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NU100 Primer

NU100 Primer



Introduction to GPS Science, technology and applications

Introduction to GPS Science, technology and applications



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  • Welcome to NavUniversity's Primer, an introduction to the world of Global Positioning System, GPS.

NU100 Primer NU100 Primer Presentation Transcript

  • GPS Primer
    • Overview of GPS technology, users and applications
    • Designed for Product Managers, Application Engineers, Technicians, Analysts, Technical Writers, Sales, Marketing, Business Development and Consultants
    NU100 The GPS Primer is suitable for a non-technical audience
  • Course Objectives
    • Provide information on how GPS works and history behind the technology
    • Explore the multiple ways GPS is being used today, and into the future
    NU100 GPS Constellation
  • GPS Certificate Program
    • GPS Technology and Applications Certificate benefits:
    • Obtain practical skills in technology, science and applications of Global Navigation Satellite Systems
    • Learn interdisciplinary skills
    • Learn anywhere, anytime with NavU Learning Management System
    • Receive recognition for GNSS competency and accomplishments
    • Core Courses
    • NU100 Global Positioning System
    • NU200 GNSS Technology
    • Electives
    • NU300 Survey and Construction
    • NU310 Military and Government
    • NU320 Avionics and Transportation
    • NU330 Location-Based Services
    • NU340 Mass Market OEM
    • NU350 Utilities and Communications
    • NU360 System Design and Test
    • NU370 Geographic Information Systems
  • NU100 Course Topics
    • Lesson 1
    • What is GPS?
    • How does it work?
    • GPS History
    • How is GPS Managed?
    • Lesson 2
    • GPS Key Elements
    • Space Segment – Satellites
    • Control Segment – Stations
    • User Segment – Receiver
    • Lesson 3
    • How do we Use GPS today?
    • Military and Government
    • Survey and Construction
    • Lesson 4
    • Avionics and Transportation
    • Location Based Services
    • Lesson 5
    • Utilities and Communications
    • System Design and Test
    • The future of GPS
    • WHAT IS GPS?
    Lesson 1 NU100
  • What is GPS?
    • GPS provides precise positioning, navigation and timing services
    • Exact location on Earth any time, anywhere, and in any weather
    Lesson 1 Navigate on land, sea or air
  • How Does GPS Work?
    • GPS is made up of three parts
      • Satellites orbiting the Earth
      • Control and monitoring stations on Earth
      • GPS receivers owned by users
    Lesson 1
  • Navigation Tools
    • Survival has been dependent on moving from one place to another, safely and effectively
    • Early navigators relied on a system of primitive charts and observations of the Sun and stars to determine directions
    Lesson 1
  • Navigational Tools
    • Navigational tools
      • Magnetic compass
      • Sextant
      • Chronometer
    • Sextant Operation
      • Point to Horizon
      • Release Index Bar
      • Bring Sun to Horizon
      • Adjust Sun’s Position
      • Swing to Verify
      • Read Angle
    Lesson 1
    • Radio Detection and Ranging (RADAR)
    • Radio waves determine the presence and range of an object
      • Position in space
      • Size and shape
      • Velocity
      • Direction of motion
    Lesson 1 Chain Home – WWII Radar
  • GPS History
    • 1930- Radio detection and ranging developed by British
    • 1957- Soviet Union launched Sputnik
    • 1960- U.S. military study of space using high frequency radio transmissions
    • 1970- Systems combined to form NAVSTAR
    • 1989- GPS Block II/IIA
    • 1995- GPS achieved Full Operational Capability (FOC)
    Lesson 1
  • Radio-Navigation
    • Ground-based radio-navigation
    • Range and accuracy limited
    Lesson 1 WWII LORAN station
  • Sputnik
    • Sputnik 1
    • High frequency radio transmitters in space
    • Soviet Union launched world's first artificial satellite
    • Using known satellite orbits to determine an unknown position on the Earth's surface
    Lesson 1
    • U.S. Navy Transit system
      • 7 satellites placed in orbit
    • Department of Defense NAVSTAR
      • Military use
    • Constellation operational in 1995
      • Global Positioning System
    Lesson 1 GPS analog CPU GPS Block I is the first GPS satellite
  • How was GPS first used?
