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Theoretical Perspectives In Student Learning Final

Theoretical Perspectives In Student Learning Final






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    Theoretical Perspectives In Student Learning Final Theoretical Perspectives In Student Learning Final Presentation Transcript

    • Julia N. Visor Academic Center
    • Why learn about theory?
      • Theory does not necessarily need to be memorized, but it does provide a useful framework for the work we do with students.
      • Theory helps guide our actions with students, which can help us make each session or interaction the most effective and meaningful it can be.
    • Behavioral Learning Theory
      • John Watson was the first to study how learning affects our behavior, leading to the formation of “behaviorism”.
      • This theory has also been greatly advanced by the concepts of classical and operant conditioning.
        • Classical conditioning: Pavlov’s dog
        • Operant conditioning: Positive/negative reinforcement
    • Behavioral Learning Theory
      • This theory asserts that learning is shaped by both positive and negative experiences.
      • Behavior is either punished or reinforced, which determines whether or not the behavior is likely to occur again.
      • Therefore, modeling is crucial to the development of good learning behaviors.
    • Why is this important?
      • If students’ behaviors are adaptable, how can this help us in our work?
      • What types of behaviors should we be modeling for our tutees?
    • Cognitive Developmental Theory
      • Much of cognitive developmental theory is accredited to the work of Jean Piaget.
      • Piaget believed that there were four stages of cognitive development-- most college students are in the final stage of development: formal operational.
        • In this stage, students are using deductive logic, thinking abstractly, and will use these skills to solve problems.
    • Cognitive Developmental Theory
      • William Perry also theorized about the intellectual development of college students.
      • Perry believed that students progress through various stages dualism, multiplicity, relativism, and finally, commitment.
      • The stages of dualism, multiplicity, and relativism are the most pertinent to your work as students.
    • Cognitive Development According to Perry…
      • Dualistic students are those who see the world in terms of right or wrong, true or false.
      • These students tend to view their professors and likely their tutors, as authority figures who have all the correct answers.
    • Cognitive Development According to Perry…
      • Students who progress to multiplicity understand that the world is not “black and white” and that there are many perspectives related to a given problem or situation.
      • A typical response might be “Everyone is entitled to his/her opinion.”
      • Therefore, students recognize there are multiple perspectives but lack the ability to choose one over the other.
    • Cognitive Development According to Perry…
      • Relativistic students see knowledge as relative to particular frames of reference.
      • Frequently, by seeing alternative perspectives, they have difficulty making a decision.
      • Authorities are seen as people who can and should be questioned.
    • Cognitive Developmental Theory
      • Why might it be important to understand the development of students’ intellectual abilities?
      • How might it be beneficial to understand what stage a student might be in?
    • Social Interdependence Theory
      • In the early 1900s, the concept of social interdependence was explored.
      • Social interdependence exists in any situation where “individuals share common goals and each individual’s outcomes are affected by the actions of others”.
    • Social Interdependence Theory
      • Social interdependence theorists purports that students learn best when “promotive interaction” occurs.
      • When students encourage one another, constructively challenge each other’s reasoning, or provide each other with feedback, promotive interaction has occurred.
    • Social Interdependence Theory
      • How can we help students engage in promotive interactions?
      • When might these interactions be especially useful?
    • Interpretive/Critical Theory
      • This theory asserts that learning should exist to overcome oppression in society.
      • In other words, knowledge is powerful.
      • This theory is also related to the notion of a “culture of silence” developed by theorist Paulo Freire.
      • As described by Freire, a “culture of silence” is a culture in which dominated individuals lack the ability to critically respond to a culture that is placed upon them by a more powerful party.
    • Interpretive/Critical Theory
      • How might learning help decrease our likelihood of living in a “culture of silence”?
      • Do you see any evidence of a “culture of silence” at ISU or in the United States?
    • Student Learning and Theory
      • Great job! You’ve learned a lot about learning theory today!
      • What theories do you feel will most help you in your work?
      • Are you able to envision ways of applying these theories to your work?
    • Questions?