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Philosophy Mathematics Achievements                                             REALISM   1. Background      Etymologicall...
Philosophy Mathematics Achievements          As a school of philosophy, realism holds that there are five senses and captu...
Philosophy Mathematics Achievements          6. Any activities that teachers do with students should be helped to the deve...
Philosophy Mathematics Achievements          The developing realism has adopted four points in education :          1. Hum...
Philosophy Mathematics Achievements           The science realists expressed that the education should be conducted on uni...
Philosophy Mathematics Achievements          10. There should be a co-relation between utility in daily life and education...
Philosophy Mathematics Achievements      i.   Dark Side of Realism           1. The realist claims to be objective. Object...
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Realism philosophy


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Realism philosophy

  1. 1. Philosophy Mathematics Achievements REALISM 1. Background Etymologically, philosophy comes from the word "Philos" which means love (love) and "Sophia" meaning Wisdom (wisdom, discernment). So philosophy can be interpreted depth of the wisdom of love, the love of wisdom. Philosophizing is one of human activity that seeks to attain wisdom and discernment. Philosophizing is thinking, but not all philosophical thought. Philosophizing is the thinking that has 3 (three) characteristics, namely radical (thought up by the roots, not half-hearted), systematic (logical thinking), and universal (think overall). In relation to education, education directly related to the purpose of life and the lives of individuals and society education. Education can not be fully understood without understanding the ultimate goal being sourced to the goals and views of human life. The concept of world views and life goals will be a cornerstone in setting educational goals. Approach to what and how the philosophy of education can be done through several perspectives. The first viewpoint says that the philosophy of education can be composed because the linear relationship between philosophy and education. For example, some schools of thought can be connected in such a way as to educational philosophy. 2. Discussion a. Definition of Realism The term realism comes from the Latin "realists" who is to be really, really real. Realism is a philosophy that assumes that there is a real external world can be recognized. Therefore, realism holds that sensory perception and sense objects really exist, regardless of the senses and the mind that it was him because the object can be investigated, analyzed, studied by science, nature discovered by science and philosophy. Realism in various forms according to Kattsoff (1996: 126) draw a sharp dividing line between the knowing and the known, and generally inclined toward materialistic dualism or monism. A materialistic followers say that the soul and the material completely alike. If so, it would be equally said to be "the soul is the matter" as saying "matter is spirit." But if people are trying to trace the spirit to the material or the material to the spiritual, depending on which one is considered primary. When people say "life is a matter" and because the material is not likely to have the intent, it is also not possible to have the intent soul. On the other hand if the material is the soul, the universe can be understood as one that had the purpose or can be said to be "teleological". 1
  2. 2. Philosophy Mathematics Achievements As a school of philosophy, realism holds that there are five senses and captured the concept in mind that there are real there. Example: a stumbling stone in the road there is a new experience. Roses fragrance stimulates the nose is real there is perched on a tree branch the garden flowers. Realism acknowledge and accept the unity between esensia and existence, the nature and existence of objects which are captured by five senses and understood by the mind. b. Rationale of Realism Education According to realism, the purpose of education will be formulated as an effort to develop the potential of existing and owned by the students to be as optimal as possible. According to realism, that is the nature of reality that are on the "things" or "objects". So, not something that escapes or is released from its owner. Therefore, it is natural that the first concern in education is what is on the learner. The followers of realism have agreement on the basic principles relating to education. Some basic principles of educational realism is as follows: 1. Learning to essentially put the attention on the learner as it is. 2. Initiatives in education should emphasize education rather than children. 3. The core of the educational process is the assimilation of the subject matter that has been determined. Curriculum in organizing and planned with certainty by the teacher. Widely material and social environment, human beings that determines how he should live. Some learning principles proposed by Comenius (Sadulloh, 2003) are: 1. Learning should be based on the interests of students. Success in learning is not as imposed from outside, but rather is a result of personal development. 2. Each subject should have the outline, outline of teaching and learning, syllabus and lesson plans, and already there at the beginning of learning. 3. At the beginning of the meeting or the beginning of the lesson, the teacher should convey information about the outlines of learning that students will learn. 4. Classes should be enriched with pictures maps, photographs, works of students and everything which is related to the teaching and learning activities provided or performed. 5. Learning should take place simultaneously with the previous lesson so that it becomes a unified whole and keep abreast of knowledge on a continuous basis. 2
