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Botany Lecture Ch8cmodified


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Botany Lecture Ch8cmodified

  1. 1. Diversity And Classification of Flowering Plants: Eudicots: Asterids Michael G. Simpson
  2. 2. Asterids • Very large, diverse group • 10 orders, many families • Putative apomorphies: – iridoid compounds – sympetalous corolla – ovules: unitegmic (one integument), tenuinucellate (megasporangium 1-cell thick)
  3. 3. Ovules unitegmic, tenuinucellate
  4. 4. Apocynaceae, s.l. - Dogbane/Milkweed family (Greek for "away from dog," in reference to past use of some taxa as a dog poison). 411 genera / 4,650 species. The Apocynaceae, s.l. are distinctive in being lianas, trees, shrubs, or herbs with a 5-merous perianth/androecium, the gynoecium usually with 2 carpels, the ovaries distinct in some taxa with styles connate (in Asclepiadoids androecium adnate to single stigma forming a gynostegium and pollen fused to form pollinia, each half derived from an adjacent anther), the fruits variable, but a schizocarp of follicles in the Asclepiadoids. K (5) C (5) A 5 or (5) G (2) [(-8)], superior, rarely half-inferior.
  5. 5. retinaculum
  6. 6. pollinium
  7. 7. 2 ovaries, 2 styles, 1 stigma
  8. 8. Rubiaceae — Coffee family (after rubia, name used by Pliny for madder) 630 genera / 10,200 species. The Rubiaceae are distinctive in being trees, shrubs, lianas, or herbs with simple, entire, usually decussate leaves and connate stipules, the stipules often with mucilage-secreting colleters, the inflorescence usually a cyme, flowers usually bisexual, the perianth dichlamydeous, perianth and androecium often 4 –5-merous (calyx absent in some), the ovary usually inferior (rarely superior), often with an apical nectariferous disk, ovules with a funicular obturator, the fruit a berry, capsule, drupe, or schizocarp. K (4-5) [0] C (4-5) [(3,8-10)] A 4-5 [3,8-10] G (2) [(3- 5+)], usually inferior, rarely superior.
  9. 9. Rubiaceae — Coffee family (after rubia, name used by Pliny for madder) 630 genera / 10,200 species. The Rubiaceae have a mostly worldwide distribution, more concentrated in tropical regions. Economic importance includes Cinchona, the source of quinine used to treat malaria, Coffea arabica and other species, the source of coffee, Pausinystalia johimbe, the source of the sexual stimulant yohimbine, some timber trees, fruiting plants, dye plants (such as Rubia, madder), and ornamental cultivars (e.g., Pentas, among others).
  10. 10. Acanthaceae — Acanthus family (from Acanthus, prickly-one). 229 genera / 3450 species. The Acanthaceae are distinctive in having simple, opposite leaves with zygomorphic, bracteate, usually bilabiate flowers, the fruit an explosively dehiscent, loculicidal capsule with distinctive funicular retinacula ( jaculators) that function in seed dispersal, the funicular retinacula a presumed apomorphy of the family. K (5) [(4,6)] C (4-5) A 2,4,or 5 G (2), superior.
  11. 11. Acanthaceae — Acanthus family (from Acanthus, prickly-one). 229 genera / 3450 species. Members of the Acanthaceae are distributed from the tropics to temperate regions. Economic importance includes several cultivated ornamentals, such as Acanthus mollis, Aphelandra, and Justicia [including Beloperone]
  12. 12. Lamiaceae (=Labiatae) - Mint family (Lamium, gullet, after the shape of the corolla tube or old Latin name used by Pliny). 251 genera / 6,700 species. The Lamiaceae are distinctive in being herbs or shrubs, often aromatic with ethereal oils, with usually 4-sided stems, opposite [or whorled] leaves, a verticillaster or thyrse inflorescence [flowers solitary and axillary in some], and zygomorphic [rarely actinomorphic], usually bilabiate flowers having a superior, deeply 4-lobed ovary (by formation of "false septa") and gynobasic style, the fruit a schizocarp of usually 4 nutlets. K (5) C (5) [(4)] A 4 or 2 [+2 staminodes] G (2), superior, hypanthium absent.
  13. 13. Economic importance includes medicinals, herbs (e.g., Mentha, mint; Ocimum, basal; Rosmarinus, rosemary; Salvia, sage; Thymus, thyme), fragrance plants (e.g., Lavandula, lavender; Pogostemon, patchouli), and a number or cultivated ornamentals.
  14. 14. Leaves opposite; stems 4-sided
  15. 15. Inflorescence a thyrse or verticillaster (usu.)
