Date and Time: 10-11 AM, November 3013
Venue: Room E3B, GET Building, University of
Mindanao, Matina Campus
Speakers: Marv...
Egypt is a country in North Africa, on
the Mediterranean Sea, and is among the
oldest civilizations on earth. The name 'Eg...
Evidence of overgrazing of cattle, on the land
which is now the Sahara Desert, has been dated to
about 8,000 BCE. This evi...
Astronomy
-the Egyptians studied the night sky, taking measurements
from the stars to accurately align their pyramids and ...
Calendar
The Egyptian calendar was based of a year of 365 days,
with twelve months and three seasons. Each month
had three...
Mathematics
Although the Egyptians lacked the symbol for zero, they
calculated numbers based on the decimal and the
repeti...
The Egyptians knew about fractions and used special
signs for two-thirds, three-quarters, four-fifths and
five-sixths. The...
Medicine
The doctors of ancient Egypt combined magic spells with
remedies. If a person fell sick, the illness was thought ...
By the fifth century B.C., Egyptian doctors had their
own specialization. Most of the doctors were men and, within
their r...
Mummification
The ancient Egyptians believed in the resurrection of the
body and life everlasting. As long as order was ma...
1. linen
2. sawdust
3. lichen
4. beeswax
5. resin
6. natron
7. onion
8. Nile mud
9. linen pads
10. frankincense
The Pyramids of Egypt
The Great Pyramids of Giza are located on a plateau on the west bank of
the Nile River, on the outsk...
Approximately 2.3 million blocks of stone (averaging about
2.5 tons each) had to be cut, transported and assembled to
buil...
Alexandria is a port city on the Mediterranean Sea in
northern Egypt founded in 331 BCE by Alexander the
Great. It is most...
The city grew to become the largest in the known world
at the time, attracting scholars, scientists, philosophers,
mathema...
The city became steadily impoverished after the rise of
Christianity, both financially and culturally, and became
increasi...
Science and technology of ancient civilizations
Science and technology of ancient civilizations
Science and technology of ancient civilizations
Science and technology of ancient civilizations
Science and technology of ancient civilizations
Science and technology of ancient civilizations
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Science and technology of ancient civilizations

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Science and technology of ancient civilizations

  1. 1. Date and Time: 10-11 AM, November 3013 Venue: Room E3B, GET Building, University of Mindanao, Matina Campus Speakers: Marvin B. Gonzaga Paul John B. Gataber Violeta G. Dumanayos
  2. 2. Egypt is a country in North Africa, on the Mediterranean Sea, and is among the oldest civilizations on earth. The name 'Egypt' comes from the Greek Aegyptos which was the Greek pronunciation of the Egyptian name 'Hwt-Ka-Ptah' (which means House of the Spirit of Ptah, who was a very early God of the Ancient Egyptians). In the early Old Kingdom Egypt was simply known as 'Kemet' which means 'Black Land' so named for the rich, dark soil along the Nile River where the first settlements began.
  3. 3. Evidence of overgrazing of cattle, on the land which is now the Sahara Desert, has been dated to about 8,000 BCE. This evidence, along with artifacts discovered, points to a thriving agricultural civilization in the region at that time. As the land was mostly arid even then, hunter-gathering nomads sought the cool of the water source of the Nile River Valley and began to settle there sometime prior to 5500 BCE. Organized farming began in the region c. 5000 BCE and communities known as the Badari Culture began to flourish alongside the river.
  4. 4. Astronomy -the Egyptians studied the night sky, taking measurements from the stars to accurately align their pyramids and sun temples with the earth's four cardinal points. Taking sightings of the Great Bear and Orion with an instrument called a merkhet (similar to an astrolabe), astronomer-priests marked out the foundations of buildings with astonishing accuracy. -The Great Pyramid at Giza provides an example. This remarkable building has a footprint of over 13 acres and consists of approximately 6.5 million limestone blocks. Its four sides are accurately aligned to face north, east, south, merkhet and west, with an error of less than half a degree. They are also virtually identical in length, with less than a 20 cm (8 inch) variance between one side and another.
  5. 5. Calendar The Egyptian calendar was based of a year of 365 days, with twelve months and three seasons. Each month had three ten-day weeks, for a total of 30 days. The last five days of the year corresponded to the birthdays of five deities: Osiris, Isis, Horus, Seth and Nephthys. The three seasons corresponded to the cycle of the Nile and agriculture. New Year's day was on July 19 (in the Julian calendar) and marked the beginning of the first season, akhet. This was the time of the flooding of the Nile. The next season, during which the crops began to emerge, was called peret and started on November 16. The last season, Shemu, began on March 17 at harvest time.
  6. 6. Mathematics Although the Egyptians lacked the symbol for zero, they calculated numbers based on the decimal and the repetitive (numbers based on the power of 10). The following signs were used to represent numbers in the decimal system:
  7. 7. The Egyptians knew about fractions and used special signs for two-thirds, three-quarters, four-fifths and five-sixths. They also had some basic knowledge of geometry, such as the fact that the area of a rectangle was equal to its length multiplied by its width, and they were able to calculate the area of a circle according to the length of its diameter.
  8. 8. Medicine The doctors of ancient Egypt combined magic spells with remedies. If a person fell sick, the illness was thought to be caused by the wrath of the gods or by an evil spirit that had entered the body. Both priests and doctors were called upon to heal the sick, combining their powers and skills to fix the problem. The most common cure for maladies was an amulet and a magic spell to modify the incorrect behaviour that had caused the illness in the first place.