  3. 3. Philosophy Mathematics Achievements 6. Any activities that teachers do with students should be helped to the development of human nature, and the students pointed to the practical importance of each system value. 7. Lessons in the same subject is for all learners. c. Fundamental Postulates and Main Tenets 1. Realism tries to build up a body of systematized knowledge, which is certain and objective and agrees with the standpoint of physical sciences. It says that every reality can be proved by observation, experience, experiment and scientific reasoning, For them, experience is the touchstone of what is real. Whenever the simple and direct experience cant determine the objective truth, the common sense puts its truth in scientific research. In the present world of falling idols and falling ideals, the realists emphasize the role of intelligence as great significant, as it formulates the concepts and develops general and abstract ideas. 2. The realists of all brands aver that values are permanent and objective and say that although institutions and practices very a great deal, the fundamental values of society should not change. The children should be taught those values, which have proved enduring throughout history. They should be taught the nature of ‘right and ‘wrong and what is objectively good and beautiful. In brief, Realism believes in the usefulness of the world and the material existence in its field of action . It believes that whatever is real is independent. Whatever is, is and exists. Its presence of existence does not depend upon the knower. (Compare with idealists standpoint. ) The individual doesnt make reality, he only discovers it. Main Tenets : 1. Realism believes in the world which we see of perceive to be real. 2. Realists believe in the present life. 3. They believe that the truth of life and aim of life are in the development from the present unsystematic life. 4. Knowledge is real and can be assimilated by the human beings. 5. The realists distinguish between ‘appearance and ‘reality. 6. Realism believes that there is an objective reality apart from that which is presented to the consciousness. 3
  4. 4. Philosophy Mathematics Achievements The developing realism has adopted four points in education : 1. Humanistic Realism Humanistic realism is the reaction against the emphasis on form and style of the old classical literature. It has great regard for the ancient literature but it emphasizes the study of content and ideas in the ancient classical literature to understand ones present social life and environment. The aim is not to study the form and style of old literature to have mastery over it. The study of old literature is a means to understand the practical life. 2. Social Realism Social Realism in education is the reaction against a type of education that produces scholars and professional men to the neglect of the man of affairs i.e. practice. Education should not produce men who are unfit in social life. The purpose of education, according to social realists, is to prepare the practical man of the world. 3. Sense Realism, and The sense realism in education emphasizes the training of the senses. Senses are the gateways of knowledge and learning takes place the operation of the senses. According to sense-realists nature is the treasure house of all knowledge and this knowledge can be obtained through the training of the senses. 4. Neo-Realism. Neo-Realism is really a philosophical thought. It appears the methods and results of modern development in physics. They do not consider the scientific principles everlasting while they express the changeability in them. They support the education of art with the science and analytical system of education with the humanistic feelings. They consider living and un living all objective to be organs and the development of organs is the main objective and all round development of the objects is the main characteristic of education. Bertrand Russel and whitehead were the supporters of this faculty. d. Realism and Aims of education "Realists do not believe in general and common aims of education. According to them aims are specific to each individual and his perspectives." (Seetharamu, A.S. : philosophies of Education, p.74). And each one has different perspectives. The aim of education should be to teach truth rather than beauty, to understand the present practical life. The purpose of education, according to social realists, is to prepare the practical man of the world. 4
  5. 5. Philosophy Mathematics Achievements The science realists expressed that the education should be conducted on universal basis. Greater stress should be laid upon the observation of nature and the education of science. Neo-realists aim at developing all round development of the objects with the development of their organs. e. Realism and Methods of Teaching i. Education should proceed from simple to complex and from concrete to abstract. ii. Things before rules and words. iii. Students to be taught to analyze rather than to construct. iv. Vernacular to be the medium of instruction. v. The order of nature to be sought and followed. vi. Repetition is necessary for retention. vii. Individuals experience and spirit of inquiry is more important than authority. viii. No unintelligent cramming. More emphasis on questioning and understanding. ix. Methods of scientific thinking formulated by sir Thomas Bacon. x. Social realists follow the method of travel of journey method, which will give real experience of varied aspects of life improve knowledge and mental faculties. f. Realism and The Teacher 1. A teacher should be such that he himself be educated and well versed with the customs of belief and rights and duties of people, and the trends of all ages and places. 