Your SlideShare is downloading. ×
Ch7c (Botany Lecture)
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Thanks for flagging this SlideShare!

Oops! An error has occurred.

×

Saving this for later?

Get the SlideShare app to save on your phone or tablet. Read anywhere, anytime - even offline.

Text the download link to your phone

Standard text messaging rates apply

Ch7c (Botany Lecture)

783
views

Published on

(c) Ms. Melanie Medecilo

(c) Ms. Melanie Medecilo

Published in: Education, Technology

0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
783
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
0
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
22
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

Report content
Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
No notes for slide

Transcript

  • 1. Diversity And Classification of Flowering Plants: Commelinid Monocots Michael G. Simpson
  • 2. Commelinid Monocots Apomorphy: UV-fluorescent organic acids (including coumaric, diferulic, and ferulic acid) that impregnate the cell walls.
  • 3. ARECALES Arecaceae (Palmae) - Palm family (from areca, Portuguese for the betel palm). ca. 190 genera / ca. 2,000 species. The Arecaceae are distinctive in having a rhizomatous, lianous, or usually arborescent stem, with large, sheathing, plicate leaves, a fleshy, usually drupaceous fruit, and seeds lacking starch. The plicate leaves is an apomorphy for the family. P 3+3 [0,2+2,∞] A 3+3 or (3+3) [3,∞; 0 in female fls.] G 3 or (3) [1,2,4-10; 0 in male fls.], superior.
  • 4. reduplicate vs. induplicatereduplicate vs. induplicate
  • 5. Fruit a drupeFruit a drupe
  • 6. Archontophoenix cunninghamiana King PalmArchontophoenix cunninghamiana King Palm
  • 7. Syagrus romanzoffiana Queen Palm
  • 8. Calamus Rattan PalmCalamus Rattan Palm
  • 9. Chamaerops humilis Mediterranean PalmChamaerops humilis Mediterranean Palm
  • 10. Jubea chilensisJubea chilensis
  • 11. Licuala peltataLicuala peltata
  • 12. Nypa fruticans - a rhizomatous palmNypa fruticans - a rhizomatous palm
  • 13. Phoenix canariensis Canary I. Palm Phoenix canariensis Canary I. Palm
  • 14. Phoenix dactylifera Date Palm Phoenix dactylifera Date Palm
  • 15. Rhopalostylis sapidaRhopalostylis sapida
  • 16. Sabal urseanaSabal urseana
  • 17. Washingtonia filifera Desert Fan Palm Washingtonia filifera Desert Fan Palm
  • 18. Washingtonia filifera Desert FanWashingtonia filifera Desert Fan
  • 19. Washingtonia robustaWashingtonia robusta Zombia antillarum
  • 20. ZINGIBERALES - Ginger Group Apomorphies: Penni-parallel venation Supervolute leaf “ptyxis” (1/2 of leaf rolled within the other) Diaphraghmed air chambers Silica cells Inferior ovary
  • 21. Musaceae - Banana family (after Antonia Musa, physician to Emporer Augustus 63-14 BC). 3 genera (Ensete, Musa, and Musella) / ca. 40 species. The Musaceae are distinguished from related families of the Zingiberales in having a spiral leaf arrangement and monoecious plant sex. P (3+3) A 5-6 G (3), inferior. Economic importance includes use of fruits of Musa spp. as a food source (esp. Musa acuminata and the triploid hybrid of Musa x paradisiaca); Musa textilis (Manila-hemp, abacá) and Musa basjoo are used as a fiber source for twine, textiles, and building materials.
  • 22. Musaceae
  • 23. Musa Banana MusaceaeMusa Banana Musaceae
  • 24. Musa Banana MusaceaeMusa Banana Musaceae
  • 25. Musa Banana MusaceaeMusa Banana Musaceae
  • 26. Ensete Musaceae
  • 27. StrelitziaceaeMusaceae
  • 28. Strelitziaceae - Bird-of-paradise family (after Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz, wife of King George III). 3 genera (Phenakospermum, Ravenala, Strelitzia) / 7 species. The Strelitziaceae are distinguished from related families of the Zingiberales in having rhizomatous and decumbent or erect, arborescent stems with distichous leaves and flowers having 5-6 stamens. P (3+3) A 5 or 6 G (3), inferior.
  • 29. Strelitzia nicolai Giant/Tree Bird of ParadiseStrelitzia nicolai Giant/Tree Bird of Paradise
  • 30. Strelitzia reginae Bird of ParadiseStrelitzia reginae Bird of Paradise
  • 31. Strelitzia reginae Bird of ParadiseStrelitzia reginae Bird of Paradise
  • 32. Strelitzia reginae Bird of ParadiseStrelitzia reginae Bird of Paradise