    • Ranging using radio signals and precise time derived from orbiting atomic clocks
    • Department of Defense increases satellites under NAVSTAR
    • Navstar I - 1st GPS satellite, launched Feb ‘78 at Vandenberg AFB
    • There were 11 Block I’s, launched from Feb 78 through Oct 85
    • Exclusive use by military
    Lesson 1
  • Commercial Sector
    • 1985 GPS available to commercial sector
    • Civilian signal
    • Encrypted second-frequency military signal
    Lesson 1 Designated L1 and L2, Civilian GPS uses L1 frequency UHF band
  • How is GPS Managed?
    • National Space-Based Positioning, Navigation and Timing Executive Committee (PNT) manages GPS.
    • PNT has shared this system globally
    • Standardized reference and timing systems
    • Allowed for development of worldwide global information infrastructure.
    Lesson 1 Coast Guard Link PNT Link
  • What is the GPS Wing?
    • The GPS Wing manages design and development innovations in GPS Satellite Systems
    • Responsible for the acquisition of:
      • GPS spacecraft
      • Ground control facilities
      • Military user equipment
    Lesson 1 GPS Partnership Council GPS Wing Link
    • Exercise
    • Assessment
    • Link to: PNT
      • Link to International Cooperation statement
      • Verify 4 working groups:
        • Radio compatibility
        • Trade and civil applications
        • Design, development of next generation systems
        • Security issues
    • Link to: LAAFB
      • Search for: gps wing
      • Locate document:
        • GPS Next-Generation Control Squadron Completes Design Reviews, Program Demos
      • Question:
        • What are SDR and MCEM demonstrations?
    Lesson 1 Exercise Lesson 1
  • Lesson 1 Summary
    • What is GPS, how does it work?
    • GPS History
    • How is GPS Managed?
    Lesson 2 NU100
  • GPS Key Elements
    • GPS Control, Space, and User segments
    • Space Segment
      • Satellites in Space
    • Control Segment
      • Monitoring Stations on Earth
    • User Segment
      • GPS receivers
    Lesson 2
  • Space Segment – Satellites
    • There are 31 actively broadcasting satellites in the GPS constellation
    • The GPS Satellites are divided into six orbital groups of four
    • Six orbital planes completely surround the earth
    Lesson 2 GPS constellation with Earth rotating. Number of satellites in view changes with time
  • Control Segment – Stations
    • Control, Monitor and Ground stations
    • U.S. Air Force ground stations located around the world
    Lesson 2
  • Master Station
    • Colorado Springs, USA
    • Master station receives data from monitoring stations
    • Corrects and returns data to satellites
    Lesson 2 Delta II GPS IIR-18(M) launch, orbit managed by 2nd Space Operations Squadron, Schriever AFB Schriever AFB Link
  • Monitoring Stations
    • Unmanned stations receive constant data from satellites
    • Forward to Master Control station
    Lesson 2 Monitoring station in Hawaii
  • Ground Antenna Stations
    • Tracks satellites from horizon to horizon
    • Ground-antennas monitor satellites
    • Transmit correction information to individual satellites
    Lesson 2
  • User Segment – Receiver
    • GPS Receiver
      • Detect
      • Decode
      • Process GPS satellite signals
    • Receivers used in many applications
    • Examples of GPS Receivers
    Lesson 2 Consumer Reports Link
  • GPS Signals
    • Strong
    • Weak
    • Very Weak
    • Signals travel by 'line of sight' through clouds, rain, snow, glass and plastic but not solid objects such as buildings
      • Strong: deserts, oceans, open fields and residential areas
      • Weak: forests and indoor
      • Very Weak: office buildings and multi-storey car parks
    Lesson 2
  • GPS Receivers
    • Installed on aircraft, ships, tanks, submarines, cars, and trucks
    • Typical hand-held receiver is about the size of a cellular telephone
    • Newer models fit in wristwatch
    Lesson 2
  • Standard GPS Receiver
    • Determine:
      • Latitude
      • Longitude
      • Altitude
    • Pinpoint location
    • Trace path across a map
    Lesson 2 Displays distance, time, speed, and estimated time of arrival
    • Exercise
    • Assessment
    • Link to: Schriever AFB
      • For in-depth information on constellation status and advisories
      • Link to:
        • GPSOC
    • There are many Receiver options
      • Link to: Consumer Reports
        • Search for GPS Guide
        • Watch VIDEO:
          • GPS Buying Guide
      • Question
        • What is the cost for uninfluenced buying advice?
    Lesson 2 Exercise Lesson 2
  • Lesson 2 Summary
    • GPS Key Elements
    • Space Segment – Satellites
    • Control Segment – Stations
    • User Segment – Receiver
    Lesson 3 NU100
  • How do we Use GPS today?