2. He must have full mastery of the knowledge of present life. 3. He must guide the student towards the hard realities of life. He is neither pessimist, nor optimist. 4. He must be able to expose children to the problems of life and the world around. A teacher should always keep in mind : 1. Re-capitulation is necessary to make the knowledge permanent. 2. One subject should be taught at one time. 3. No pressure or coercion be brought upon the child. 4. The practice of cramming should be given up. 5. The uniformity should be the basic principle in all things. 6. Things should be introduced first and then the words. 7. The entire knowledge should be gained after experience. 8. The knowledge should be imparted on the basis of organs. 9. Straight forward method should be adopted for teaching. 5
  6. 6. Philosophy Mathematics Achievements 10. There should be a co-relation between utility in daily life and education. 11. The child should be told the utility of whatever is taught. 12. The simple rules should be defined. 13. All the subjects should be taught in proper order. 14. Various organs of education should be taught in chronological order. 15. The topic should not be given up unless the boys understand it well. 16. To find out the interest of the child and to teach accordingly. g. Realism and The Child 1. Realism in education recognizes the importance of the child. The child is a real unit which has real existence. He has some feelings, some desires and some powers. All these cannot be overlooked. These powers of the child shall have to be given due regard at the time of planning education. 2. Child can reach near reality through learning by reason. 3. Child has to be given as much freedom as possible. 4. The child is to be enabled to proceed on the basis of facts. 5. The child can learn only when he follows the laws of learning (When only one response is repeated for one stimulus, it conditioned by that stimulus. Now wherever that situation comes, response will be the same; this is the fact.) 6. The child is to be understood a creature of the real world there is no sense in making him a God . He has to be trained to become a man only. h. Realism and Discipline Discipline is adjustment to objectivity. It is necessary in order to enable the child to adjust himself to his environment and concentrate on his work. Bringing out change in the real world is impossible. The student himself is a part of this world. He has to admit this fact and adjust himself to the world. A disciplined student is one who does not withdraw from the cruelties, tyrannies, hardships and shortcomings pervading the world. Realism has vehemently opposed withdrawal from life. One has to adjust oneself to this material world. Thus, the realism has brought great effect in various fields of education. The aims, the curriculum, the methods of teaching the outlook towards the child, the teachers, the discipline and the system of education all were given new blood. Realism in education dragged the education from the old traditions, idealism and the high and low tides to the real surface. 6
  7. 7. Philosophy Mathematics Achievements i. Dark Side of Realism 1. The realist claims to be objective. Objectivity in knowledge is nothing but the partnership of personal knowledge. Knowledge is always subjective. 2. The realist recognizes the origin of knowledge from the datum achieved by senses and asserts that only objects are main and it is through their contact that knowledge is acquired. Then how does our illusion arise? How does knowledge become fallacious? Where does the external object go in dream? The realist is unable to answer these questions satisfactorily. 3. The realist does not accept the existence of transcendental ( not based on experience or reason ) being. How could be know the non-existence of that which does not exist? Has non-existence got no existence? void ness and non-existence also are the parts of existence. Here the realist is dumb completely. 4. Today the effect of realism has given rise to the wave of science. It is right, but there should be no indifference towards art and literature. The realist supports this negligence. 5. Realism enthusiastic disappointment in students and teachers. No progress can be made by having faith in the facts of daily life and shattering faith in ideals. Life is but full of miseries and struggles. Sorrow is more predominant than joy in the world. A person becomes disappointed by this feeling. That is why realists often appear to be skeptics ( person who doubts the truth of a particular claim, theory etc. ), pessimists and objectionists. 3. Conclusion The doctrine of realism believes that with something or the other way, there are things that are just in and of itself, and that is essentially not affected by someone. For example, the facts show, the table remains as represented there, although no one in the room was a catch. So the table is not dependent on our ideas about it, but it depends on the table. There are two main contributions of the education based upon the realism. Firstly, it tried to remove the gulf-between the life and education. Secondly, it propounded the principle of experimentation and observation in education. It was realism that first introduced the thought that the organs are the door way to knowledge and the knowledge can be gained through the inductive method. The wordy education and bookish knowledge are not sufficient. Real education is that which brings about union between nature and society based upon ones own experience. 7