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  1. 1. SUBMITTED TO; MAM HALEEMA SUBMITTED BY; SAMRA MARRIUM 13131506-012 BOTANY 7TH Ethnobotany and plants systematics
  2. 2. ( G R A M I N A E ) Family poaceae
  3. 3. 1.Classification Kingdom: Plantae Phylum :Angiosperms Class :Monocots Series :Glumaceae Family :Poaceae Number of species :500- 4650 .
  4. 4. 2.Distinguished characters. Habit :Herbs Stem :cylindrical and hollow Leaf :simple Flower :zygomorphic Androecium :3 stamens Gynoecium :Monocarpellary Fruit : caryopsis
  5. 5. 3.Distribution. Cosmopolitan Grasss Family Important genera include wheat, maize, rice, sugarcane and pearl millet etc.
  6. 6. 4.Vegetative characters. 1. Habit.  Annual, biennial , perennials, herbs ,shrubs, few woody. 2. Root.  Adventitious , Fibrous ,stilt in maize. 3. Stem.  Jointed, errect, creeping, fistular(bamboo), hard and solid(maize), nodes and internodes.
  7. 7. Cont. 4. Leaf.  Simple , alternate, sessile, stipule called ligule.
  8. 8. 5. Floral characters. 1.Inflorescence.  Spikelets 2.Flower.  Sessile , unisexual or bisexual,  Hypogynous, zygomorphic. 3. perianth.  Absent sometime  Sometime 2 or 3 lodicules Are pesent
  9. 9. Cont. 4. Androecium.  3 stamens ,sometime 6 in rice. 5. Gynoecium.  Monocarpellary, ,syncarpous, ,Superior.  Fruit :caryopsis  Seed :Endospermic  Pollination :Wind pollination.
  10. 10. F L O R A L F O R M U L A 6.Floral digram
  11. 11. Male flower Female flower Diagrams with formulas
  12. 12. Floral digram of grass spikelet
  13. 13. 7. Important Genera. 1. zea mays 2. Oryza sativa 3. Triticum aestivum 4. Pennisetum glaucum 5. Saccharaum officinarum 6. Bambusa bamboo 7. Cymbopogon citarus.
  14. 14. 8.Importance of poaceae 1. Use as food.  Members of this family are good source of food, wheat, maize, rice, sugarcane etc  Use as food of animals, e.g fodder for cattle and sheeps etc.  Oils are obtained.
  15. 15. Cont. 2.Industrial uses.  Manufacturing of paper  Sugar is obtanied  Biofuel production  Making of woodwind Istruments. 3.Medicinal uses.  Cymbopogon jwarancusa Is used to cure fever and flu.
  16. 16. Cont.  Lemon grass is also taken as tea and good for health.
  17. 17. 9.Red rot of sugarcane.  Oldest known diseas. 1. Causal agent.  Red rot disease is caused by the fungus Glomerella tucumanensis. An older name, Colletotrichum falcatum, is still preferred by some pathologis
  18. 18. Cont. 2. Symptoms.  Diagnostic symptoms can best be observed by splitting the stalk lengthwise. The infected tissues have a dull red color interrupted by occasional whitish patches across the stalk (Figure 2). These white patches are specific to the disease and are of significance in distinguishing red rot from other stalk rots. Reddened vascular bundles may also pass through to healthy tissues.
  19. 19. Cont.  . In susceptible varieties, the red color may be seen throughout the length of the stalk, and sometimes also with some gray color. The infection is largely confined to the internodes in resistant varieties. Red rot infected sugarcane may be distinguished from pineapple disease, another sugarcane disease causing internal stalk reddening by its rather sour odor. By contrast, sugarcane infected with pineapple disease emits a sweet scent, smelling like ripened pineapples
  20. 20. Cont. 3. Prevention and control.  The use of resistant sugarcane varieties is the most effective method of prevention and control.  The incidence of red rot can be reduced through good cultural practices, such as clearing fields of excessive trash and efficient drainage. Agronomic practices that hasten germination are important in reducing seed rotting and obtaining good stands