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Conflict Resolution


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Conflict Resolution

  1. 1. Conflict and Negotiation in the Workplace McGraw-Hill/Irwin McShane/Von Glinow OB 5e Copyright © 2010 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  2. 2. Cross-Generational Conflict <ul><li>To reward themselves for a job well done, Generation-Y (Millennial) employees might throw a pizza party during office hours, but this practice bothers older employees who have different views about appropriate workplace behavior. </li></ul>11-
  3. 3. Conflict Defined <ul><li>The process in which one party perceives that its interests are being opposed or negatively affected by another party </li></ul>11-
  4. 4. Is Conflict Good or Bad?: Pre 1970s View <ul><li>Historically, experts viewed conflict as dysfunctional </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Undermined relations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wasted human energy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>More job dissatisfaction, turnover, stress </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Less productivity, information sharing </li></ul></ul>11- Level of conflict Conflict outcomes Bad Good Low High 0
  5. 5. Is Conflict Good or Bad?: 1970s-1990s View <ul><li>1970s to 1990s – belief in an optimal level of conflict </li></ul><ul><li>Some level of conflict is good because: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Energizes debate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reexamine assumptions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Improves responsiveness to external environment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increases team cohesion </li></ul></ul>11- Level of conflict Conflict outcomes Bad Good Low High 0 Optimal conflict
  6. 6. Is Conflict Good or Bad?: Emerging View <ul><li>Two types of conflict </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Constructive conflict -- Conflict is aimed at issue, not parties </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Relationship conflict -- Conflict is aimed at undermining the other party </li></ul></ul>11-
  7. 7. Is Conflict Good or Bad?: Emerging View <ul><li>Goal: encourage constructive conflict, minimize relationship conflict </li></ul><ul><li>Problem: difficult to separate constructive from relationship conflict </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Drive to defend activated when ideas are critiqued </li></ul></ul>Constructive conflict Relationship conflict 11- Level of conflict Conflict outcomes Bad Good Low High 0
  8. 8. Constructive Confrontation at Intel <ul><li>Intel employees learn to fully evaluate ideas through “constructive confrontation.” The objective is to attack the problem, not the employee, but some critics claim the process is a license for some Intel staff to be bullies. </li></ul>11-
  9. 9. Minimizing Relationship Conflict <ul><li>Three conditions that minimize relationship conflict while engaging in constructive conflict </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Emotional intelligence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cohesive team </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Supportive team norms </li></ul></ul>11-
  10. 10. The Conflict Process Sources of Conflict Conflict Escalation Cycle 11- Manifest Conflict Conflict Outcomes Conflict Perceptions Conflict Emotions
  11. 11. Structural Sources of Conflict Differentiation Task Interdependence <ul><li>Different values/beliefs </li></ul><ul><li>Explains cross-cultural and generational conflict </li></ul><ul><li>Conflict increases with interdependence </li></ul><ul><li>Parties more likely to interfere with each other </li></ul>Incompatible Goals <ul><li>One party’s goals perceived to interfere with other’s goals </li></ul>11- more
  12. 12. Structural Sources of Conflict Ambiguous Rules Communication Problems <ul><li>Creates uncertainty, threatens goals </li></ul><ul><li>Without rules, people rely on politics </li></ul><ul><li>Increases stereotyping </li></ul><ul><li>Reduces motivation to communicate </li></ul><ul><li>Escalates conflict when arrogant </li></ul>Scarce Resources <ul><li>Motivates competition for the resource </li></ul>11-
  13. 13. Interpersonal Conflict Handling Styles <ul><li>Win-win orientation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>believe parties will find a mutually beneficial solution </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Win-lose orientation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>belief that the more one party receives, the less the other receives </li></ul></ul>11-
  14. 14. Five Conflict Handling Styles Assertiveness Cooperativeness Forcing Problem-solving Compromising Avoiding Yielding High Low High 11-
  15. 15. Conflict Handling Contingencies <ul><li>Problem solving </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Best when: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Interests are not perfectly opposing </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Parties have trust/openness </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Issues are complex </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Problem: other party take advantage of information </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Forcing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Best when: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>you have a deep conviction about your position </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>quick resolution required </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>other party would take advantage of cooperation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Problems: relationship conflict, long-term relations </li></ul></ul>11-
  16. 16. Conflict Handling Contingencies <ul><li>Avoiding </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Best when: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>relationship conflict is high </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>conflict resolution cost is higher than benefits </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Problems: doesn’t resolve conflict, frustration </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Yielding </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Best when: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>other party has much more power </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>issue is much less important to you than other party </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>value/logic of your position is imperfect </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Problem: Increases other party’s expectations </li></ul></ul>11-
  17. 17. Conflict Handling Contingencies <ul><li>Compromising </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Best when… </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Parties have equal power </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Quick solution is required </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Parties lack trust/openness </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Problem: Sub-optimal solution where mutual gains are possible </li></ul></ul>11-
  18. 18. Structural Approaches to Conflict Resolution <ul><li>Emphasizing superordinate goals </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Emphasize common objective rather than conflicting sub-goals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduces goal incompatibility and differentiation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Reducing differentiation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Remove sources of different values and beliefs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>e.g. Move employees around to different jobs </li></ul></ul></ul>11-
  19. 19. Structural Approaches to Conflict Resolution (con’t) <ul><li>Improving communication/understanding </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Employees understand and appreciate each other’s views through communication </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Relates to contact hypothesis </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Two warnings: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Apply communication/understanding after reducing differentiation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A Western strategy that may conflict with values/traditions in other cultures </li></ul></ul></ul>11-
  20. 20. Structural Approaches to Conflict Resolution (con’t) <ul><li>Reduce Task Interdependence </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dividing shared resources </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Combine tasks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use buffers </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Increase Resources </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Duplicate resources </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Clarify Rules and Procedures </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Clarify resource distribution </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Change interdependence </li></ul></ul>11-
  21. 21. Resolving Conflict Through Negotiation <ul><li>Negotiation -- attempting to resolve divergent goals by redefining terms of interdependence </li></ul><ul><li>Which conflict handling style is best in negotiation? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Begin cautiously with problem-solving style </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Shift to a win-lose style when </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mutual gains situation isn’t apparent </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Other part won’t reciprocate info sharing </li></ul></ul></ul>11-
  22. 22. Bargaining Zone Model Your Positions Opponent’s Positions Area of Potential Agreement 11- Initial Target Initial Target Resistance Resistance
  23. 23. Situational Influences on Negotiation <ul><li>Location </li></ul><ul><li>Physical setting </li></ul><ul><li>Time passage and deadlines </li></ul><ul><li>Audience </li></ul>Courtesy of Microsoft 11-
  24. 24. Effective Negotiation Behavior <ul><li>Preparation and goal setting </li></ul><ul><li>Gathering information </li></ul><ul><li>Communicating effectively </li></ul><ul><li>Making concessions </li></ul>Courtesy of Microsoft 11-
  25. 25. Types of Third Party Intervention Mediation Arbitration Inquisition Level of Process Control Level of Outcome Control High High Low 11-
  26. 26. Choosing the Best 3rd Party Strategy <ul><li>Managers prefer inquisitional strategy, but not usually best approach </li></ul><ul><li>Mediation potentially offers highest satisfaction with process and outcomes </li></ul><ul><li>Use arbitration when mediation fails </li></ul>11-
  27. 27. Conflict and Negotiation in the Workplace 11- McGraw-Hill/Irwin McShane/Von Glinow OB 5e Copyright © 2010 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.