Your SlideShare is downloading. ×
Ppt chapter 8
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5

Thanks for flagging this SlideShare!

Oops! An error has occurred.


Saving this for later?

Get the SlideShare app to save on your phone or tablet. Read anywhere, anytime - even offline.

Text the download link to your phone

Standard text messaging rates apply

Ppt chapter 8


Published on

1 Like
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Total Views
On Slideshare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

Report content
Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

No notes for slide


  • 1. Chapter 8 Parole: Early Release and ReentryMcGraw-Hill/Irwin © 2013 McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights Reserved.
  • 2. Parole The conditional release of a prisoner, prior to completion of the imposed sentence, under the supervision of a parole officer Discretionary Release : Early release based on the paroling authority’s assessment of eligibility Mandatory Release: Early release after a time period specified by law Pardon: An executive act that removes both punishment and guilt Reprieve: An executive act that reduces the severity of punishment but the person remains guilty 8-2
  • 3. History Of Parole Rooted in 18th-century English penal practice of indentured servitude From 1775 through 1856 English offenders were sent to Australia  Norfolk Island Captain Alexander Maconochie developed the “ticket-of-leave” system Crofton’s conditional release system, 1854 Dr. S.G. Howe of Boston first coined the term parole in 1846 8-3
  • 4. Development Of American Parole First parole legislation: Massachusetts, 1837 First parole program implemented at New York’s Elmira Reformatory, late 1870s  Zebulon Brockway In 1931, the Wickersham Commission listed four “essential elements” of a good parole program In the 1970s, research found that prison rehabilitation programs had few positive benefits Presently, there is increasing support for the abolition of parole while others advocate reform 8-4
  • 5. The Wickersham Commission The Commission’s 1931 report cited four “essential elements” of good parole systems:  Indeterminate sentencing laws  Quality release preparation  Parole officer’s familiarization with offender’s home and environmental conditions before offender’s release  Sufficient staffing levels 8-5
  • 6. Reentry The process of transition that offenders make from prison or jail to the community Estimates are that nearly 2,000 offenders leave prison every day and 2 out of every 3 are rearrested within 3 years of their release 30 percent are arrested within the first six months. 8-6
  • 7. Reentry Responses to technical violations: Violators of probation and parole represent the fastest-growing category of admissions to jail and prison, one-third nationally, and 60 to 70 percent in some states such as California. 8-7
  • 8. Reentry President Bush’s Second Chance Act of 2008 Council of State Governments’ The Report of the Re-Entry Policy Council Reentry issues for women Parole eligibility date - The earliest date on which an inmate might be paroled 8-8
  • 9. Granting Parole Paroling authority - A person or correctional agency (often called a parole board or parole commission) that has the authority to grant parole, revoke parole, and discharge from parole Most important factors in the decision to grant or deny parole are the nature of the offense and the prior criminal record Salient factor score - Scale developed from a risk-screening instrument used to predict parole outcome 8-9
  • 10. Types Of Parole Mandatory Parole - requires the correctional authority to grant parole after the inmate serves a specific period of time, as required by law  Occurs in jurisdictions using determinate sentencing  Most commonly used method Discretionary Parole – the decision to parole rests with a parole board or parole commission who reviews a case to determine whether they believe the prisoner is ready to be returned to the community  Occurs in jurisdictions using indeterminate sentencing 8-10
  • 11. Characteristics of Parolees Almost 2,000 prisoners each day leave prison. About one in five leaves prison with no post release supervision because of changes in sentencing legislation that allow some prisoners to “max out” (serve their full sentences) and leave prison with no post custody supervision as discussed previously. On January 1, 2010, 819,308 American adults were on parole, down 5,526 from one year earlier and the second year in a row that the nation’s parole population declined. 8-11
  • 12. Characteristics of Parolees Parolee – A person who is conditionally released from prison to community supervision Women make up 12% of parolees Typically white, non-Hispanic male on mandatory parole and under active parole supervision for more than one year Median age of a parolee is 34 with an 11th grade education 8-12
