting edgemodernity. In this way, Thatcher’s privatizations werean economic, political and cultural project.Politics, like advertising, often deals in the assignment
Market LiberalismMarket Liberalism is by no means confined to theeconomic sphere. For its advocates, the free marketis at the centre of an interlocked set of politicalvalues: individual liberty, property rights, freedomof choice and expression. Market Liberals alsoshare the conviction that capitalism is best servedby democratic and pluralist political systems, i.e.those in which everyone is entitled to vote andthere is a genuine choice between diverse partiesall competing for power.