    • Military and Government
    • Survey and Construction
    • Avionics and Transportation
    • Location based Services
    • Utilities and Communications
    Lesson 3 GPS acknowledged as leading 20 th century invention
  • Military
    • GPS integrated into fighters, bombers, tankers, helicopters, ships, submarines, tanks, support vehicles and soldiers' equipment
    • Training, disaster relief, peacekeeping and base management activities
    • Battlefield operations and weapons systems
    Lesson 3 GPS Military activities
  • Military Aviation
    • Modern "smart weapons" systems, including cruise missiles and precision guided munitions
    • Use GPS data for targeting and guidance
    Lesson 3 U.S. Air Force F-22 Raptor flying at Mach 1.5 at 50,000 feet, releases GPS-aided Joint Direct Attack Munition (JDAM)
  • NASA
    • GPS onboard Space Shuttle
    • Space operations and guidance systems for crewed vehicles
    • Management, tracking and control of satellite constellations
    • Monitoring the Earth from space
    • Support future exploration of the Solar System
    Lesson 3 NASA Link
  • Government
    • Tsunami Path
    • Disasters relief efforts
      • Indian Ocean tsunami
      • Hurricanes Katrina, Rita
    • Search and rescue used GPS, geographic information system and remote sensing to create maps of disaster areas
    • Emergency response coordinate police, fire and rescue vehicles
    Lesson 3
  • Fire boundaries
    • Fires in eastern Australia have devastated communities and infrastructure, and destroyed vast areas of bushland
    • Identify fire boundaries and "hot spots"
    • Transmit fire maps to firefighters' field computers
    • National Interagency Fire Center
    Lesson 3 Fire Agency Link
  • Earthquake prediction
    • Earthquake prediction
      • Research links Seismic Slip And Tremor
    • Damage can be greatly reduced by:
      • Better planning, construction, and mitigation practices before earthquakes happen
      • Providing critical information to improve response after they occur
    Lesson 3 During 50-year period, strong shaking probability increases from very low (white), to moderate (blue, green, and yellow), to high (orange, pink, and red) US Geological Link
  • Flood prediction
    • Complex interactions between the waters of the land and atmosphere
    • National Weather Service collaborates with federal, state, and local agencies
    • Provides forecasts and warnings for protection of life and property
    Lesson 3 Weather Service Link
  • Survey
    • Integrated Survey
    • Mapping tectonic activity
    • Marine surveying
    • Seismic and exploration
    • Utilities
    Lesson 3 Mapping is ranked as the most important GPS application
  • Integrated Surveying
    • Trimble GNSS rover for Integrated Surveying
    • GNSS/GPS Surveying and Total Stations Combined
    • Land surveying revolutionized
    • Integrated Surveying on Rover Pole
    Lesson 3
  • Survey boundaries
    • Guidance through local zoning regulations, platting ordinances and governmental requirements
    • Subdivision Platting
    • Topo and Control Survey
    • Staking/Boundary/Lots 
    • Easements/Land Title
    • Home Site/As-Built
    • Legal Descriptions
    • Site Grading Design
    • FEMA
    • Renovation of existing buildings
    Lesson 3
  • Geodetic network
    • LiDAR
    • Measurements of changes in the Earth's surface
    • Assessing the integrity of buildings and bridges in areas that are geologically active
    Lesson 3 InSAR EarthScope
  • Hydrographic surveying
    • Marine survey including the acquisition and processing of hydrographic data, positioning, and charting
    • Navigational information for shipping
    • Exploration of marine resources
    Lesson 3 Ocean Service Link
  • Seismic and exploration
    • Vessel with GPS, Differential/RTK tows seismic source and hydrophone. Reflected energy is depicted by three rays, shown in red.
    • Locate important resources such as:
      • Petroleum
      • Natural gas
      • Coal
      • Ores
      • Minerals
    Lesson 3
  • Utilities 
    • Municipal agencies responsible for infrastructure such as poles, transformers, lighting, meters plot locations using GPS. Managing assets is complex task.
    • Includes electric power, natural gas, drinking water, and sewer connections
    • Telecommunications, roads and highways, postal service, sanitation and public transport
    • Map utilities and infrastructures
    Lesson 3
  • Construction
    • Connected Construction Site
      • Streamlines workflows
      • Improves profitability
    • Location of cables, pipes and services
    • Topo surveys, construction staking, grade checking, and site navigation
    • Portable assets such as dump trucks, graders, loaders and generators
    Lesson 3
    • Exercise
    • Assessment
    • Link to:
      • Link to:
        • Monitoring Networks
        • ShakeMaps
        • Animations
        • World
      • Click:
        • Start Animation
    • The US government monitored the 2004 Tsunami
      • Link to: Tsunami
      • Find link to US Tsunami Detection System
      • Question
        • What is DART?
