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Yr10 acids and bases

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  • Hcl and aluminium bomb Add bung rather than screw top?
  • Brainstorm understanding of acids (examples, what they do, how to test) fizz dissolve dangerous, dissolve metal, burn skin Name some in kitchen Vinegar, wine gone off, citric acid, batteries What taste sour H/O what do you know abt acid and base cut n paste Read aloud H/O acid burns Zn + HCl in test tube with balloon over the top, floats can be lit (pop test) Hindenberg
  • Demo 3 beakers add h20 pour into phenolpthaelin then base Mineral acids tend to be strong, donate lots H+ organic acids (carboxylic acids) are weak don’t fully dissociate Learn these names and formula you will be tested EXPT Fair test planning for carbonate missile
  • Lesson 2 Write bomb equation NaHCo3 + CH3CooH -> Ch3CooNa +H20 + CO2 Aim to work out how to make the canister fly furthest. Can alter the amount of acid and trajectory angle. How do you ensure fair test. Discussion. Expt film canister and bicarbonate explosions who can get the furthest, FAIR TEST angle of trajectory, amount acid
  • Lesson 3 Kids write from board “Acid and base are opposite one neutralises the other” Toothpaste neutralises acids formed by plaque bacteria, bee sting (formic acid baking soda neutralise) Bases which are soluble in water are called alkalis (feel soapy as they turn oils on hands into soap) EXPT make soap see H/O
  • Ammonia in household cleaners NH# forms NH4+ and oh- (hydroxide ion) in water NaOH in oven cleaner, drain cleaner (dissolves grease)
  • Lesson 4 How do we test? Demo invisible writing use phenol pthaelin spray with alkali “create a colour PH scale” Indicators are extracted from plants (lichen) Ph is a measure of the conc of H+ in solution Chemicals which change colour in the presence of acids or bases EXPT universal indicator create rainbow in teams of 3 (H/O) colour ph scale naoh strong alkali, nh3 may need to dilute with water Homework bring in flower to make indicator
  • Lesson 5/6 Demo frothing rainbow (KISS)?????????????????? Draw on board word equation Reactants --  Products, Acid + base ---  salt + water eg HCl + NaOH -  NaCl + H2O ALWAYS OBSERVE WHEN MIXING CHEMICALS SMELL< FIZZ< HEAT< COLOUR ETC EXPT H/O indicators worksheet work in groups (make own indicator) EXPT find Ph of everyday substances H/O WRITE UP CORRECTLY, conclusion BLUE ALKALI, RED ACID< GREEN NEUTRAL
  • Lesson 7 Write then do the experment Hcl + NaOH -> NACl + H2O 2HNO3 + 2K -> 2KNO3 +H2 (note fizzing) H2SO4 + CaCO3 -> CaSO4 + H2O + CO2 (note fizzing) STALAGMITE formation limestone caves Taj mahal H/O Acids and bases rules revision H/O Mix and match overview
  • Lesson 8/9 (show acid rain ppt? research their own) RECAP was water neutral Why not Co2 in air dissolves to form carbonic acid h2co3 DEMO Marble chips added to H2SO4 OBSERVE fizz = gas Other Minerals dissolved sulfur dioxide, from power stations volcanoes forms h2so4 and nitrogen dioxide NO2 from car exhausts ACID RAIN Acid rain H/O and reading( poss read science world pg 256) CREATE POSTER causes of acid rain, chemical reaction involved, effect on buildings, plants , fish , humans include pictures, (might want flow diagram, mind map etc) PRESENT back to class
  • Lesson 10 Mg + H2SO4 Zn + HCl pop test CaCO3 + HCl co2 MnO2 + H2O2 O2 kmn04 heated H/O Quiz
  • Mg + H2SO4 pop test CaCO3 + HCl co2 MnO2 + H2O2 O2 H/O Quiz
  • Mg + H2SO4 pop test CaCO3 + HCl co2 MnO2 + H2O2 O2 H/O Quiz
  • Mg + H2SO4 pop test CaCO3 + HCl co2 MnO2 + H2O2 O2 Kids need to have summary of the tests H/O Quiz
  • Lesson 11/12 Gastro Eosophageal Reflux disease Based on what you have learnt how do they work Stomach HCl, antacids are bases so neutralise Interact with drugs which are pH dependent Antifungal concentrations increased in presence of antacid – potential problems? EXPT Science world pg 255 find which is most effective g per g, extension cost per g data, which is the best value for money Create table on board for them to copy H/O NCEA style 1 questions H/O equations lots of practise word equations to formula equations balancing equations for excellerant
  • Lesson 13 or 18 if extras are added H/O Unknown chemicals Work in groups to identify 4 solutions SAFETY no taste/smell Write up correctly