  16. 16. Flowers zygomorphic; corolla sympetalous, bilabiate
  17. 17. carpels 2; style gynobasic
  18. 18. Fruit a schizocarp of nutlets
  19. 19. Ocimum basilicum BASIL
  20. 20. Rosmarinus officinalis ROSEMARY
  21. 21. Salvia apiana WHITE SAGE enantiostylous flowers
  22. 22. Pogogyne abramsii MESA MINT Fed/Cal. endangered species
  23. 23. Salvia columbariae CHIA
  24. 24. Solanaceae - Nightshade family (Latin for sleeping or comforter, after narcotic properties of some). 94 genera / 2,950 species. The Solanaceae are distinctive in being herbs, shrubs, trees, or lianas with internal phloem, spiral leaves, a usually actinomorphic, 5-merous perianth and androecium (corolla plicate in bud), a usually bicarpellate, syncarpous gynoecium, and usually numerous ovules per carpel, the fruit a berry, drupe, or capsule. K (5) C (5) [(4),(6)] A 5 [4 or 2+2 staminodes] G (2) [(3-5)], superior, hypanthium absent.
  25. 25. Members of the family have mostly worldwide distributions, concentrated in South America. Economic importance includes many edible plants, such as Capsicum (peppers), Lycopersicon esculentum (tomato), Physalis philadelphica (tomatillo), Solanum tuberosum (potato), Nicotiana tabacum (tobacco); alkaloids from various taxa have medicinal properties (e.g., atropine from Atropa belladona), hallucinogenic properties (e.g., Datura, Jimson weed), or are deadly poisons (e.g., Datura, Solanum spp.) or known carcinogens (e.g., Nicotiana tabacum); some used as ornamental cultivars, others are noxious weeds.
  26. 26. Flowers actinomorphic, plicate (in bud)
  27. 27. Flowers actinomorphic, plicate (in bud)
  28. 28. Fruit a berry or capsule
  29. 29. Physalis ixocarpa Tomatillo
  30. 30. Asteraceae (Compositae) Characteristics: Vegetatively variable. Inflorescence a head (capitulum): (usu.) many flowers arising from a compound receptacle, subtended by inflorescence bracts: involucral bracts or phyllaries, collectively termed the involucre. Calyx modified as pappus. Stamens syngenesious. K pappus C 5 A (5) G(2), inferior, 1 basal ovule Fruit an achene.
  31. 31. Asteraceae (=Compositae) - Sunflower family (after Aster, meaning star). 1,528 genera / 22,750 species. The Asteraceae are distinctive in being herbs, shrubs, vines, or trees, the inflorescence a head (capitulum) subtended by an involucre of phyllaries, flowers either bilabiate, disk, or ray/ligulate, (heads of many taxa a mixture of central disk flowers and peripheral ray flowers), with the calyx, termed a pappus, modified as scales, awns, or capillary bristles (or absent), the androecium syngenesious, and with an inferior ovary with a single, basal ovule, the fruit a multiple of achenes.
  32. 32. Asteraceae (=Compositae) - Sunflower family (after Aster, meaning star). 1,528 genera / 22,750 species. Economic importance includes some food plants (e.g., Cynara scolymus, artichoke, and Helianthus annuus, sunflower), a number of ornamental cultivars, and various species used locally or industrially; the prickly fruits of Arctium lappa (burdock) are purported to have been the model for invention of velcro.
  33. 33. Argyroxiphium sandwicense, Silversword Maui
  34. 34. Argyroxiphium sandwicense, Silversword Maui
  35. 35. Asteraceae (=Compositae) - Sunflower family (after Aster, meaning star). 1,528 genera / 22,750 species. K 0-∞ (pappus) C (5) [(4)] or (3) in some ray flowers A (5) [(4)] G (2), inferior, hypanthium absent.
  36. 36. Asteraceae: floral variation Three types of flowers: 1) Bilabiate: zygomorphic (bilateral) with 2 lips 2) Ray (ligulate): zygomorphic (bilateral) with 1 lobe 3) Disk: actinomorphic (radial), usu. 5-lobed
  37. 37. Five types of heads: 1) discoid, with only disk flowers; 2) disciform, with central disk flowers and marginal, eligulate female flowers; 3) radiate, with central (bisexual or male) disk flowers and peripheral (female or sterile) ray flowers; 4) ligulate, with all ray flowers (typically with 5-toothed corolla apices); 5) bilabiate, with all bilabiate flowers.
  38. 38. Bilabiate flower Acourtia microcephala Trixis californica posterior lip anterior lip
  39. 39. ligulate / raydisk
  40. 40. syngenesious anthers connate
  41. 41. Ray flowers (heads ligulate = all rays) Rafinesquia neomexicana Malacothrix californica ligulate corolla
  42. 42. Disk flower: heads discoid Palafoxia arida Psathyrotes ramosissima disk corolla Chaenactis gabriuscula
  43. 43. Disk flowers: heads disciform (2 types of disk fls., same or different heads) male heads Ambrosia chamissonis female heads
  44. 44. Xylorhiza orcuttiiEncelia farinosa Heads radiate: inner disk & outer ray fls. ray flowersdisk flowers
  45. 45. Encelia californica ovary Some heads are "chaffy" chaff : bracts subtending flowers disk flower
  46. 46. Involucre morphology one whorl two whorls many whorls Senecio vulgaris Coreopsis maritima Encelia californica
  47. 47. Circium vulgare Silybum marianum Phyllaries spiny Involucre morphology Phyllaries spiny & squarrose
  48. 48. Pappus: modified calyx capillary bristles: barbellate capillary bristles: plumose beak capillary bristles, borne atop "beak"
  49. 49. Pappus: modified calyx