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Transcript

  • 1. A.Janani III yr MBBS
  • 2. Contents Introduction Demographic cycle Population trends  World  India Demographic indicators Vital events Urbanization Population explosion
  • 3. Demos – population Graphy – study  It is the study of human population in a given area during a given year.  It focuses on 3 observable phenomenon  changes in population size  composition of population  distribution of population in space  Demographic processes Introduction
  • 4. Demographic cycle
  • 5. Demography of India  Second to China  7th in land area-2.4% of world’s land area  16.87% world’s population  1921- big divide  Rate of population increase - 16 million each year  11th May 2000 – crossed 1 billion  1.53 billion by 2050 – 10 billion
  • 6. Demographic indicators  Two parts:  Population statistics  Vital statistics  Main sources: Censuses, National Sample surveys, Registration of vital events and ad hoc demographic studies
  • 7. Population statistics  Age and sex composition  Age pyramid  Sex ratio  Dependency ratio  Density of population
  • 8. Age and sex composition  0-14 years: 28.5%  15-24 years: 18.1%  25-54 years: 40.6%  55-64 years: 5.8%  65 years and over: 5.7%  0-14 yrs male > females by 1.1% rural areas(33.7%) , shows decline  60+ female > male by 0.7%
  • 9. Age pyramids
  • 10. Sex ratio  Number of females/ 1000 males, adverse to women  Differentials affecting sex ratio:  Mortality conditions of males and females  Sex selection migration  Sex ratio at birth – affected by sex selectivity at birth
  • 11. Dependency ratio  Persons above 65 yrs of age and children below 15 yrs  Total or societal dependency ratio= Children 0 – 14 yrs + population >65yrs X 100 Population of 15 to 64yrs  Crude ratio  Total dependency ratio: 61.1%  Young dependency ratio: 53.1%  Old dependency ratio: 8.02%
  • 12.  Demographic bonus: dependency ratio declines because of decline in fertility, until it starts to rise again because of longevity  Demographic burden: used to indicate that increase in total dependency ratio during any period of time is mostly caused by increase in old age dependency ratio  Consequence of demographic transition  Problem sooner or later
  • 13. Density of population  Important index of population concentration  Ratio between population and surface area  Indian census – number of persons living per square kilometer  345/ sq. km (2005)
  • 14. Vital statistics  Birth rates  Death rates  Growth rate  Life expectancy  Fertility rates
  • 15. Birth rate  20.97/ 1000 population  Changes in government attitudes towards growth  Spread of education  Increased availability of contraception  Extension of services offered through family planning  Change in marriage pattern
  • 16. Death rate  7.4/1000 population  Improvement in maternal and child health services  Implementation of expanded program on immunization, diarrheal disease and acute resp. infections
  • 17. Growth rate  Crude birth rate – crude death rate= annual growth rate  Control factors:  Age distribution  Marriage customs  Cultural, social, economic factors  India: 1.25%
  • 18. Rating Annual rate of growth% Stationary No growth Slow growth <0.5 Moderate growth 0.5-1.0 Rapid growth 1.0-1.5 Very rapid growth 1.5-2.0 Explosive growth 2.0-2.5<
  • 19. Family size  Total number of children a woman has borne at a given point of time  Completed family size: total number of children borne by a woman during her child bearing age  Depends on factors like: duration of marriage, education of couple, no. of live births and living children, preference for male child, desired family size etc.  Net Reproductive rate = 2.6 (2008)  Long term demographic goal – NRR = 1  Two child norm
  • 20. Literacy and Education  Crude literacy rate = no. of literates in the population X 100 total population  Literacy rate - 74% ( male - 82% ; female - 65.5% )  Highest – Kerala (94%)  Lowest – Bihar (49%)
  • 21. Life expectancy  Average number of years a person is expected to live  Male – 63 years ; Female – 64.2 years  Highest – Japan (80 years)  Least – Zambia (33 years)
  • 22. Urbanization  Number of persons residing in urban localities  Urban locality: towns having 5000 or more inhabitants, density not less than 390/sq. km, pronounced urban characteristics and at least ¾ of adult male employed in pursuits other than agriculture  Urban population: 31.16% (2011)
  • 23.  Increase in urban population due to:  Natural growth  Migration from rural areas
  • 24. Population Explosion  When the growth of the population is so much that the natural resources are unable to support and provide the basic needs.  The world population is growing at a rate of 200 per min/ 10000 per hr.  Reasons for population explosion:  high birth rate  low death rate
  • 25.  Hazards:  Physical  Psychological  Social  Antisocial activities  Miscellaneous
  • 26. Thank you