Proximate Causes of Biodiversity Loss

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Proximate Causes of Biodiversity Loss

  1. 1. Proximate Causes of Biodiversity Loss <br />
  2. 2. Proximate Causes of Biodiversity Loss<br />Habitat destruction<br />Overexploitation<br />Invasive species<br />Pollution<br />Climate change<br />
  3. 3. Habitat Destruction<br />Habitat destruction as a result of human activities including urbanization, agricultural expansion and logging leave animals and plants without a suitable place to live<br />More than 85% of threatened birds, mammals and amphibian are affected by habitat destruction<br />Deforestation rate positively correlates with human population growth rate in many parts of the world<br />
  4. 4. Deforestation is a serious threat to Sumatran Tiger<br />Each year between 2000 to 2005, 10.4 millions hectares of tropical forest were destroyed<br />
  5. 5. Overexploitation<br />Overexploitationis the harvest of plants and animals <br /> at a rate which is higher than their natural <br /> reproduction rate<br />Overexploitationfor food, recreation, construction and medicine has lead to population fall and extinction<br />
  6. 6. Overhunting for food resulted in extinction of Dodo in Mauritius<br />Hunting of Asian Pangolin for medicinal uses has caused decline in population size<br />
  7. 7. Invasive Species<br />Invasive species is introduced intentionally or <br /> accidently outside their normal range and harmful to native species<br />Invasive species threaten biodiversity by spreading <br /> diseases, acting as predator or parasite, competing or hybridizing with native species and altering habitat<br />
  8. 8. The shrub Clidemiahirtathreatens endemic plants in Hawaii<br />Nile Perch has led to extinction of Cichlid fish in Lake Victoria<br />
  9. 9. Pollution<br />Pollution is the release of contaminants and toxic <br /> substance to the environment<br />Water, air and soil – the three main natural resources could be affected by pollution<br />Pollution disrupt chemical cycle in the biosphere such as nitrogen and carbon cycle<br />
  10. 10. The Osprey were negatively affected by the chemical DDT in the 1960s <br />Organic waste and leaching of fertilizer may lead to eutrophication of lakes<br />
  11. 11. Climate Change<br />Climate change alter the distribution of ecosystems, biomes and suitable habitat<br />Climate change require animals and plants to <br /> adapt ecologically, behaviorally and physically – but some may not be able to adapt accordingly<br />15 to 37% of 1,103 animals and plants sampled are <br /> predicted to become extinct by 2050 because of <br /> climate change<br />
  12. 12. Increase in sea temperature has reduced coral reefs cover because of coral bleaching<br />Mismatch of migratory bird behavior with changes in the environment<br />

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