Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.

Conflict Resolution

6,935 views

Published on

  • Be the first to comment

Conflict Resolution

  1. 1. Conflict and Negotiation in the Workplace McGraw-Hill/Irwin McShane/Von Glinow OB 5e Copyright © 2010 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  2. 2. Cross-Generational Conflict <ul><li>To reward themselves for a job well done, Generation-Y (Millennial) employees might throw a pizza party during office hours, but this practice bothers older employees who have different views about appropriate workplace behavior. </li></ul>11-
  3. 3. Conflict Defined <ul><li>The process in which one party perceives that its interests are being opposed or negatively affected by another party </li></ul>11-
  4. 4. Is Conflict Good or Bad?: Pre 1970s View <ul><li>Historically, experts viewed conflict as dysfunctional </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Undermined relations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wasted human energy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>More job dissatisfaction, turnover, stress </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Less productivity, information sharing </li></ul></ul>11- Level of conflict Conflict outcomes Bad Good Low High 0
  5. 5. Is Conflict Good or Bad?: 1970s-1990s View <ul><li>1970s to 1990s – belief in an optimal level of conflict </li></ul><ul><li>Some level of conflict is good because: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Energizes debate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reexamine assumptions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Improves responsiveness to external environment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increases team cohesion </li></ul></ul>11- Level of conflict Conflict outcomes Bad Good Low High 0 Optimal conflict
  6. 6. Is Conflict Good or Bad?: Emerging View <ul><li>Two types of conflict </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Constructive conflict -- Conflict is aimed at issue, not parties </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Relationship conflict -- Conflict is aimed at undermining the other party </li></ul></ul>11-
  7. 7. Is Conflict Good or Bad?: Emerging View <ul><li>Goal: encourage constructive conflict, minimize relationship conflict </li></ul><ul><li>Problem: difficult to separate constructive from relationship conflict </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Drive to defend activated when ideas are critiqued </li></ul></ul>Constructive conflict Relationship conflict 11- Level of conflict Conflict outcomes Bad Good Low High 0
  8. 8. Constructive Confrontation at Intel <ul><li>Intel employees learn to fully evaluate ideas through “constructive confrontation.” The objective is to attack the problem, not the employee, but some critics claim the process is a license for some Intel staff to be bullies. </li></ul>11-
  9. 9. Minimizing Relationship Conflict <ul><li>Three conditions that minimize relationship conflict while engaging in constructive conflict </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Emotional intelligence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cohesive team </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Supportive team norms </li></ul></ul>11-
  10. 10. The Conflict Process Sources of Conflict Conflict Escalation Cycle 11- Manifest Conflict Conflict Outcomes Conflict Perceptions Conflict Emotions
  11. 11. Structural Sources of Conflict Differentiation Task Interdependence <ul><li>Different values/beliefs </li></ul><ul><li>Explains cross-cultural and generational conflict </li></ul><ul><li>Conflict increases with interdependence </li></ul><ul><li>Parties more likely to interfere with each other </li></ul>Incompatible Goals <ul><li>One party’s goals perceived to interfere with other’s goals </li></ul>11- more
  12. 12. Structural Sources of Conflict Ambiguous Rules Communication Problems <ul><li>Creates uncertainty, threatens goals </li></ul><ul><li>Without rules, people rely on politics </li></ul><ul><li>Increases stereotyping </li></ul><ul><li>Reduces motivation to communicate </li></ul><ul><li>Escalates conflict when arrogant </li></ul>Scarce Resources <ul><li>Motivates competition for the resource </li></ul>11-
  13. 13. Interpersonal Conflict Handling Styles <ul><li>Win-win orientation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>believe parties will find a mutually beneficial solution </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Win-lose orientation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>belief that the more one party receives, the less the other receives </li></ul></ul>11-
  14. 14. Five Conflict Handling Styles Assertiveness Cooperativeness Forcing Problem-solving Compromising Avoiding Yielding High Low High 11-
  15. 15. Conflict Handling Contingencies <ul><li>Problem solving </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Best when: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Interests are not perfectly opposing </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Parties have trust/openness </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Issues are complex </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Problem: other party take advantage of information </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Forcing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Best when: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>you have a deep conviction about your position </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>quick resolution required </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>other party would take advantage of cooperation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Problems: relationship conflict, long-term relations </li></ul></ul>11-
  16. 16. Conflict Handling Contingencies <ul><li>Avoiding </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Best when: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>relationship conflict is high </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>conflict resolution cost is higher than benefits </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Problems: doesn’t resolve conflict, frustration </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Yielding </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Best when: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>other party has much more power </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>issue is much less important to you than other party </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>value/logic of your position is imperfect </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Problem: Increases other party’s expectations </li></ul></ul>11-
  17. 17. Conflict Handling Contingencies <ul><li>Compromising </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Best when… </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Parties have equal power </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Quick solution is required </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Parties lack trust/openness </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Problem: Sub-optimal solution where mutual gains are possible </li></ul></ul>11-
  18. 18. Structural Approaches to Conflict Resolution <ul><li>Emphasizing superordinate goals </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Emphasize common objective rather than conflicting sub-goals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduces goal incompatibility and differentiation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Reducing differentiation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Remove sources of different values and beliefs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>e.g. Move employees around to different jobs </li></ul></ul></ul>11-
  19. 19. Structural Approaches to Conflict Resolution (con’t) <ul><li>Improving communication/understanding </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Employees understand and appreciate each other’s views through communication </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Relates to contact hypothesis </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Two warnings: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Apply communication/understanding after reducing differentiation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A Western strategy that may conflict with values/traditions in other cultures </li></ul></ul></ul>11-
  20. 20. Structural Approaches to Conflict Resolution (con’t) <ul><li>Reduce Task Interdependence </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dividing shared resources </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Combine tasks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use buffers </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Increase Resources </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Duplicate resources </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Clarify Rules and Procedures </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Clarify resource distribution </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Change interdependence </li></ul></ul>11-
  21. 21. Resolving Conflict Through Negotiation <ul><li>Negotiation -- attempting to resolve divergent goals by redefining terms of interdependence </li></ul><ul><li>Which conflict handling style is best in negotiation? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Begin cautiously with problem-solving style </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Shift to a win-lose style when </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mutual gains situation isn’t apparent </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Other part won’t reciprocate info sharing </li></ul></ul></ul>11-
  22. 22. Bargaining Zone Model Your Positions Opponent’s Positions Area of Potential Agreement 11- Initial Target Initial Target Resistance Resistance
  23. 23. Situational Influences on Negotiation <ul><li>Location </li></ul><ul><li>Physical setting </li></ul><ul><li>Time passage and deadlines </li></ul><ul><li>Audience </li></ul>Courtesy of Microsoft 11-
  24. 24. Effective Negotiation Behavior <ul><li>Preparation and goal setting </li></ul><ul><li>Gathering information </li></ul><ul><li>Communicating effectively </li></ul><ul><li>Making concessions </li></ul>Courtesy of Microsoft 11-
  25. 25. Types of Third Party Intervention Mediation Arbitration Inquisition Level of Process Control Level of Outcome Control High High Low 11-
  26. 26. Choosing the Best 3rd Party Strategy <ul><li>Managers prefer inquisitional strategy, but not usually best approach </li></ul><ul><li>Mediation potentially offers highest satisfaction with process and outcomes </li></ul><ul><li>Use arbitration when mediation fails </li></ul>11-
  27. 27. Conflict and Negotiation in the Workplace 11- McGraw-Hill/Irwin McShane/Von Glinow OB 5e Copyright © 2010 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

×