    Lesson 3 Exercise Lesson 3 Earthquake Hazards
  • Lesson 3 Summary
    • How do we Use GPS today?
    • Military and Government
    • Survey and Construction
    Lesson 4 NU100
  • Avionics
    • All-glass panels integrates flight data and process:
      • Flight
      • Navigation
      • Communication
      • Terrain
      • Traffic
      • Weather
      • Engine
    Lesson 4 Combines flight data on two flat-panel High resolutions LCDs.
  • Avionics
    • Position determination for all phases of flight:
      • Departure
      • En route
        • Oceanic
        • Surface
      • Descent
      • Approach
      • Landing
      • Airport surface navigation
    Lesson 4 Every commercial airplane must file a flight plan with the FAA air traffic control system FAA Link
  • Air Routes
    • Pilots without GPS rely on navigational beacons. Using GPS, aircraft fly most direct routes between airports.
    • Fly routes in areas that lack suitable ground-based navigation aids
    • Enhanced Ground Proximity Warning System (EGPWS)
    • Real-Time Flight Tracking
      • 28,911 arrivals during previous 24 hours
    Lesson 4 Flight Tracking Link
  • Transportation
    • Patient transportation
    • Increase safety, reduce congestion and improve efficiency
    • Monitor vehicle location, keep transit vehicles on schedule
    • Mobile Resource Management (MRM)
      • GeoManager
    Lesson 4 Monitor vehicle location MRM Demo Link
  • Rail systems
      • Positive Train Control
    • Federal Railroad Administration (FRA)
      • Enhanced levels of safety
      • Increased capacity and efficiency for rail users
      • Dependable schedule and equipment location awareness
      • Improved track, traffic, and train sensor information
      • Increased situational awareness
    Lesson 4 FRA Link
  • In time-definite delivery
    • Fleet Tracking for transport, courier, logistics and services
    • Logistical revolution as GPS helps track and forecast the arrival of freight
    Lesson 4
  • Intelligent Systems
    • RITA leads DOT in:
      • Coordinating research and development programs
      • Advancing cross-cutting technologies, including ITS
      • Transportation statistics research, analysis
      • Providing education and training in transportation
    Lesson 4 GPS is an essential element in the future of Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) RITA Link
  • Transportation
    • Future Technology
    • Vehicle Safety Bubble
    • DARPA Challenge
      • Vehicle-Vehicle collaboration
      • Vehicle control
        • GNSS, WiFi, radar
        • Collision avoidance
        • Braking, acceleration, lane changes
    Lesson 4 Alice, built by Sportsmobile, was Caltech’s entry in the 2008 DARPA Challenge DARPA Link
  • Location Based Services
    • Apple’s iPhone uses Google Maps for location-based services, Wi-Fi and GPS tracking
    • Customized information based on user location
      • Navigating efficiently
      • Locating people, places
      • Online transactions
      • Points of interest
      • Social networking
      • Finds blogs based on geographic interests
      • Locating family, friends, pets
    Lesson 4 iPhone GPS Link
  • Personal Navigation
    • Personal navigation
      • Transforming our daily lives, from finding our way to the right gate at unfamiliar airports to locating our house keys
      • Marking locations such as where your car is parked prior to heading into a maze of shopping malls
    Lesson 4 Utilizes latest digital technology SiRF Star III GPS receiver with digital compass
  • LBS-Centric phones
    • Cell phone navigation
    • Mobile phones focus on navigational services
    • TeleNav GPS Navigator Demo
    Lesson 4 TeleNav Link
  • Social networking
    • Users share location with their social network
      • Devices are small, light-weight and shaped to carry
      • Interface with LBS services remains challenge
      • Queries pose challenges
      • Displaying maps on tiny mobile screen is unlikely to be usable by majority
      • Social networking and GPS remembers locations
    Lesson 4 Users save favorite locations on map, share with friends. POI plotted on site and downloaded to GPS devices
  • Continual access
    • GPS device and entertainer. More car-based PC than GPS unit
    • Continuous access to:
      • Navigation
      • Real-time traffic alerts
      • High-speed Internet
      • Digital music
      • Videos
      • Hands-free phone connection
    Lesson 4
  • Maritime navigation
    • Mariners navigate, measure speed and determine location