  9. 9. By the fifth century B.C., Egyptian doctors had their own specialization. Most of the doctors were men and, within their ranks, there was a hierarchy. Throughout the pharaonic times, the most sought-after positions were in the royal court. These doctors looked after the health of the pharaohs, their families and members of their court. Women practised contraception by using concoctions such as honey and natron, which they injected into their vaginas. The Egyptians also devised the earliest-known pregnancy test. Women moistened a sample of barley and emmer (wheat) with their urine each day. If the barley grew, it meant the child would be a male; if the emmer grew, it would be a female. If neither grew, it meant the woman was not pregnant. The effectiveness of this test has been validated by modern science. The urine of non-pregnant women will prevent barley from growing!
  10. 10. Mummification The ancient Egyptians believed in the resurrection of the body and life everlasting. As long as order was maintained, life after death could be achieved provided certain conditions were met. For example, the body had to be preserved through mummification and given a properly furnished tomb with everything needed for life in the afterworld. The practice of mummification began in Egypt in 2400 B.C. and continued into the Graeco-Roman Period. During the Old Kingdom, it was believed that only pharaohs could attain immortality. Around 2000 B.C., attitudes changed, however: everyone could live in the afterworld as long as the body was mummified and the proper elements were placed in the tomb. But since mummification was expensive, only the wealthy were able to take advantage of it. The art of mummification was perfected in the Third Intermediate Period (1070-712 B.C.).
  11. 11. 1. linen 2. sawdust 3. lichen 4. beeswax 5. resin 6. natron 7. onion 8. Nile mud 9. linen pads 10. frankincense
  12. 12. The Pyramids of Egypt The Great Pyramids of Giza are located on a plateau on the west bank of the Nile River, on the outskirts of modern-day Cairo. The oldest and largest of the three pyramids at Giza, known as the Great Pyramid, is the only surviving structure out of the famed seven wonders of the ancient world. It was built for Khufu, second of the eight kings of the fourth dynasty. The sides of the pyramid's base average 755.75 feet (230 meters), and its original height was 481.4 feet (147 meters), making it the largest pyramid in the world. Like other pyramids, Khufu's is surrounded by rows of mastabas, where relatives or officials of the king were buried to accompany and support him in the afterlife. The middle pyramid at Giza was built for Khufu's son Khafre (2558-2532 B.C). A unique feature built inside Khafre's pyramid complex was the Great Sphinx, a statue carved in limestone with the head of a man and the body of a lion. It was the largest statue in the ancient world, measuring 240 feet long and 66 feet high. The southernmost pyramid at Giza was built for Khafre's son Menkaure (2532-2503 B.C.). It is the shortest of the three pyramids (218 feet) and is a precursor of the smaller pyramids that would be constructed during the fifth and sixth dynasties.
  13. 13. Approximately 2.3 million blocks of stone (averaging about 2.5 tons each) had to be cut, transported and assembled to build Khufu's Great Pyramid. The ancient Greek historian Herodotus wrote that it took 20 years to build and required the labor of 100,000 men, but later archaeological evidence suggests that the workforce might actually have been around 20,000. Though some popular versions of history held that the pyramids were built by slaves or foreigners forced into labor, skeletons excavated from the area show that the workers were probably native Egyptian agricultural laborers who worked on the pyramids during the time of year when the Nile River flooded much of the land nearby.
  14. 14. Alexandria is a port city on the Mediterranean Sea in northern Egypt founded in 331 BCE by Alexander the Great. It is most famous in antiquity as the site of the Pharos, the great lighthouse, considered one of the seven wonders of the ancient world, for the Temple of Serapis, the Serapion, which was part of the legendary library at Alexandria, as a seat of learning and, once, the largest and most prosperous city in the world. It also became infamous for the religious strife which resulted in the martyrdom of the philosopher Hypatia of Alexandria in 415 CE. The city grew from a small port town to become the grandest and most important metropolis in ancient Egypt.
  15. 15. The city grew to become the largest in the known world at the time, attracting scholars, scientists, philosophers, mathematicians, artists, and historians. Eratosthenes (c.276-194 BCE) calculated the circumference of the earth to within 50 miles (80 km) at Alexandria. Euclid taught at the university there. Archimedes (287-212 BCE) the great mathematician and astronomer may have taught there and was certainly studied there. The greatest engineer and mathematician of his day, Hero (also known as Heron, 10-70 CE) was born and lived in Alexandria. Hero was credited with amazing feats in engineering and technology including the first vending machine, the force-pump, and a theatre of automated figures who danced, among his other inventions.
  16. 16. The city became steadily impoverished after the rise of Christianity, both financially and culturally, and became increasingly a battlefield for warring faiths.. The forces of the Christian Byzantines and the Muslim Arabs then fought for control of the city, and Egypt, until the Arabian forces prevailed in 646 CE and Egypt fell under Islamic rule. The churches were now destroyed or transformed in mosques and Christian legend claims that it was at this time that the great library was burned by the Muslim conquerors. What was not destroyed by war was taken down by nature and, by 1323 CE, most of Ptolemaic Alexandria was gone. The great lighthouse was steadily destroyed by earthquakes as was much of the port. In 1994 CE the first discoveries were made known of a number of relics, statuary, and buildings in the harbor of Alexandria. These have been steadily excavated by Professor Jean-Yves Empereur and his team who continue to bring to light the lost golden age of Alexandria.
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