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0131389033 ppt08


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0131389033 ppt08

  1. 1. Chapter 8: Sentencing Pearson Education, Inc © 2010
  2. 2. <ul><li>After completion of this chapter, students should be able to: </li></ul><ul><li>Describe the various purposes of criminal sanctions </li></ul><ul><li>Understand the insanity defense </li></ul><ul><li>Describe the purpose of a presentence investigation report </li></ul><ul><li>Detail differences between determinate and indeterminate sentencing models </li></ul><ul><li>Explain how civil rights challenges have affected the death penalty </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>There are various different reason for punishment </li></ul><ul><li>People have many conflicting opinions as to the purpose of punishment </li></ul><ul><li>Over a million sentences are handed down by judges annually </li></ul><ul><li>This criminal justice system does not reflect a consistent approach to sentencing </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>Deterrence </li></ul><ul><li>Incapacitation </li></ul><ul><li>Retribution </li></ul><ul><li>Rehabilitation </li></ul><ul><li>Restorative Justice </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>Punishment should prevent the criminal from reoffending </li></ul><ul><li>Effective with law-abiding citizens </li></ul><ul><li>Corporal Punishment </li></ul><ul><li>Specific Deterrence </li></ul><ul><li>General Deterrence </li></ul><ul><li>Sterilization </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>The only way to prevent criminals from reoffending is to remove them permanently from society </li></ul><ul><li>Banishment </li></ul><ul><li>Transportation </li></ul><ul><li>Imprisonment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>‘ warehousing’ or ‘lock and feed’ </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>Criminals should be punished because they deserve it </li></ul><ul><li>‘Just desserts’ </li></ul><ul><li>‘Get-tough’ era of sentencing </li></ul><ul><li>19 th and 20 th century prison officials favored harsh prison conditions </li></ul><ul><li>The public expects prisoners to be punished </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>Criminals can be “cured” of their problems and criminality to be returned to society </li></ul><ul><li>Views criminality as a disease to be cured </li></ul><ul><li>Most believe this is not working given a high recidivism </li></ul><ul><li>Warehousing </li></ul><ul><li>Most rehabilitation today focuses on juveniles </li></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>Focuses more on victims rather than the offenders. Rehabilitation is often criticized for forgetting the victim </li></ul><ul><li>Offender should be made to provide some contribution to the community </li></ul><ul><li>Sentences require restitution to the victim </li></ul><ul><li>Community service imposed in about 5% of all cases </li></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>Court arranges for defendant to be examined by a mental health professional prior to trial </li></ul><ul><li>As an ‘expert witness’ the mental health professional can testify during trial </li></ul><ul><li>Jury must decide if defendant’s mental condition meets the standard for insanity </li></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>Insanity Defense Reform Act of 1984 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Defendant must undergo a ‘civil commitment examination’ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Determines whether defendant should be released or confined to an institution </li></ul></ul><ul><li>State Courts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>‘Guilty but mentally ill’ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Jury can find defendant mentally ill, but still commit to a state prison </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>Information gathered about a convicted person </li></ul><ul><li>Used by the judge to determine the best sentence </li></ul><ul><li>Gathered by probation or parole officer to include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>employment history </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>family relations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>reputation in community </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>prior convictions </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>Victims can influence the judge’s sentencing </li></ul><ul><li>Civil Rights advocates consider the statements to be prejudicial and biased </li></ul><ul><li>Supporters argue that the harm and suffering of a victim is an appropriate factor for determining the sentence </li></ul>
  14. 14. <ul><li>There are two models that govern the practice of sentencing by judges: </li></ul><ul><li>1. Indeterminate sentencing </li></ul><ul><li>2. Determinate ) sentencing </li></ul>
  15. 15. <ul><li>Sentence may range from 1 to 20 years </li></ul><ul><li>Gives judge more latitude and flexibility </li></ul><ul><li>Prisoner’s behavior and progress toward rehabilitation affect release date </li></ul>
  16. 16. <ul><li>Offender is sentenced to a fixed term of incarceration </li></ul><ul><li>Also called ‘flat sentences’ or ‘fixed sentences’ </li></ul><ul><li>Proponents claim this sentencing format eliminates discrimination in sentencing </li></ul>
  17. 17. <ul><li>A strict application of full sentences </li></ul><ul><li>Favored by public who believe offenders get off ‘too easy’ </li></ul><ul><li>Sentencing not left to the judge’s discretion </li></ul><ul><li>For example, if the law calls for 2 year sentence for a crime involving a firearm, defendant must serve the 2 years </li></ul>
  18. 18. <ul><li>Punishes repeat offenders more severely </li></ul><ul><li>Three strikes-and-out law originated in California </li></ul><ul><li>Critics believe this creates situations where offenders are receiving disproportionately long prison terms for minor felonies </li></ul>
  19. 19. <ul><li>Early parole is not an option </li></ul><ul><li>Requires the court to disclose the actual prison time that the offender will serve </li></ul><ul><li>Some states require the offender to serve at least 85% of their sentence before eligible for release </li></ul>
  20. 20. <ul><li>Capital punishment is an ongoing controversy in America’s history </li></ul><ul><li>Abolitionists believe capital punishment to be ineffective as a crime deterrent </li></ul><ul><li>Abolitionists also believe government does not have the right to take a human life </li></ul>
  21. 21. <ul><li>Furman v. Georgia (1972) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>U.S. Supreme Court suspended the death penalty </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Gregg v. Georgia (1976) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>U.S. Supreme Court allowed use of death penalty through ‘bifurcated trail’ process </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. <ul><li>Innocent parties convicted </li></ul><ul><li>Official misconduct and error </li></ul><ul><li>Racial bias </li></ul><ul><li>Past exonerations through DNA evidence </li></ul>