  • Extra Lesson? Reactions take place when particles collide, increase rate need to increase the amount of particles or how fast they are moving to increase the likelihood of a collission Video solid/ ribbons/powder Carbonate bombs more H+ available to react EXPT 1cm mg ribbon in 5ml acid 10C, 20C, 30C, 40C water bath (temp) PLOT GRAPH what time would it take 1cm piece to react at 70C And 2,4,6,8 cm ribbon surface area? H/O expt rate of reaction
  • Students work in groups Draw diagram on board explaining what they do They repeat instructions
  • Record the colour Decide whether substance is acid or base Make a traffic light Write up experiment
  • Recap last lesson we looked at acids reacting with various powders What results did yo get We need to write the experiment up correctly Conclusion Students write up the experiment
  • Acetic acid = vinegar Science is about experimenting, observing and correctly writing your results What are some of the things which might happen use all your sences (dissolve, fizz, heat, smell, colour change)
  • Acids can react with metals When we design an experiment we must make it fair Add metal to acids to see which is most reactive what de we need to ensure is the same. Amount of acid amount of metal, same form powder, ribbon, lump Click picture to open video Observe what happens as he adds metal to acid in each container (write it down)
  • Students work in groups Draw diagram on board explaining what they do They repeat instructions
  • Draw a results table like this then begin experiment Report any breakages, wear safeyt goggles Hands up if you need help
  • Recap last lesson we looked at acids reacting with various powders What results did yo get We need to write the experiment up correctly JIGSAW of write up instructions complete in groups Conclusion “ Some substances are able to dissolve completely and form a solution. Eg salt and water sugar and water Others will not dissolve eg flour and water” Students write up the experiment
  • Think of a kettle
  • Students work in groups Draw diagram on board explaining what they do They repeat instructions Results salt solution bubbles, liquid disappeared, salt left behind Conclusion Solution of salt and water is separated by evaporation
  • What results did you get – liquid bubbled, steam, left with salt white pwder Conclusion “ The water in the solution was heated until it turned to steam and evaporated. The salt could not be evaporated and so it was left behind” Students write up the experiment
  • Glucose is an important sugar for most forms of life Describe how we could test food and drink to see if glucose is present – crush food add to water, in test tube, add few drops Benedicts, heat, record results Write up the METHOD as the kids describe Create results table Teacher Perform experiment Students write up
  • Privide H/O Telling the difference between 4 powders Recap vinegar (acid) react with a base fizzes (baking soda) Water dissolves (soluble or insoluble) evaporation (salt) Benedicts (glucose present)(Starch) BRING papers to me and I’ll check Perform the experiment
  • Transcript

    • 1. Acids and Bases Year 10
    • 2. Chemistry Study of Chemicals and how they react Everything is made of chemicals They are made of elements. There are over 100 elements
    • 3. What are Acids? Acids are common Some are dangerous and can burn your skin Some are safe to eat and drink Stomach acid helps digest food explosion
    • 4. Acids Definition • A group of compounds which behave similarly • All have low pH • Turn Litmus paper RED • All donate H+ ions in aqueous solution Examples • Hydrochloric HCl • Sulfuric H2SO4 • Nitric HNO3 • Ethanoic CH3COOH
    • 5. Acids A dilute acid has lots of water and a small amount of acid A concentrated acid has lots of acid and not much water so must be handled carefully A strong acid releases lots of H+ A weak acid releases fewer H+
    • 6. What are Bases (Alkalis)? In our home we often use bases to clean things. Eg Bleach and toothpaste Some things are not acids or bases, we say that they are neutral. Eg Water
    • 7. Bases Definition • A family of compounds that behave similarly • Have a high pH • Turn litmus BLUE • All donate OH- Examples • Ammonia NH3 • Sodium Hydroxide NaOH
    • 8. Measuring acid strength? To decide if something is an acid or a base we can use an indicator. Litmus and Universal Indicator are examples of indicators. They change colour depending on if they are in an acid or a base.
