Swine Flu By Dr Ajay Kumar


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Swine Flu By Dr Ajay Kumar

  1. 1. Swine Flu The Facts and How to Protect Yourself By DR AJAY KUMAR MS(std.) DARBHANGA a presentation to help you
  2. 2. What is Swine Flu ? <ul><li>A respiratory disease of pigs caused by type A Influenza viruses that cause regular outbreaks in pigs. </li></ul><ul><li>Influenza A, H1N1 swine flu is a new strain of the flu that moved from pigs to humans and can be transmitted from human to human. </li></ul><ul><li>This is a new influenza A(H1N1) virus that has never before circulated among humans. This virus is not related to previous or current human seasonal influenza viruses. </li></ul><ul><li>H1N1 so named for the composition of the proteins hemagglutinin (H) and neuraminidase (N) that form its viral coat. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Swine Flu <ul><li>swine influenza, </li></ul><ul><li>influenza A(H1N1), </li></ul><ul><li>hog flu , or </li></ul><ul><li>pig flu </li></ul>Is also called
  4. 4. Influenza A, H1N1 (swine flu) <ul><li>Swine flu is different from seasonal flu </li></ul><ul><li>because: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>It is a new strain of the virus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Humans do not have an immunity from it </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Although swine infuenza viruses are similar to the influenza viruses that circulate among humans, swine viruses possess unique antigens (molecules that stimulate an immune response, primarily through the production of antibodies ) </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. History <ul><li>Swine influenza was first proposed to be a disease related to human influenza during the 1918 flu pandemic </li></ul><ul><li>1976 U.S. outbreak </li></ul><ul><li>1988 zoonosis </li></ul><ul><li>1998 US outbreak in swine </li></ul><ul><li>In 1998, swine flu was found in pigs in four U.S. states. Within a year, it had spread through pig populations across the United States. </li></ul><ul><li>2007 Philippine outbreak in swine </li></ul><ul><li>2009 outbreak in humans </li></ul><ul><li>The H1N1 viral strain implicated in the 2009 flu pandemic among humans often is called &quot;swine flu&quot; because initial testing showed many of the genes in the virus were similar to influenza viruses normally occurring in North American swine.But further research has shown that the outbreak is due to a new strain of H1N1 not previously reported in pigs. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Map of H1 N1 Swine Flu
  7. 7. Present Swine Flu strains <ul><li>At this time, there are four main influenza type A virus subtypes that have been isolated in pigs: H1N1, H1N2, H3N2, and H3N1. </li></ul><ul><li>However, most of the recently isolated influenza viruses from pigs have been H1N1 viruses. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Pigs can harbour influenza viruses can be adapted to Humans
  9. 9. Swine Flu differs from Human Flu <ul><li>The H1N1 swine flu viruses are antigenically very different from human H1N1 viruses and, therefore, vaccines for human seasonal flu would not provide protection from H1N1 swine flu viruses </li></ul>
  10. 10. Out breaks among Pigs <ul><li>Outbreaks among pigs normally occur in colder weather months (late fall and winter) and sometimes with the introduction of new pigs into susceptible herds. Studies have shown that the swine flu H1N1 is common throughout pig populations worldwide, with 25 percent of animals showing antibody evidence of infection. </li></ul>
  11. 11. How Does It Spread? <ul><li>When people come into contact with infected pigs or contaminated objects moving between people and pigs. </li></ul><ul><li>Thought to be spread in the same way that seasonal flu spreads </li></ul><ul><li>Mainly from person to person when an infected person coughs or sneezes and spreads tiny particles into the air </li></ul><ul><li>Sometimes by touching something with flu viruses on it, and then touching the mouth, nose or eyes </li></ul>
  12. 12. What Can You Do to Protect Yourself and Others? Frequently wash your hands with soap and water for 15-20 seconds
  13. 13. What Can You Do to Protect Yourself and Others? <ul><li>Alcohol-based hand cleaners are OK </li></ul>
  14. 14. What Can You Do to Protect Yourself and Others? <ul><li>Cover your coughs and sneezes by coughing and sneezing into your arm, not your hands. </li></ul><ul><li>Or, sneeze into a tissue and discard it. </li></ul>
  15. 15. What Can You Do to Protect Yourself and Others? <ul><li>Avoid touching your nose, eyes and mouth </li></ul>
  16. 16. What Can You Do to Protect Yourself and Others? Try to avoid close contact with people who appear sick, and have a fever and cough
  17. 17. What Can You Do to Protect Yourself and Others? <ul><li>Stay home when you are sick </li></ul><ul><ul><li>If possible, stay home from work, school, and errands when you are sick. You will help prevent others from catching your illness. </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. What Can You Do to Protect Yourself and Others? <ul><li>If you are sick, stay home </li></ul><ul><li>During a pandemic, very high numbers of patients presenting to the health-care facility will necessitate home treatment,&quot; the WHO said. </li></ul><ul><li>If your child is ill, keep them home from school or childcare </li></ul><ul><li>Practice good health habits: get enough sleep, eat nutritious food, keep physically active </li></ul><ul><li>If you smoke, quit. </li></ul>