    • Speed and heading are needed to ensure the vessel reaches its destination
    • Harbor navigation
      • GPS maps harbor shipping including vessel name, heading and direction
    Lesson 4
  • Maritime mapping
    • Underwater surveying devices
    • Underwater surveying, navigational hazard location and mapping
      • Analyze data by image & magnification, data recording, playback, GPS location, correct of slant range & altitude and survey area mosaic
    • Maritime GPS units connected to ship's self-steering gear
    Lesson 4
  • In-Vehicle Services
    • Car's position, optimum route to given destination and location of gas stations, ATMs and restaurants
    • GPS tracks distance travelled and speed, determines arrival time
    • Integrated with the automobile security system
    • Alert emergency services when airbag deployed
    Lesson 4
  • Tracking
    • Hikers, pilots, snowmobilers, campers, boaters and hunters track their location and alert contacts in case of emergencies
    • Users purchase GPS Satellite Messenger device and subscription
    Lesson 4 SPOT network transmits user's location and status SPOT Link
  • Recreation
    • Team dynamics and mental strength challenged by GPS navigation across 100-mile course
    • Tracklog used to estimate hiking distances and times, shared with others, plotted on maps
    • Gliding participants use GPS to compute wind speed aloft, and glide paths to waypoints
    Lesson 4
  • Gaming
    • Geocaching players hide a "cache" and other players find it using GPS
    • Tourality challenges players to reach geographically defined spots
    Lesson 4
    • Exercise
    • Assessment
    • Link to: NextGen Initiatives
      • Watch video:
        • Next Generation Air Transportation System
    • Link to :
      • LBSzone , GIS
      • GISuser Videos, More Videos here
      • Filter: How to fold a map
      • Glenn’s presentation
      • Question
        • Which axis do you fold first?
    Lesson 4 Exercise Lesson 4
  • Lesson 4 Summary
    • How do we Use GPS today?
    • Avionics and Transportation
    • Location Based Services
    Lesson 5 NU100
  • Utilities
    • GPS Coordinates and Direction
    • Compass-GPS Camera
      • Acquires coordinates of photo
      • Direction the camera was pointing
      • Plot photos on a map including arrow showing direction
    Lesson 5
  • Utilities
    • Digital camera verifies target
      • Photo locked with GPS position
      • Compass measures bearing and distance, stores directions and displays data
    • GPS data capture
      • Dangerous or inaccessible locations
      • Safety and accuracy
      • Mapping locations where GPS cannot operate
      • Military and Intelligence Operations
      • Infrastructure Surveys
      • Specialized Mapping
    Lesson 5 IkeGPS Link
  • Indoor Positioning
    • Accuracy of GPS is worst exactly where most users are – dense urban areas with high sky-lines
    • Indoor space and urban areas are out of reach of GPS systems
    • GPS receivers do not work inside buildings
    • Alternative technologies are enabling many kinds of indoor location-aware applications
    Lesson 5
  • TV-GPS positioning
    • Local Positioning
    • Make use of short-range networks such as 802.11, Bluetooth, RFID, ultrasound, UWB, IrDA, or TV radio signals
    • Most promising technologies are WLAN fingerprinting, RFID positioning, infrared and ultrasound
    Lesson 5
  • Timing
    • GPS module for time-accurate data communication between geographically dispersed systems and devices
    • Satellite contains multiple atomic clocks that contribute precise time data
    • GPS receivers synchronize to atomic clocks
    • Users determine time to within 100 billionths of a second
    Lesson 5
  • Timing synchronization
    • Synchronize to GPS receivers
    • Redundant GPS Clock
    • Precision timing and frequency synchronization critical for:
      • Digital broadcasts
      • Telecommunication networks
      • Military communication
    Lesson 5
  • Precision timing
    • Power transmission network connects power plants to multiple substations
    • Industries that rely on precision timing for synchronization include:
      • Communication systems
      • Electrical power grids
      • Financial networks
    Lesson 5
  • GPS Industry
    • Market, Technology and Business Factors Driving the Growth of GPS, A-GPS and Hybrid Positioning for Mobile Handset Location
    • ABI - Technology Market Research
    • Telematics and Navigation
      • Location Based Services
      • Navigation and LBS Devices
      • LBS Value Chain