  • 33. Strelitzia reginae Bird of ParadiseStrelitzia reginae Bird of Paradise
  • 34. Zingiberaceae - Ginger family (from a pre-Gr. name, possibly from India). 50 genera / 1,200 species The Zingiberaceae are distinguished from related families of the Zingiberales in having distichous, usually ligulate leaves with a single, dithecal stamen and a petaloid labellum derived from two staminodes. P (3+3) A 1 fertile + 2 + (2) petaloid staminodes G (3), inferior.
  • 35. Zingiberaceae - Ginger family (from a pre-Gr. name, possibly from India). 50 genera / 1,200 species Economic importance includes the source of important spice plants, e.g., Curcuma spp., including C. domestica (turmeric), Elettaria cardamomum (cardamom), and Zingiber spp., including Z. officinale (ginger); some species are grown as cultivated ornamentals, e.g., Alpinia and Hedychium.
  • 36. Zingiberaceae Strelitziaceae Musaceae
  • 37. Alpinia Shell GingerAlpinia Shell Ginger
  • 38. Brachychilus horsfieldiiBrachychilus horsfieldii
  • 39. Globba
  • 40. HedychiumHedychium
  • 41. HedychiumHedychium
  • 42. HedychiumHedychium
  • 43. Nicolaia elatior
  • 44. Cannaceae - Canna-Lily family (Gr. canna, a reed). 1 genus (Canna) / 25 species The Cannaceae are distinguished from related families of the Zingiberales in having usually distichous leaves and flowers with one petaloid, monothecal stamen associated with 1-4[5] petaloid staminodes. P 3+3 A 1, petaloid & monothecal + 1-4 petaloid staminodes G (3), inferior.
  • 45. Cannaceae StrelitziaceaeMusaceae Zingiberaceae
  • 46. Canna sp. CannaceaeCanna sp. Cannaceae
  • 47. Canna sp. CannaceaeCanna sp. Cannaceae
  • 48. Canna sp. CannaceaeCanna sp. Cannaceae
  • 49. Canna sp. CannaceaeCanna sp. Cannaceae
  • 50. Commelinaceae—Spiderwort family (after Caspar Commelijn, Dutch botanist, 1667–1731) 39 genera/640 species. The Commelinaceae are distinctive in being mostly perennial herbs with closed sheathed leaves and a trimerous, hypogynous flower with an ephemeral corolla, staminodia in some, most species with characteristic 3-celled glandular microhairs, the latter a probable apomorphy for the family. K 3 or (3) C 3 or (3) A 3 or 3 + 3 staminodes or 1 G (3)
  • 51. Haemodoraceae—Bloodwort family (Gr. haimo, blood, in reference to red pigmentation in roots and rootstocks of some members) 13 genera/100 species. The Haemodoraceae are distinctive in being perennial herbs with arylphenalenone compounds (imparting a reddish coloration to stems and roots in almost all Haemodoroideae), unifacial leaves, and variable flowers. P 3+3 or (3+3) or (6) A 1,3,6 G (3), inferior or superior, hypanthium present or absent.
  • 52. Bromeliaceae - Bromeliad family (after Swedish medical doctor and botanist, Olof Ole Bromell (1639-1705). 59 genera / 2,400 species The Bromeliaceae are distinctive in being perrenial terrestrial or epiphytic herbs or shrubs with surface peltate scales, often colorful bracts, and trimerous flowers with typically twisted stigmas. P 3+3 or (3)+(3) A 3+3 G 3, superior or inferior. Economic importance: Ananas comosus, pineapple.
  • 53. Peltate scales
  • 54. Peltate scales fr. Pierce, 2006
  • 55. Twisted Styles
  • 56. AechmeaAechmea
  • 57. Ananas comosus PineappleAnanas comosus Pineapple
  • 58. Bilbergia nutans (left), sp. (right)Bilbergia nutans (left), sp. (right)
  • 59. Dyckia dawsoniiDyckia dawsonii
  • 60. NeoregaliaNeoregalia
  • 61. NeoregaliaNeoregalia
  • 62. Puya alpestrisPuya alpestris
  • 63. Puya venustusPuya venustus Puya sp.
  • 64. Tillandsia fasciculata
  • 65. Tillandsia usneoides Spanish-MossTillandsia usneoides Spanish-Moss
  • 66. Cyperaceae - Sedge family (Gr. for several species of Cyperus). 98 genera / 4,350 species The Cyperaceae are distinctive in being herbs with usually 3-sided, solid-pithed stems, closed-sheathed, often tristichous leaves, the inflorescence a “sedge spikelet,” consisting of a central axis bearing many sessile, distichous or spiral bracts, each subtending a single, reduced unisexual or bisexual flower, with perianth absent or reduced to bristles or scales, usually 3 stamens, and a 2–3-carpellate ovary, the fruit a 2- or 3-sided achene. P 6 or 0 [1-∞] A 3 [1-6+] G (2-3)[(4)], superior.