  19. 19. Why are we so worried ? <ul><li>Seasonal influenza occurs every year and the viruses change each year - but many people have some immunity to the circulating virus which helps limit infections. Some countries also use seasonal influenza vaccines to reduce illness and deaths. </li></ul><ul><li>But influenza A(H1N1) is a new virus and one to which most people have no or little immunity and, therefore, this virus could cause more infections than are seen with seasonal flu. </li></ul><ul><li>The new influenza A(H1N1) appears to be as contagious as seasonal influenza, and is spreading fast particularly among young people (from ages 10 to 45). </li></ul><ul><li>The severity of the disease ranges from very mild symptoms to severe illnesses that can result in death. </li></ul><ul><li>It becomes sever in those who have weak immune systems. </li></ul>
  20. 20. What are Signs and Symptoms of the Flu? <ul><li>Similar to symptoms of regular human flu: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fever, cough, sore throat, body aches, headache, chills and fatigue </li></ul></ul><ul><li>May include diarrhea and vomiting </li></ul><ul><li>May cause more serious symptoms in individuals with chronic medical conditions </li></ul><ul><li>Pneumonia, respiratory failure, and deaths have been reported. </li></ul>
  21. 22. How Long Can an Infected Person Spread it to Others? <ul><li>People are contagious as long as they have symptoms, and </li></ul><ul><li>up to 7 days after they become sick </li></ul><ul><li>Children, especially infants, may be contagious for longer periods </li></ul><ul><li>Viruses can live 2 hours or longer on surfaces like tables, desks, and doorknobs. </li></ul>
  22. 23. What To Do If You Get Sick ? <ul><li>If you have symptoms: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fever, body aches, runny nose, sore throat, nausea, or vomiting or diarrhea </li></ul></ul><ul><li>And you would typically see your health care provider, do so. </li></ul><ul><li>If you have these symptoms but would not normally see your health care provider, there is no need to do so </li></ul><ul><li>Stay home and avoid contact with others as much as possible </li></ul>
  23. 24. What To Do if Your Child is Sick ? <ul><li>If your child has these symptoms, seek immediate medical care: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fast breathing or trouble breathing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bluish skin color </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Not drinking enough fluids </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Not waking up or not interacting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Being so irritable that the child does not want to be held </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Flu-like symptoms improve but then return with fever and worse cough </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fever with a rash. </li></ul></ul>
  24. 25. What More Can You Do To Prepare? <ul><li>Develop a family emergency plan as a precaution, include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Storing a supply of food </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Medicines </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Facemasks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Alcohol-based hand cleaners </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Other essential supplies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>For an emergency keep Hospital Or Ambulance numbers ready </li></ul></ul>
  25. 26. For diagnosis of swine influenza A infection, respiratory specimen would generally need to be collected within the first 4 to 5 days of illness (when an infected person is most likely to be shedding virus). However, some persons, especially children, may shed virus for 10 days or longer. Sample Collection & Laboratory Diagnosis · Preferred respiratory samples Nasal, Nasopharyngeal & throat swab · Collection- on vaccine transport media · Availability- with area & regional coordinator · Storage of Samples : should be at 2-8⁰C until can be placed at -70⁰C. · Transportation of Samples : dry ice in triple packaging. All samples should be labeled clearly and include patient’s complete information · Laboratory biosafety measures should be followed for collections, storage, packaging and courier/ shipping of influenza samples. · Available Laboratory tests: - Rapid Antigen Tests: not as sensitive as other available tests. - RT-PCR, Virus isolation, Virus Genome Sequencing, Four-fold rise in swine influenza A (H1N1) virus specific neutralizing antibodies Diagnosis
  26. 27. Adults and children who are severely ill with H1N1 flu or at high risk of complications should be treated with antivirals like Tamiflu, the World Health Organization (WHO) said on Wednesday. But otherwise healthy people with mild flu-like symptoms need not be given the drugs to combat swine flu , it said. CDC Recommendation CDC recommends the use of oseltamivir or zanamivir for the treatment and/or prevention of infection with swine influenza viruses. Oseltamivir (brand name Tamiflu ®) is approved to both treat and prevent influenza A and B virus infection in people one year of age and older. Zanamivir (brand name Relenza ®) is approved to treat influenza A and B virus infection in people 7 years and older and to prevent influenza A and B virus infection in people 5 years and older. Treatment
  27. 28. “ Allow Your Own Inner Light to Guide You” THANK YOU