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Demography
Demography
Demography
Demography
Demography
Demography
Demography
Demography
Demography
Demography
Demography
Demography
Demography
Demography
Demography
Demography
Demography
Demography
Demography
Demography
Demography
Demography
Demography
Demography
Demography
Demography
Demography
Demography
Demography
Demography
Demography
Demography
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Demography

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  • 1. A.Janani III yr MBBS
  • 2. Contents Introduction Demographic cycle Population trends  World  India Demographic indicators Vital events Urbanization Population explosion
  • 3. Demos – population Graphy – study  It is the study of human population in a given area during a given year.  It focuses on 3 observable phenomenon  changes in population size  composition of population  distribution of population in space  Demographic processes Introduction
  • 4. Demographic cycle
  • 5. Demography of India  Second to China  7th in land area-2.4% of world’s land area  16.87% world’s population  1921- big divide  Rate of population increase - 16 million each year  11th May 2000 – crossed 1 billion  1.53 billion by 2050 – 10 billion
  • 6. Demographic indicators  Two parts:  Population statistics  Vital statistics  Main sources: Censuses, National Sample surveys, Registration of vital events and ad hoc demographic studies
  • 7. Population statistics  Age and sex composition  Age pyramid  Sex ratio  Dependency ratio  Density of population
  • 8. Age and sex composition  0-14 years: 28.5%  15-24 years: 18.1%  25-54 years: 40.6%  55-64 years: 5.8%  65 years and over: 5.7%  0-14 yrs male > females by 1.1% rural areas(33.7%) , shows decline  60+ female > male by 0.7%
  • 9. Age pyramids
  • 10. Sex ratio  Number of females/ 1000 males, adverse to women  Differentials affecting sex ratio:  Mortality conditions of males and females  Sex selection migration  Sex ratio at birth – affected by sex selectivity at birth
  • 11. Dependency ratio  Persons above 65 yrs of age and children below 15 yrs  Total or societal dependency ratio= Children 0 – 14 yrs + population >65yrs X 100 Population of 15 to 64yrs  Crude ratio  Total dependency ratio: 61.1%  Young dependency ratio: 53.1%  Old dependency ratio: 8.02%
  • 12.  Demographic bonus: dependency ratio declines because of decline in fertility, until it starts to rise again because of longevity  Demographic burden: used to indicate that increase in total dependency ratio during any period of time is mostly caused by increase in old age dependency ratio  Consequence of demographic transition  Problem sooner or later
  • 13. Density of population  Important index of population concentration  Ratio between population and surface area  Indian census – number of persons living per square kilometer  345/ sq. km (2005)
  • 14. Vital statistics  Birth rates  Death rates  Growth rate  Life expectancy  Fertility rates
  • 15. Birth rate  20.97/ 1000 population  Changes in government attitudes towards growth  Spread of education  Increased availability of contraception  Extension of services offered through family planning  Change in marriage pattern
  • 16. Death rate  7.4/1000 population  Improvement in maternal and child health services  Implementation of expanded program on immunization, diarrheal disease and acute resp. infections
  • 17. Growth rate  Crude birth rate – crude death rate= annual growth rate  Control factors:  Age distribution  Marriage customs  Cultural, social, economic factors  India: 1.25%
  • 18. Rating Annual rate of growth% Stationary No growth Slow growth <0.5 Moderate growth 0.5-1.0 Rapid growth 1.0-1.5 Very rapid growth 1.5-2.0 Explosive growth 2.0-2.5<
  • 19. Family size  Total number of children a woman has borne at a given point of time  Completed family size: total number of children borne by a woman during her child bearing age  Depends on factors like: duration of marriage, education of couple, no. of live births and living children, preference for male child, desired family size etc.  Net Reproductive rate = 2.6 (2008)  Long term demographic goal – NRR = 1  Two child norm
  • 20. Literacy and Education  Crude literacy rate = no. of literates in the population X 100 total population  Literacy rate - 74% ( male - 82% ; female - 65.5% )  Highest – Kerala (94%)  Lowest – Bihar (49%)
  • 21. Life expectancy  Average number of years a person is expected to live  Male – 63 years ; Female – 64.2 years  Highest – Japan (80 years)  Least – Zambia (33 years)
  • 22. Urbanization  Number of persons residing in urban localities  Urban locality: towns having 5000 or more inhabitants, density not less than 390/sq. km, pronounced urban characteristics and at least ¾ of adult male employed in pursuits other than agriculture  Urban population: 31.16% (2011)
  • 23.  Increase in urban population due to:  Natural growth  Migration from rural areas
  • 24. Population Explosion  When the growth of the population is so much that the natural resources are unable to support and provide the basic needs.  The world population is growing at a rate of 200 per min/ 10000 per hr.  Reasons for population explosion:  high birth rate  low death rate
  • 25.  Hazards:  Physical  Psychological  Social  Antisocial activities  Miscellaneous
  • 26. Thank you

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