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Cognitivism ( Piaget and Vigotsky)

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Cognitivism ( Piaget and Vigotsky)

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Cognitivism ( Piaget and Vigotsky)

  1. 1. COGNITIVISM (Stages & Process) Presented and delivered by: • M’hamed Jamili • Youssef Idrissi • Sanae Lafif Presented and delivered by:
  2. 2. THE OUTLINE  Who is Piaget?  Theory of Cognitive Development  Cognitive development stages  Piaget’s main principles  Lev Vygotsky’s Theory
  3. 3. Who is Piaget ?  Jean Piaget was born in 1896 in Neuchâtel, Switzerland, and died in 1980 in Geneva, Switzerland.  At age 11, he wrote a paper on an albino sparrow, which was published and was the start of his famous career.  After graduating high school, he attended the University of Zurich, where he became interested in psychoanalysis.  He married in 1923 and had three children, Jacqueline, Lucienne and Laurent.  Piaget studied his children’s intellectual development from infancy.
  4. 4. THEORY OF COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT  While studying his children, Piaget developed theories concerning how children learn.  His theory of Cognitive Development consists of four stages of intellectual development.
  5. 5. 1- Sensorimotor stage From birth to age 2 During this stage, the child begins to develop:  Reflexes (inborn, automatic responses to stimuli)  Habits  Hand-eye coordination  The development of the grasp of Object Permanence (knowing something exists, even though it can’t be seen)  Trial and error experiments 5 THEORY OF COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT (Stage 1)
  6. 6. 2- Preoperational stage Age 2 to 7 During this stage, the child begins to develop:  Ability to represent objects with images and words  Language skills  Imagination  The luck of understanding of the principle of conservation  Egocentric  The luck of understanding THEORY OF COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT (Stage 2)
  7. 7. Concrete operational stage Age 7 to 11 During this stage, the child begins to develop:  The fundamentals of logic  Children also become less egocentric  Ability to sort objects  Ability to classify objects  Understanding of conservation (physical quantities do not change based on the arrangement and/or appearance of the object) THEORY OF COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT (Stage 3)
  8. 8. Formal operational stage From age 11 to Adulthood During this stage, the child begins to develop:  Ability to hypothesize, test and reevaluate hypotheses  Reason about abstract concepts  Children begin thinking logically and in a formal systematic way THEORY OF COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT (Stage 4)
  9. 9. PIAGET’S MAIN PRINCIPLES  SCHEMAS  ASSIMILATION  ACCOMMODATION  EQUILIBRIUM / EQUILIBRATION
  10. 10. SCHEMAS  Schemas are the basic building blocks of such cognitive models, and enable us to form a mental representation of the world. Piaget (1952) defined a schema as:  A cohesive, repeatable action sequence possessing component actions that are tightly interconnected and governed by a core meaning'.
  11. 11.  In more simple terms Piaget called the schema the basic building block of intelligent behavior – a way of organizing knowledge. Indeed, it is useful to think of schemas as “units” of knowledge, each relating to one aspect of the world, including objects, actions and abstract (i.e. theoretical) concepts.
  12. 12. Jean piaget viewed intellectual growth as a process of adaptation (adjustment) to the world. This happens through:  Assimilation: Which is using an existing schema to deal with a new object or situation.  Accommodation: This happens when the existing schema (knowledge) does not work, and needs to be changed to deal with a new object or situation ASSIMILATION AND ACCOMMODATION
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  14. 14. EQUILIBRIUM / EQUILIBRATION  This is the force which moves development along. Piaget believed that cognitive development did not progress at a steady rate, but rather in leaps and bounds.  Equilibrium occurs when a child's schemas can deal with most new information through assimilation. However, an unpleasant state of disequilibrium occurs when new information cannot be fitted into existing schemas (assimilation).
  15. 15.  Equilibration is the force which drives the learning process as we do not like to be frustrated and will seek to restore balance by mastering the new challenge (accommodation). Once the new information is acquired the process of assimilation with the new schema will continue until the next time we need to make an adjustment to it.
  16. 16. Lev Semonovich Vygotsky Background  Vygotsky was called "The Mozart of Psychology“.  He was born in 1896- same year as Piaget  In 1913 entered Moscow University through lottery.  In December of 1917, he graduated from Moscow University with a degree in law.  Vygotsky completed 270 scientific articles, numerous lectures, and ten books based on a wide range of Marxist-based psychological and teaching theories.
  17. 17. KEY CONEPTS » Vygotsky’s theory is one of the foundations of constructivism. It asserts three major themes regarding social interaction, the more knowledgeable other, and the zone of proximal development.
  18. 18. SOCIAL INTERACTION
  19. 19. SOCIAL INTERACTION  Cognitive development occurs as child's thinking is molded by society in the form of parents, teachers, and peers. This leads to peer tutoring as a strategy in classrooms.  Different than Piaget’s image of the individual constructing understanding alone  Everything is social  Vygotsky saw cognitive development as depending more on interactions with people & tools in the child’s world.  Tools are real: pens, paper, computers; or Tools are symbols: language, math systems, signs
  20. 20. ZONE OF PROXIMAL DEVELOPMENT (ZPD)  The difference between what a child can do independently and what the child can do with the assistance of a more knowledgeable person.
  21. 21. SCAFFOLDING
  22. 22. SCAFFOLDING  Scaffolding is an instructional structure whereby the teacher models the desired learning strategy or task then gradually shifts responsibility to the students.  Scaffolding:  Provides support  Extends the range of what a learner can do.  Allows the learner to accomplish tasks otherwise impossible  Used only when needed
  23. 23. VYGOTSKY’S WORDS » “It is through others that we become ourselves”  All learning is social » “What a child can do in co-operation today he can do alone tomorrow”  Guided participation, ZPD, scaffolding
  24. 24. EDUCATIONAL IMPLICATIONS  Vygotsky stressed active learning.  Assessing what they already know.  Establish what they are capable of learning.  Allowing teachers to teach within the zone.  Allowing teachers to provide sufficient scaffolding for fostering growth and development.
  25. 25. “ Thanks !

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