  • 67. Cyperaceae - Sedge family (Gr. for several species of Cyperus). 98 genera / 4,350 species Economic importance is limited, with some species used as mats, thatch, weaving material, or writing material (Cyperus papyrus, papyrus, the culm pith of which was historically used to make paperlike scrolls), a few used as ornamental cultivars (e.g., Cyperus involucratus, umbrella plant), and some species, such as the nutsedges, being noxious weeds.
  • 68. Cyperaceae of San Diego County
  • 69. Bolboschoenus maritimus
  • 70. Carex barbarae male spikelet female spikelets female spikelet perigynia
  • 71. Carex praegracilis female spikelet perigynia enclosing ovaries
  • 72. Carex triquetra
  • 73. Cyperus sp. spikelet: bracts distichous
  • 74. Cyperus involucratus spikelet involucral bracts
  • 75. Eleocharis macrostachya
  • 76. Eleocharis montevidensis
  • 77. Eleocharis parishii
  • 78. Shoenoplectus [Scirpus] americanus
  • 79. Shoenoplectus [Scirpus] californicus
  • 80. Shoenoplectus [Scirpus] pungens involucral bract spikelet
  • 81. Juncaceae - Rush family (L. for binder, in reference to use in weaving and basketry). 7 genera / 430 species The Juncaceae are distinctive in being usually perennial herbs with spiral, sheathing, bifacial or unifacial leaves, trimerous, actinomorphic flowers with a typically scarious perianth and a loculicidal capsule. P 3+3 [2+2 or 3] A 3+3 [3+0 or 2] G (3), superior, hypanthium absent
  • 82. Juncaceae of San Diego County
  • 83. Juncus acutus Spiny Rush
  • 84. Juncus bufonius
  • 85. Juncus dubius
  • 86. Juncus dubius
  • 87. Juncus phaeocephalus
  • 88. Poaceae - Grass family (after Poa, Gr. name for a grass). 668 genera / 9,500 species STEMS: hollow-pithed LEAVES: open-sheathed, distichous, with a ligule at inner junction with blade INFLORESCENCE: grass spikelet = axis + two basal glumes + 1-∞ florets Floret = short lateral axis + lemma + palea + flower FLOWER: P 2-3 lodicules A 2-3 (pendulous) G (2-3) FRUIT: caryopsis (grain).
  • 89. DISTRIBUTION: worldwide. ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE: 1) agricultural grains (most important food in world): barley (Hordeum) corn (Zea) oats (Avena) rice (Oryza) rye (Secale) wheat (Triticum); 2) alcoholic beverages: beer, whiskey, gin 3) forage and grazing plants; 4) important components of many ecosystems, such as grasslands and savannahs.
  • 90. distichous leaf arrangement distichous leaf arrangement
  • 91. open sheath open sheath
  • 92. liguleligule
  • 93. Bamboos
  • 94. Fruit: Grain
  • 95. Achnatherum coronatumAchnatherum coronatum GRASSES OF SAN DIEGO CO.
  • 96. Agrostis pallens
  • 97. Arundo donaxArundo donax
  • 98. Avena barbataAvena barbata
  • 99. Avena fatuaAvena fatua
  • 100. Bothriochloa barbinodisBothriochloa barbinodis
  • 101. Brachypodium distachyonBrachypodium distachyon
  • 102. Briza minorBriza minor
  • 103. Bromus diandrusBromus diandrus
  • 104. Bromus rubens ssp. madritensisBromus rubens ssp. madritensis
  • 105. Cortaderia selloanaCortaderia selloana
  • 106. Cynodon dactylon Bermuda Grass Cynodon dactylon Bermuda Grass
  • 107. Distichlis littoralis [Monanthochloe l.] Distichlis littoralis [Monanthochloe l.]
  • 108. Distichlis spicataDistichlis spicata
  • 109. Echinochloa crus-galiEchinochloa crus-gali
  • 110. Gastridium ventricosumGastridium ventricosum
  • 111. Hordeum murinumHordeum murinum
  • 112. Lamarckia aureaLamarckia aurea
  • 113. Lolium multiflorumLolium multiflorum
  • 114. Melica frutescensMelica frutescens
  • 115. Melica imperfectaMelica imperfecta
  • 116. Muhlenbergia microspermaMuhlenbergia microsperma
  • 117. Muhlenbergia rigens
  • 118. Nasella lepidaNasella lepida
  • 119. Nasella pulchraNasella pulchra
  • 120. Parapholis incurvaParapholis incurva
  • 121. Paspalum dilatatumPaspalum dilatatum
  • 122. Paspalum distichumPaspalum distichum
  • 123. Pennisetum setaceumPennisetum setaceum
  • 124. Piptatherum miliaceumPiptatherum miliaceum
  • 125. Polypogon maritimusPolypogon maritimus
  • 126. Polypogon monspeliensisPolypogon monspeliensis
  • 127. Melinis repensMelinis repens
  • 128. Schismus barbatusSchismus barbatus
  • 129. Spartina foliosaSpartina foliosa
  • 130. Vulpia myurosVulpia myuros