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Although swine infuenza viruses are similar to the influenza viruses that circulate among humans, swine viruses possess unique antigens (molecules that stimulate an immune response, primarily through the production of antibodies )
Swine influenza was first proposed to be a disease related to human influenza during the 1918 flu pandemic
1976 U.S. outbreak
1998 US outbreak in swine
In 1998, swine flu was found in pigs in four U.S. states. Within a year, it had spread through pig populations across the United States.
2007 Philippine outbreak in swine
2009 outbreak in humans
The H1N1 viral strain implicated in the 2009 flu pandemic among humans often is called "swine flu" because initial testing showed many of the genes in the virus were similar to influenza viruses normally occurring in North American swine.But further research has shown that the outbreak is due to a new strain of H1N1 not previously reported in pigs.
Outbreaks among pigs normally occur in colder weather months (late fall and winter) and sometimes with the introduction of new pigs into susceptible herds. Studies have shown that the swine flu H1N1 is common throughout pig populations worldwide, with 25 percent of animals showing antibody evidence of infection.
Seasonal influenza occurs every year and the viruses change each year - but many people have some immunity to the circulating virus which helps limit infections. Some countries also use seasonal influenza vaccines to reduce illness and deaths.
But influenza A(H1N1) is a new virus and one to which most people have no or little immunity and, therefore, this virus could cause more infections than are seen with seasonal flu.
The new influenza A(H1N1) appears to be as contagious as seasonal influenza, and is spreading fast particularly among young people (from ages 10 to 45).
The severity of the disease ranges from very mild symptoms to severe illnesses that can result in death.
It becomes sever in those who have weak immune systems.
Develop a family emergency plan as a precaution, include:
Storing a supply of food
Alcohol-based hand cleaners
Other essential supplies
For an emergency keep Hospital Or Ambulance numbers ready
For diagnosis of swine influenza A infection, respiratory specimen would generally need to be collected within the first 4 to 5 days of illness (when an infected person is most likely to be shedding virus). However, some persons, especially children, may shed virus for 10 days or longer. Sample Collection & Laboratory Diagnosis · Preferred respiratory samples Nasal, Nasopharyngeal & throat swab · Collection- on vaccine transport media · Availability- with area & regional coordinator · Storage of Samples : should be at 2-8⁰C until can be placed at -70⁰C. · Transportation of Samples : dry ice in triple packaging. All samples should be labeled clearly and include patient’s complete information · Laboratory biosafety measures should be followed for collections, storage, packaging and courier/ shipping of influenza samples. · Available Laboratory tests: - Rapid Antigen Tests: not as sensitive as other available tests. - RT-PCR, Virus isolation, Virus Genome Sequencing, Four-fold rise in swine influenza A (H1N1) virus specific neutralizing antibodies Diagnosis
Adults and children who are severely ill with H1N1 flu or at high risk of complications should be treated with antivirals like Tamiflu, the World Health Organization (WHO) said on Wednesday. But otherwise healthy people with mild flu-like symptoms need not be given the drugs to combat swine flu , it said. CDC Recommendation CDC recommends the use of oseltamivir or zanamivir for the treatment and/or prevention of infection with swine influenza viruses. Oseltamivir (brand name Tamiflu ®) is approved to both treat and prevent influenza A and B virus infection in people one year of age and older. Zanamivir (brand name Relenza ®) is approved to treat influenza A and B virus infection in people 7 years and older and to prevent influenza A and B virus infection in people 5 years and older. Treatment
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