    • 9. Working with Indicators Red litmus turns BLUE in the presence of Bases Blue litmus turns RED in the presence of acid Acids and bases react together in a NEUTRALISATION reaction
    • 10. Acid Reactions Acid + Base  Salt + Water Acid + Metal  Salt + Hydrogen Acid + Carbonate  Salt + Water + Carbon Dioxide • Hydrochloric acids (HCl) form CHLORIDE salts • Nitric acid (HNO3) forms NITRATE salts • Sulfuric acid (H2SO4) forms SULFATE salts
    • 11. Acid Rain Consider • Causes  natural  human • Effects  buildings  flora  fauna  health • Chemical equations • Prevention/Solution
    • 12. Testing Gases Hydrogen -
    • 13. Testing Gases Hydrogen - POP TEST • Explodes with a squeaky pop Carbon Dioxide –
    • 14. Testing Gases Hydrogen - POP TEST • Explodes with a squeaky pop Carbon Dioxide – Limewater goes cloudy Oxygen –
    • 15. Testing Gases Hydrogen - POP TEST • Explodes with a squeaky pop Carbon Dioxide – Limewater goes cloudy Oxygen – Relights a glowing splint
    • 16. Antacid Investigation NZ facts 2007 • 70% population get heartburn /GERD • $9m on 1 brand! • 3rd most widely prescribed medicine Which brand is the best?
    • 17. Identify Unknown Solutions
    • 18. Rates of Reaction Factors increasing the rate of reaction • Surface area • Concentration • Temperature • Catalyst/Enzyme • Pressure
    • 19. Metals/periodic table , Element, compound, exo/endo
    • 20. Method1. Collect the 4 substances to be tested2. Place a drop of the first substance in the spotting tile3. Test the substance with a drop of universal indicator4. Record the result5. Repeat steps 1-4 with the remaining 3 substances
    • 21. ResultsSubstance Universal indicator colourHydrochloric acidAmmoniaWaterSodium Hydroxide
    • 22. Experiment write up Title Working with Indicators Aim To find out what happens when…. Method As previous slide, short bullet point Diagram Half page, labels, straight lines Results Draw your table Conclusion Write about what you learnt from the experiment. “Universal indicator turns blue in bases, red in acids and green when solutions are neutral. …was a base because it turned blue when we added indicator. …. Was an acid as it turned red when we added indicator. …. Was neutral as it turned green when we added indicator”
    • 23. Investigate an Acid Vinegar is an acid Add some powders to vinegar and OBSERVE what happens • Dissolve – powder is soluble • Doesn’t dissolve – powder is insoluble • Fizzing – reaction is occurring gas given off • Heat – does it get hot or not • Smell – gas given off • Colour change
    • 24. Experiment time!
    • 25. Method1. Collect 5 test tubes in a test tube rack2. Put 1 spatula of either sugar, salt, baking soda, flour, washing powder into each test tube3. Collect vinegar in a 50ml beaker4. Add 5ml vinegar to a test tube and observe what happens5. Record results in a table6. Repeat step 4 and 5 until all test tubes are tested
    • 26. ResultsSubstance Observations (Dissolves, fizzes, smells etc.)SugarSaltEtc.
    • 27. Experiment write up Title Reactions with Acid Aim To find out what happens when…. Method As previous slide, short bullet point Diagram Half page, labels, straight lines Results Draw your table Conclusion Write about what you learnt from the experiment. “Some substances are able to dissolve completely and form a solution. Others will not dissolve and are insoluble.”
    • 28. Acid Extension Test series of fruit juices with indicator Which has most acid Rot teeth Write up
    • 29. Investigating Evaporation When water is heated it turns from a liquid into a gas (steam) This is called evaporation Some things dissolved in the water will be left behind when the water is heated Evaporation can be used to separate some solutions
    • 30. Method1. Place 2g of salt and 10ml of warm water into a test tube2. Place thumb over the top and shake to dissolve.3. Pour 5ml of the salt solution into an evaporating dish4. Light the Bunsen and turn to a blue flame5. Heat the mixture until almost all the water has disappeared.6. Observe and record what happens
    • 31. Experiment write up Title Investigating Evaporation Aim To find out what happens when…. Method Short bullet points Diagram Half page, labels, straight lines Results Describe what happend Conclusion Write about what you learnt from the experiment.
    • 32. Testing for Glucose Glucose is a sugar Benedict’s solution is used to test for glucose Add Benedict’s to the sample and heat, it turns ORANGE if glucose is present
    • 33. Forensic Scientists Police often need scientists to help determine the cause of death This person died holding 4 bags of white powder (salt, glucose, starch, baking soda) You must investigate the substances and identify what they are
    • 34. Design your Experiment You have: • Vinegar • Water • Benedict’s solution
    • 35. Unknown Solutions You have been given four solutions (glucose, salt, baking soda and vinegar) The labels have fallen off! Design an experiment which will allow you to identify the solutions • Evaporation • Benedict’s • Universal indicator • Water