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Fuel cladding materials

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Fuel cladding materials used for cladding in nuclear reactors

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Fuel cladding materials

  1. 1. Fuel Cladding Materials Aluminum Alloys
  2. 2. Presented To: Miss Fauzia Wahid Presented By: Arif Ali MME-12-01 Sarmad Saeed MME-12-02 Gulfam Husain MME-12-30
  3. 3. Aluminum Alloys • Third most abundant element in the earth’s & most abundant metal. • Alloyed with many elements, majorly Cu, Mn, Si, Mg, Mg-Si, Zn & Li. • Small amounts of Fe, Zr, Cr, Ti, V etc are also added. • Two categories of alloys namely Wrought & Cast alloys. • Wrought alloys designated by 1xxx upto 9xxx showing the major alloying additions. • Cast alloys designated by 1xx.x upto 9xx.x just like wrought alloys.
  4. 4. Designation
  5. 5. Fuel Cladding Material • Cladding is the outer layer of the fuel rods, standing between the coolant and the nuclear fuel. • It is used to provide a combination of mechanical properties & corrosion resistance. • The purpose of cladding in a nuclear reactor is two fold: i. Cladding gives the physical configuration by housing fuel pellets ii. Cladding retains the fission products and prevents direct contact between coolant and fuel
  6. 6. Contd.. • The cladding material should possess the following properties for its normal operation: Ductility Impact strength Creep Resistance Ease of fabrication Resistance to corrosion by coolant High MP High thermal conductivity low absorption cross section for neutrons Chemically inert
  7. 7. Contd.. • The following materials are commonly used as the fuel cladding materials: Zircaloy Stainless Steels Magnesium(Magnox)  Fe-Cr-Al alloys SiC Aluminum alloys
  8. 8. Aluminum Alloys As Fuel cladding Materials • Aluminum & its alloys are used as cladding materials in research reactors fuel elements as:  It has adequate oxidation resistance & mechanical properties at moderate temperature around 100°C. It has low thermal neutron capture cross section value i.e. 0.23 barns High thermal conductivity. Freedom from corrosion at low temperature.
  9. 9. Contd.. • Most of the fuels are cladded with pure aluminum. • Al alloys are also used as cladding materials most commonly 5000 & 6000 series. • Al alloys to be used as cladding materials are those which are either strengthened by solid solution strengthening or by precipitation hardening. • AA6061, AA5456 & AA5052 are commonly used as the fuel cladding materials.
  10. 10. Contd.. • Aluminum alloy type 1100 which is nearly pure aluminum(greater than 99%) is also used. • It is used in in low power, water-cooled research, training, and materials testing reactors in which the operating temperatures are below 100°C. • Aluminum is also used as fuel cladding material for pressurized and boiling water reactors operating in the moderate temperature range.
  11. 11. Problems • It losses strength & corrosion properties at high temperature. • Alloying additions can improve these properties but at expense of neutron absorption cross section. • In water reactors, Al can be used upto 100°C because of corrosion problems at higher temperatures.
  12. 12. References • Selection of Materials for Reactor Internals by K.S. Rajan (Professor, School of Chemical & Biotechnology SASTRA University ). • Nuclear Reactor Materials and Fuels by Massoud T. Simnad (University of California, San Diego). • Aluminum cladding oxidation of prefilmed in-pile fueled experiments W.R. Marcum a, *, D.M. Wachs b, A.B. Robinson b, M.A. Lillo b • Nuclear fuels e-den A Nuclear Energy Division Monograph . • REACTOR USE OF ALUMINUM http://nuclearpowertraining.tpub.com/h1017v2/css/Reactor-Use-Of-Aluminum-109.htm • THE QUEST FOR SAFE AND RELIABLE FUEL CLADDING MATERIALS by Eddy S. Pino, Alfredo Y. Abe and Claudia Giovedi www.iaea.org/inis/collection/NCLCollectionStore/_Public/47/006/47006409.pdf • Reactor Materials chapter 5. https://www.google.com.pk/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=8&cad=rja&uact=8&ved=0ahUKEwjQ- aqnj_3QAhVGrRoKHYLiCOEQFgg0MAc&url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.arpansa.gov.au%2Fpubs%2Fregulatory%2Fopal%2Fop% 2FSAR%2Fch5f.pdf&usg=AFQjCNGt99utRRO6Qboqq1o9RLh2sSFl5w&bvm=bv.142059868,d.d24

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