Lecture on Health and HygieneLecture on Health and HygieneBy Dr. Sabir hussainBy Dr. Sabir hussainMBBS, MRCPMBBS, MRCP
HealthHealthHealth is defined as beingHealth is defined as being"a state of complete"a state of completePhysicalPhysical,, MentalMental, and, andSocialSocial well-being and notwell-being and notmerely the absence ofmerely the absence ofdisease or infirmity".disease or infirmity".
HygieneHygieneHygiene is the practice of keeping theHygiene is the practice of keeping thebody clean to prevent infection andbody clean to prevent infection andillness, and the avoidance of contactillness, and the avoidance of contactwith infectious agents.with infectious agents.
Health careHealth careHealth care is the prevention,Health care is the prevention,treatment, and management oftreatment, and management ofillness and the preservation ofillness and the preservation ofmental and physical well beingmental and physical well beingthrough the services offered by thethrough the services offered by themedical, nursing, and allied healthmedical, nursing, and allied healthprofessions.professions.
Public healthPublic healthPublic health is "the science and art ofPublic health is "the science and art ofpreventing disease, prolonging life andpreventing disease, prolonging life andpromoting health through the organisedpromoting health through the organisedefforts and informed choices of society,efforts and informed choices of society,organizations, public and private,organizations, public and private,communities and individuals."communities and individuals."The focus of public health interventionThe focus of public health interventionis to prevent rather than treat a diseaseis to prevent rather than treat a diseasethrough surveillance of cases and thethrough surveillance of cases and thepromotion of healthy behaviors.promotion of healthy behaviors.
Health educationHealth educationHealth education can be defined asHealth education can be defined asthe principle by which individuals andthe principle by which individuals andgroups of people learn to behave in agroups of people learn to behave in amanner conducive to the promotion,manner conducive to the promotion,maintenance, or restoration ofmaintenance, or restoration ofhealth.health.
DiseaseDiseaseDis + Ease = AnyDis + Ease = Anycondition which causescondition which causesuneasinessuneasinessDisease = physiological/PsychologicalDisease = physiological/Psychologicaldysfunction.dysfunction.Illness= Subjective state of a person who feelsIllness= Subjective state of a person who feelsaware of being not well.aware of being not well.Sickness= A state of social dysfunction, i.e., aSickness= A state of social dysfunction, i.e., arole that the individual assumes when he is illrole that the individual assumes when he is ill(sickness role).(sickness role).
Causes of DiseasesCauses of DiseasesEpidemiological TriadEpidemiological TriadEnvironmentAgent Host
Causes of Diseases the AyurvedaCauses of Diseases the AyurvedaConceptConceptDosha TriadDosha TriadVataPitta Kaffa
Various Systems Of TreatmentVarious Systems Of TreatmentModren Medicine (Allopathy)Modren Medicine (Allopathy)Indian Medicine –Ayurveda and siddhaIndian Medicine –Ayurveda and siddhaSystemsSystemsChinese MedicineChinese MedicineEgyptian MedicineEgyptian MedicineMesopotamian MedicineMesopotamian MedicineGreek MedicineGreek MedicineRoman MedicineRoman MedicineHomeopathyHomeopathyAlternative MedicineAlternative Medicine
Types of DiseasesTypes of DiseasesAccording to Causes:According to Causes:Infective/ Communicative dideasesInfective/ Communicative dideasesNon Infective DiseasesNon Infective DiseasesLife style DiseasesLife style DiseasesDeficiency DiseasesDeficiency DiseasesHereditary DiseasesHereditary DiseasesGenetic DiseasesGenetic Diseases
CommunicableCommunicable DiseasesDiseasesSpread from one person toSpread from one person tootherotherCaused by GermsCaused by Germs
Mode Of spreadMode Of spreadAirAirWaterWaterSoilSoilClose contactClose contact
Mode Of SpreadMode Of SpreadFingersFingersFoodFoodFomitesFomites
Communicable Disease:Communicable Disease:Are Caused by GermsAre Caused by GermsGerms Spread throughGerms Spread throughAirAirWaterWaterSoilSoilClose ContactClose ContactVectorsVectors– House flyHouse fly– MosquitoMosquito– MammalsMammals– Bugs etcBugs etc
Communicable Deseases can beCommunicable Deseases can bePrevented byPrevented byMaintaining HygieneMaintaining HygieneWashing handsWashing handsBathingBathingUsing handkerchief while Coughing andUsing handkerchief while Coughing andsneezingsneezingNot spitting, Urinating, defecating in openNot spitting, Urinating, defecating in openUsing ToiletsUsing Toilets
Life style diseasesLife style diseasesThese are caused by our Changing HabitsThese are caused by our Changing Habitsof lifeof lifeMore in developed NationsMore in developed NationsIncreasing rapidly in IndiaIncreasing rapidly in IndiaThese areThese areHigh B.P.High B.P.DiabetesDiabetesHeart DiseasesHeart DiseasesStrokeStrokeObesityObesityCancersCancersAccidentsAccidents
