5 FACTORS THAT
LEE PUI HAR
• Men commonly think according to their inclinations, speak according to their
learning and imbibed opinions, but generally act according to custom.
(Francis Bacon Sr)
FACTORS THAT AFFECT LLS
• Personal Attributes
• Social & Cultural Beliefs
• Learning Style
• Men & Women brains really are wired differently. (Lewis and LiveScience
• According to Hong-Nam and Leavell (2006)
• Females engaged in strategy use more frequently than males
• Female using Social and Metacognitive strategies most and Memory strategies the least.
• Males use Metacognitive & Compensation strategies most and Affective strategies the
• Gardner and Lambert Motivation Theory (1959)
• Instrumental motivation involves wanting to learn the L2 for a specific goal or reason,
for example, learning a L2
• Integrative motivation is defined as wanting to identify with another ethnolinguistic
• The learners’ motivation may be influenced by the types of learning contexts they
are in. 1
• EFL : Instrumental motivation
• ESL: Integrative motivation (Nitta 2006)
• Formal learning context & Informal learning context
• self-confidence consists of a combination of positive self-evaluation of one’s
competence in the L2 and the absence of anxiety when learning and using the L2.
Social & Cultural Beliefs
• The degree of social & psychological distance a learner experiences between
his or her language and culture and that of the target language group also
affects his or her experience of learning the language. (Nitta 2006)
• Oxford also categorized language learning strategies into two domains:
• Direct Strategies (Memory, cognitive, compensation)
• Indirect Strategies (Metacognitive, affective, social)
• Learning Style Approach (Fleming 2011)
• Visual, Auditory, Read & Write, Kinesthetic
• Identifying LLS used and understanding factors that might affect LLS are
one of the many possible ways to assist Learners & also teachers in making
the language learning process less difficult and more effective.
Fleming, N.D. 2011. VARK a guide to learning style. http://www.vark-
Khamkhien, A. 2010. Factors affecting language learning strategy reported usage by Thai and
Vietnamese EFL learners. Electronic Journal of Foreign Language Teaching 7(1):66-85. e-
flt.nus.edu.sg/.../khamkhien.htm [26 March 2014]
Lewis, T. & LiveScience. 2013. How men's rrains are wired differently than women's.
[26 March 2014]
Nitta, T. 2006. Affective, cognitive and social factors affecting Japanese learners of English in Cape
Town. etd.uwc.ac.za/usrfiles/.../etd_gen8Srv25Nme4_4868_1210749958.pdf [26 March 2013].