      • Location Technologies and Infrastructure
    Lesson 5 ABI research Link
  • Partnering
    • Designed to appeal to professional drivers
    • Tire Maker Goodyear, lends name to line of PNDs
    • NCC partners with Goodyear to manufacture and market products to drivers of:
      • Commercial trucks, vans and trailers
      • RVs and motor homes
    Lesson 5
  • Leveraging
    • Database of legal/physical restrictions and points of interest provide route that highlights weigh stations, avoids restricted roads
    • Vehicle dimensions
      • Legal restrictions (HazMat)
      • Other warning data (crosswinds)
      • Digital Terrain Modeling
      • Multiple Route Selection
      • Lane Guidance –valid lanes
      • Curve Speed Warning
      • Voice recognition for hands-free
    • MSN Direct service
      • Live traffic information
      • Local weather/news
      • Nearby gas prices
    Lesson 5
  • Alliances
    • ASUS and Garmin provide leading-edge products
    • Garmin Joins ASUS to Create Mobile Phones
    • Design, manufacture, and distribute cobranded mobile-phone
    • Garmin-Asus nüvifone and location-based services
    Lesson 5 Garmin-Asus Link
  • System Design and Test
    • 746th Test Squadron
      • Department of Defense (DoD) test organization
      • Evaluates GPS integrated guidance and navigation systems
      • GPS Test Center at Los Angeles Air Force base and is comprised of Army, Navy, and Air Force agencies
    Lesson 5 Testing of GPS user equipment Holloman AFB Link
  • System Design and Test
    • Full spectrum navigation analysis covering all navigation systems
    • Mission designers use AGI technology to model GNSS operations
      • Interference analysis
      • Accuracy calculations
        • Mitigate risks
        • Reduce costs
        • Reduce schedule slips
        • Ensure mission success
    Lesson 5 AGI Link
  • Future of GPS
    • What is future of GPS?
      • Positioning accuracy to 10 centimeters
      • Find friends, children, spouse in mall, theater, and stadium
      • Track keys, TV remote, wallet, phone
      • Guided to pre-booked parking space in the car park
    Lesson 5 Alan Cameron is editor-in-chief of GPS World magazine. GPS World Link
    • Exercise
    • Assessment
    • Link to: Scientific American
      • Read article:
        • Indoor positioning system technology uses radio, ultrasound or infrared signals to more precisely track locations where GPS signals are blocked
    • Link to :
      • NASA Science News
      • Read text or listen to story via streaming audio
        • What is NIST-F1?
    Lesson 5 Exercise Lesson 5
  • Summary
    • Industry review of portable GPS systems
    • Walk into store
    • Buy GPS receiver
    • Plug into navigation
    • Monitor movement of people and things
    • Vital component in:
      • Science
      • Industry
      • Economy
  • Lesson 5 Summary
    • Utilities & Communications
    • System Design and Test
    • What does the future of GPS hold for us?
  • Resources
    • DARPA : http://gc.caltech.edu/media/presentations/murray_nsf-09apr07.pdf
    • Department of Transport/RITA: http://www.rita.dot.gov/about_rita/
    • FAA: http://www.faa.gov/aircraft/
    • FRA: http://www.fra.dot.gov/us/home
    • GPS Wing: http://www.losangeles.af.mil/library/factsheets/factsheet.asp?id=5311
    • National Executive Committee (PNT): http://pnt.gov/
    • National Interagency Fire Center: http://www.nifc.gov/index.html
    • NASA: http://gpshome.ssc.nasa.gov/content.aspx?s=letter
    • National Weather Service: http://www.weather.gov/
    • Schriever AFB GPS Operations Center: http://www.schriever.af.mil/gpsoc/
    • UNAVCO: http://www.unavco.org/unavco.html
    • U.S. Coast Guard Navigation Center: http://www.navcen.uscg.gov/
    • U.S. Geological Survey (USGS): http://www.usgs.gov/
  • GPS Technology Certification
    • Core Courses
    • NU100 Global Positioning System
    • NU200 GNSS Technology
    • Electives
    • NU300 Survey and Construction
    • NU310 Military and Government
    • NU320 Avionics and Transportation
    • NU330 Location-Based Services
    • NU340 Mass Market OEM
    • NU350 Utilities and Communications
    • NU360 System Design and Test
    • NU370 Geographic Information Systems
    • GPS Technology and Applications Certificate benefits:
    • Obtain practical skills in technology, science and applications of Global Navigation Satellite Systems
    • Learn interdisciplinary skills
    • Learn anywhere, anytime with NavU Learning Management System
    • Receive recognition for GNSS competency and accomplishments