Life style diseasesLife style diseasesCan be prevented byCan be prevented byRegular Exercise/ Physical workRegular Exercise/ Physical workEating vegetables and fibrous foodEating vegetables and fibrous foodBalanced DietBalanced DietNot SmokingNot SmokingNot drinking alcoholNot drinking alcoholLeading Tension free LifeLeading Tension free Life
Deficiency Diseases/ NutritionalDeficiency Diseases/ NutritionaldiseasesdiseasesCaused by deficiency of vitamins andCaused by deficiency of vitamins andminerals in the bodyminerals in the bodyCause - Poverty and ignoranceCause - Poverty and ignorancePEMPEMProtein MalnutritionProtein MalnutritionVitamin deficiencyVitamin deficiency– Vit. A –Night BlindnessVit. A –Night Blindness– Vit B deficiencyVit B deficiency– Vit C deficiencyVit C deficiency– Iron DeficiencyIron Deficiency
Health Care Facilities in UttrakhandHealth Care Facilities in UttrakhandGovt. Health systemGovt. Health systemPrivate Clinics and HospitalsPrivate Clinics and Hospitals
Govt. Health systemGovt. Health systemAt Village LevelAt Village LevelAshaAshaTrained DaiTrained DaiICDS- AnganvadiICDS- Anganvadi
Sub CenterSub CenterAt a population of 5000 in plains andAt a population of 5000 in plains and3000 population in hills3000 population in hillsFemale MPHWFemale MPHWAssisted by AshaAssisted by AshaTrained DaiTrained DaiFacilitiesFacilities– ImmunizationImmunization– RCHRCH– Institutional deliveriesInstitutional deliveries– Referral servicesReferral services
Primary Health CentrePrimary Health Centre1 for 30000 people in plains and for 200001 for 30000 people in plains and for 20000peoples in hills.peoples in hills.FacilitiesFacilitiesMedical CareMedical CareMCH and family PlanningMCH and family PlanningSafe water supply and basic sanitationSafe water supply and basic sanitationPrevention and control of Locally endemic diseasesPrevention and control of Locally endemic diseasesCollection of vital statisticsCollection of vital statisticsHealth educationHealth educationNational Health ProgramsNational Health ProgramsReferral servicesReferral servicesBasic Lab servicesBasic Lab services
CHCCHCOne in Each community BlockOne in Each community Block30 bedded hospital30 bedded hospitalSpecialist doctorsSpecialist doctorsX ray and Lab servicesX ray and Lab services
First aidFirst aidThe help given to a person beforThe help given to a person beforproper Medical aid is available to himproper Medical aid is available to himGiven mainly to accident victimsGiven mainly to accident victimsAccidentsAccidentsVehicle accidentsVehicle accidentsFall from heightFall from heightElectroductionElectroductionBurnBurnBitesBites
VaccinationVaccinationSome diseases can be prevented bySome diseases can be prevented byVaccinesVaccinesUIPUIP
NATIONAL IMMUNIZATIONNATIONAL IMMUNIZATIONSCHEDULESCHEDULEAge Vaccine Name Diseases PreventedAt Birth or within 48 Hrs Hepatitis B & Polio drops. Hepatitis B & Polio0-1 month B.C.G T.B. (Tuberculosis)1 & ½ month DPT, Polio, Hepatitis B Diphtheria, Whooping cough, Tetanus,Polio & Hepatitis B2 & ½ month DPT, Polio, Hepatitis B Diphtheria, Whooping cough, Tetanus,Polio3 & ½ month DPT, Polio, Hepatitis B Diphtheria, Whooping cough, Tetanus,Polio & Hepatitis B9-12 months Measles Measles15-18 months 9-12 months Measles, Mumps & Rubella16-24 months DPT, Polio(Booster dose) Diphtheria, Whooping cough, Tetanus& Polio5 Years DTDiphtheria & TetanusDT Diphtheria & Tetanus.For Pregnant womenAs Early as possible In pregnancyAfter 1 monthT.T.T.T.Tetanus
PregnancyPregnancyIt is not a disease but requires Medical CareIt is not a disease but requires Medical CareCovered in RCH programCovered in RCH programT.T. immunizationT.T. immunizationMinimum 4 visits to Health care centreMinimum 4 visits to Health care centre100 IFA Tablets100 IFA Tablets200 Calcium Tablets200 Calcium TabletsProper FoodProper FoodRest and tension free EnvironmentRest and tension free EnvironmentTimely detection of high risk casesTimely detection of high risk casesDelivery under supervisionDelivery under supervision
Pregnancy and Family supportPregnancy and Family supportEmotional SupportEmotional SupportPhysical supportPhysical supportMedical SupportMedical Support
Medical SupportMedical SupportT.T. InjectionsT.T. InjectionsIron and Folic acid tabletsIron and Folic acid tabletsCalcium TabletsCalcium TabletsRegular Attending Health ClinicRegular Attending Health ClinicWarning Signs Of Emergency:Warning Signs Of Emergency:
Warning Signs Of Emergency:Warning Signs Of Emergency:Uncontrolled VomitingUncontrolled VomitingBleeding P.V.Bleeding P.V.Pain in AbdomenPain in AbdomenSwelling on body and HeadacheSwelling on body and HeadacheNo baby movement for 6 hoursNo baby movement for 6 hoursConvulsionsConvulsionsLeaking P.V.Leaking P.V.Labor Pains for more than 6 hoursLabor Pains for more than 6 hours
Sexually Transmitted diseasesSexually Transmitted diseasesand AIDSand AIDSSpread from Person to personSpread from Person to personThrough sexual contactThrough sexual contactHigh risk – ppl. with multiple sexualHigh risk – ppl. with multiple sexualpartnerspartnersCan be preventedCan be preventedRemember SabakRemember Sabak