  • 13. Does Parole Work?Fifty percent of adults leaving parole in1990 were successful. In 2000, the ratedipped to 43 percent.First-time mandatory parole releases hada higher success rate than did first-timediscretionary parole board releases butresearchers found the opposite for re –releases. 8-13
  • 14. Does Parole Work? Rates of relapse and recidivism are high, especially in the vulnerable period immediately following release. In fact, two- thirds of all parolees are rearrested within three years, 30 percent within the first six months of release. 8-14
  • 15. Does Parole Work? The number of parole violators returned to prison continues to increase. Of the nearly 552,611 adults who exited parole in 2009, 185,550 (34 percent) were returned to prison either with a new sentence (26 percent) or revocation (71 percent) or to receive treatment (less than 1 percent), up from 27,177 in 1980 and 160,000 in 1995. The numbers are so high that parole failures account for a growing proportion of all new prison admissions. 8-15
  • 16. Does Parole Work? California had the largest number of adults on parole, followed by Texas and Pennsylvania. Pennsylvania also had the highest rate of parole supervision, which means it used parole more than any other state 8-16
  • 17. Can Parolees Vote? 5.3 million people in the U.S. have lost their right to vote as a result of a felony conviction (disenfranchisement) Only Maine and Vermont do not place any restrictions on the rights of felons (including prisoners) to vote 8-17
  • 18. Arguments for and against felon disenfranchisement  For:  As a matter of principle because offender committed a felony  States have the right to deny as added punishment  Sends a message about respect for the law, and acts as a deterrent to crime  Felons cannot be trusted to make politically informed decisions 8-18
  • 19. Arguments for and against felondisenfranchisement - Continued Against:  Voting is not a privilege but a right  Such laws are unfair to minorities who are treated unfairly by the criminal justice system  Not an effective form of punishment; most felons did not vote before their incarceration  Removing the right to vote is inconsistent with reentry  By taking this right from one group, which group is next? 8-19
  • 20. Reentry Court Manages the return to the community of individuals released from prison U.S. Department of Justice proposes reentry courts have six core elements:  Assessment and planning  Active judicial oversight  Case management of support services  Accountability to the community  Graduated sanctions  Rewarding success 8-20
  • 21. Community Partnership Councils All sectors of society meet with parole staff to:  learn about parole operations and issues  share what they learned with their communities  generate positive publicity for parole A survey of Community Partnership Council parole officers in Texas reported the need for more treatment resources and job assistance from the community to help their parolees. They said this need may be served by Community Partnership Councils. 8-21
  • 22. Reintegration of Offenders Challenges facing parolees are employment readiness, substance abuse treatment, housing, and health care Four successful programs across the U.S. that offer life skills training and job preparation before inmates are released and job placement, social support, and follow-up assistance after release  Chicago’s Safer Foundation  Center for Employment Opportunities  Reintegration of Offenders  Corrections Clearinghouse 8-22
  • 23. Reintegration Involving Victims  Victims can assist parole boards by providing relevant information, offering their experience and expertise, and encouraging offender accountability. 8-23
  • 24. Abolition of Discretionary Parole Board Release Opposition to parole in the 1930s resurfaced again in the 1970s with the introduction of “just deserts.” Sixteen states and the federal government have abolished discretionary parole board release from prison by a parole board for all offenders. Four states have abolished discretionary parole release for certain violent offenses or other crimes against a person. Reasons for abolition include: wide disparity, appears tough on crime, board’s closed decision-making, and rhetoric that parole was the cause of the rising crime problem 8-24
  • 25. Prisoner Reentry and Community Policing The fourfold increase in the number of persons being released each year from state and federal prisons over the past two decades In spite of all the efforts being made at prisoner reform, offenders are still leaving prison unprepared for successful reentry Make contact with former prisoners part of everyday law enforcement business 8-25
  • 26. Community-Focused Parole A process of engaging the community so the community engages parole  have a mission statement the community understands  make parole work more visible  build partnerships 8-26