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Acids, Bases and Salts (Chemistry 'O' level)

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Chemistry 'O' level syllabus: Acids, Bases & Salts

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Acids, Bases and Salts (Chemistry 'O' level)

  1. 1. ACIDS, BASES & SALTS PREPARED BY: FAIZ ABDULLAH
  2. 2. ACIDS Properties Definition Common acids Reactions Weak Vs. Strong
  3. 3. DEFINITION A compound which produces hydrogen ions, H+, when dissolved in water Acid + H2O  H+
  4. 4. STRONG VS WEAK ACIDS Strong acids IONIZED COMPLETELY in water Weak acids IONIZED PARTIALLY in water HCl water H+ H+ H+Cl- Cl- Cl- Strong Acid Dissociate completely
  5. 5. WEAK ACIDS water CH3COOH CH3COOH CH3COOH H+ H+ CH3COO- CH3COO- Weak acid does Not dissociate completely Ada CH3COOH Masih tetinggal
  6. 6. COMMON ACIDS HCl H2SO4 HNO3 CH3COOH Sulfuric Acid Nitric Acid Ethanoic Acid Hydrochloric Acid
  7. 7. PROPERTIES Taste: Sour taste Litmus paper: Blue Red
  8. 8. REACTIONS OF DILUTE ACIDS 1. Some METALS to give SALT and HYDROGEN gas Zn + 2HCL  ZnCl2 + H2 2. Bases to give SALT and WATER only 2NaOH + H2SO4 Na2SO4 + H2O 3. Carbonates and hydrogencarbonates (insoluble or soluble) to give salt, water and CO2 gas CaCO3 + 2HCl  CaCl2 + H2O + CO2
  9. 9. IONS THAT ARE PRODUCED! ACIDS BASES H+ OH-
  10. 10. BASES Properties Definition Common bases Reactions Weak Vs. Strong
  11. 11. DEFINITION Substance which reacts with an acid to form salt and water only NEUTRALIZATION ACIDS + BASE  SALT + WATER
  12. 12. REACTIONS 1) Reacts with acids to produce salt and water only 2) Ammonium salts to produce AMMONIA NaOH + NH4Cl  NaCl + NH3 + H2O AMMONIA
  13. 13. COMMON BASES CaO MgO CuO NaOH NH3 Copper(II) Oxide Calcium Oxide Magnesium Oxide Ammonia Sodium Hydroxide
  14. 14. THEN, WHAT IS AN ALKALI Alkali are BASES THAT ARE SOLUBLE IN WATER BASES Soluble in water Insoluble in water ALKALI
  15. 15. ALKALI PROPERTIES Slippery Turns Litmus paper: Red Blue Produces OH- when dissolved in water
  16. 16. DISSOCIATION EXAMPLES (REMEMBER) Alkali when dissolved in water NaOH OH- + Na+ NaOH water Na+ Na+ Na+ OH- OH- OH-
  17. 17. WHAT IF WE TRY TO DISSOLVE AMMONIA GAS? NH3 + H2O  NH4 + + OH- Do not forget OH-
  18. 18. AGAIN, WHAT IS A WEAK ALKALI? Weak Alkali when dissolved in water NH3 + H2O NH4 + + OH- NH3 water OH- OH- NH4 + NH4 + NH3
  19. 19. NEUTRALIZATION In neutralization, the H+ from the ACID and the OH- from the Alkali react to form water H+ + OH-  H2O Energy Energy is being released: EXOTHERMIC
  20. 20. OXIDES ACIDIC OXIDES- OXIDES THAT ARE ACIDIC BASIC OXIDES- OXIDES THAT ARE BASIC AMPHOTERIC OXIDES- OXIDES THAT ARE ACIDIC AND BASIC
  21. 21. EXAMPLES OF OXIDES BASIC ACIDIC Na2O CaO Fe2O3 CO2 SO2 P4O10 Amphoteric Al2O3 ZnO H2O CO, NO Neutral
  22. 22. INDICATORS Substances that change COLORS in acidic and alkaline solutions Litmus indicator Red Blue Acids Bases Phenolphthalein Colorless Red/Pink Acids Base These are used in TITRATION
  23. 23. PH SCALE pH is a number to show how acidic or alkaline a solution is 0 14 Super acidic 31 6 7 13108 Very acidic Becoming Less acidic Very Little acidity neutral Very Less alkaline Getting Less basic Super basic Very basic
  24. 24. EXAMPLES OF NEUTRAL SOLUTION • Pure Water • NaCl solution • Most soluble salts • Ethanol solution (not ethanoic acid)
  25. 25. APPLICATION: PH IN SOIL Soil Most plants grow well almost neutral Plants grow poorly in very high Or very low pH Soil can become too acidic because: • Excessive use of chemical fertilizers • Acid rain from air pollution by sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides How to fix an acidic soil?
  26. 26. SALTS A salt is obtained from an acid when the H+ is replaced by metal ion or ammonium ion H Cl Acid Na Salt
  27. 27. SOLUBILITY OF SALTS: MEMORIZE THIS PLEASE Type of salts Soluble Insoluble Carbonates (NH4)2CO3 Na2CO3 K2CO3 All the rest Chlorides All the rest PbCl2 AgCl Nitrates All - Sulfates All the rest BaSO4 PbSO4 (CaSO4 is slightly soluble)
  28. 28. PRACTICE Soluble Insoluble K2SO4 Na2CO3 KNO3 Pb(NO3)2 BaSO4 CuSO4 BaCO3 AgCl
  29. 29. HOW DO WE PREPARE SALTS???
  30. 30. CASE 1: I WANT TO MAKE AN INSOLUBLE SALT, PBCL2 (SOLID) Step 1: think where PbCl2 comes from: Pb Cl2 Pb2+ Cl- An aqueous solution (soluble) Pb(NO3)3 An aqueous solution (soluble) NaCl Step: 2 Precipitation reaction Pb(NO3)2(aq) + NaCl(aq)  NaNO3(aq) + PbCl2(s)Soluble SolubleSoluble Insoluble
  31. 31. ILLUSTRATION water Pb(NO3)2 solution NaCl solution Pb2+ NO3 - Na+ Cl- Na+ Na+ NO3 - NO3 - NO3 - PbCl2 solid
  32. 32. GETTING THE SALT HOW? We have solid in a liquid Na+ Na+ NO3 - NO3 - NO3 - PbCl2 solid FILTRATION
  33. 33. THIS IS HOW YOU GET PBCL2
  34. 34. CASE 2: SOLUBLE SALTS • 1. acid + excess metal/insoluble metal oxide/carbonate • 2. acid+ alkali
  35. 35. HOW TO PREPARE SALTS START Is the salt soluble? NO YES React acid with metal/alkali/metal oxide/metal carbonate Product soluble? YESNO Mix acid with excess metal/ metal oxide/metal carbonate
  36. 36. WORK THIS OUT: I WANT TO MAKE COPPER SULFATE
  37. 37. IONIC EQUATION FAIZ, DO IT ON THE BOARD

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