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Universal testing machines

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Universal testing machines Universal testing machines Presentation Transcript

  • Presentation OnUniversal TestingMachine
  • M Waqas Mushtaq MME-12-11Muhammad Zubair MME-12-29M. Faisal Maqsood MME-12-20Muhammad Ahmad MME-12-14Gulfam Hussain MME-12-30Arif Ali MME-12-01Group No 1
  • Mechanics Of materials:Mechanics of materials is a branch of mechanics thatdevelops relationships between the external loadsapplied to a deformable body and the intensity ofinternal forces acting within the body as well as thedeformations of the body.StressStrainIntroduction
  • Stress Strain DiagramProportional limitElastic limitYield PointYield StrengthNecking pointRupture Point
  • Necking & Rupture
  • Universal Testing MachineThe results from the test arecommonly used to select a materialfor an application, for quality control,and to predict how a material willreact under other types of forces.Properties that are directly measuredvia a tensile test are ultimate tensilestrength, maximum elongation andreduction in area. From thesemeasurements the followingproperties can also be determined:Youngs modulus, yield strength, andstrain-hardening characteristics.
  • Tensile TestCompressive TestTortion TestShearBendingTest Function
  • COMPONENTSLoad cellCross headOutput deviceTest fixtures(jaws)ExtensometerColumns
  • TYPESMechanicalThe electromechanical machine uses anelectric motor, gear reduction systemand one, two or four screws to move thecrosshead up or down. A range of crosshead speeds can beachieved by changing the speed of themotor.A microprocessor based closed-loopservo system can be Implemented toaccurately control the speed of thecrosshead.HydraulicA hydraulic testing machine uses either asingle- or dual-acting piston to move thecrosshead up or down.In a manually operated machine, theoperator adjusts a needle valve to controlthe rate of loading. In a closed-loophydraulic servo system, the needle valve isreplaced by an electrically operated servo-valve for precise control.In general, the electromechanical machineis capable of a wide range of test speedsand long crosshead displacements, whereasthe hydraulic machine is a cost-effectivesolution for generating high forces.
  • TYPESDigitally operatedUniversal Testing MachineComputer operatedUniversal Testing MachineSingle Column UniversalTesting MachinesDouble / Dual ColumnUniversal TestingMachinesFour Column UniversalTesting Machines
  • It works on the principle of elongation anddeformation.In UTM Tensile, Compressive and Shear Forces areacting.Working Principle
  • Working ProcedureCompression TestIn compression test thespecimen is gripped inmachine jaws and load isapplied through a screwgear mechanism by amovable crosshead jawwhen we apply load ourspecimen is compressedunder load and itscompressive strengthshows on screen by graph.
  • In tensile test the specimen is gripped in machinejaws and load is applied through a screw gearmechanism by a movable crosshead jaw when weapply load our specimen is elongated under load andstress strain graph is shown on screen.Tensile Test
  • TENSILE TESTStep 1: Original shape and sizeof the specimen with no load.Step 2: Specimen undergoinguniform elongation.Step 3: Point of maximum loadand ultimate tensile strength.Step 4: The onset of necking(plastic instability).Step 5: Specimen fractures.Step 6: Final length.