Need to Know: adults need to know the reason for learning somethingFoundation/Experience: experience (including mistakes) provides the basis for learning activitiesSelf-concept: adults need to be involved in the planning and evaluation of their learningReadiness: adults are most interested in learning topics which have immediate relevance to their work and/or personal livesOrientation: adult learning is problem-centered rather than content-orientedMotivation: adults respond better to internal versus external motivators
Unlike students who simply learn what they are told, adults are used to understanding what they do in life; they want to know the reason they need to learn something or how it will benefit them.To see the value of the lesson, ask the student to do some reflection on what they expect to learn, how they might use it in the future or how it will help them meet their goals
Adults have had a lifetime of experiences; want to use what they know and want to be acknowledged for having that knowledge (case studies, reflective activities, etc. will facilitate the use of learns’ already acquired expertise).
Adult learners are self-directed, taking responsibility for their own learning and the direction it takes. (asynchronous web-based learning being non-linear; ability to branch, skip sections, etc.; follow a learning path that suits them)
Adults become ready to learn when, as Knowles explained, “they experience a need to learn it in order to cope more satisfyingly with real-life tasks or problems” (1980, 44). Lessons should be concrete and relate to students’ needs and future goals. Instructors can ask themselves: “what can my students learn here that they will be expected to know out there?”Consider a resume for a writing class
Adults are life, task or problem-centered in their orientation to learning; want to see how what they are learning will apply to their life, solve a problem, etc. (technology-based instruction will be more effective if it uses real-life examples or situations that adult learners may encounter in their life or on the job). For example, students can bring real-life examples of school discipline challenges to a synchronous chat session in an online course – they’ll be anxious to participate and gain the practical experience which will help them do better at their job.
While adults may respond to external motivators, internal priorities more important (incentives such as increased job satisfaction, self-esteem…all important in giving adults reason to learn). Activities that build students’ self-esteem (completion of goals or modules that can be checked off in sequence) may help motivate completion of a longer sequence.These could be any type of activity or resource interaction. The addition of a Course completion status block quickly helps a student stay on track and allows an instructor to view student progress.Why use Course Completion in Moodle?You might want to make sure students complete certain activities before others. In this example, you will view how to adjust your course settings to include course completion and then how to set a viewing requirement for a resource page.
To facilitate the use of andragogy while teaching with technology we must use technology to its fullest. Arguments for the use of technology many times include statements about its flexibility and the ability of the learner to move through lessons any time, anywhere, and at their own pace. These arguments also include logical explanations of how a learner may adapt the lessons or material to cover what they need to learn and eliminate the material that is not appropriate or that they have already learned. To adapt to the needs of adult students, these definitions of technology-based learning must be utilized to make its design interactive, learner-centered and to facilitate self-direction in learners.Educators who are using adult education concepts in the development of their lessons must also become facilitators of learning. They must structure student input into their design and create technology-based lessons which can easily be adapted to make the presentation of topics relevant to those they teach.If these guidelines are followed, the instruction that is developed will be not only technologically workable but also effective from a learner’s perspective.
Exploring Andragogy Strategy and Theory Seminar By Jeff Geronimo ETT 571 – Northern Illinois University
Defining AndragogyMany definitions, but commonly known as thescholarly approach to the learning of adults.Theory is an attempt to develop a set oflearning strategies specifically for adults.Andr- meaning ‘man’; agogos meaning‘leading’
Malcolm KnowlesTerm originally coined by AlexanderKapp in 1833, but developed into atheory of adult education by MalcolmKnowles in 1960’s (Knowles, Holton,and Swanson 1998, 59).Collected ideas about adult educationuntil introduced to the term“andragogy.”Knowles known as principle expert onandragogy, but there are others whohave addressed the concept:Brookfield (1986), Mezirow (1991),Lawler (1991), and Merriam (1999).
Pedagogy & AndragogyPedagogy Andragogy Dependent: teacher Moves towards directs what, when, independence; self- how a subject is directed. Teacher learned and tests that encourages and is has been learned nurtures learning
Principles of Andragogy Experience Instruction for adult focuses more on process Need to Self- and less on content Know concept Case studies, role-playing, Andragogy simulations most usefulMotivation Readiness to Learn to Learn Instructors adopt a role of facilitator or resource Orientation to Learning
Principles of Andragogy Experience Need to Know: Adults need to know the reason for learning Need to Self- Know concept something AndragogyMotivation Readiness to Learn to Learn Orientation to Learning
Principles of Andragogy Experience Experience: Experience (including mistakes) provides the Need to Self- Know concept basis for learning activities AndragogyMotivation Readiness to Learn to Learn Orientation to Learning
Principles of Andragogy Experience Self-Concept: Adults need to be involved in the planning and Need to Self- Know concept evaluation of their learning AndragogyMotivation Readiness to Learn to Learn Orientation to Learning
Principles of Andragogy Experience Readiness to Learn: Topics should have immediate relevance to Need to Self- Know concept work and/or personal lives AndragogyMotivation Readiness to Learn to Learn Orientation to Learning
Principles of Andragogy Experience Orientation to Learning: Adult learning is problem- centered rather than Need to Self- Know concept content-oriented AndragogyMotivation Readiness to Learn to Learn Orientation to Learning
Principles of Andragogy Experience Motivation to Learn: Adults respond better to internal versus external Need to Self- Know concept motivators AndragogyMotivation Readiness to Learn to Learn Orientation to Learning
Application of Andragogy Learning materialsExplain why things Instruction should and activities Task-oriented are being taught allow learners to account for instead of(commands, proce discover things on different memorization sses, menus, etc.) their own levels/experience with computers
ReferencesFidishun, Dolores. (2000). Andragogy and Technology.Knowles, M. (1975). Self-Directed Learning. Chicago:Follet.Knowles, M. (1984). Andragogy in Action. SanFrancisco: Jossey-Bass.Knowles, Malcolm S., Elwood F. Holton III, andRichard A. Swanson. (1998). The Adult Learner.Houston: Gulf Publishing.