Published on

it was my final sem seminar report in which i got 49 for 50

Published in: Education, Technology, Business
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Total views
On SlideShare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide


  2. 2. NANOELECTRONICS BRINDAVAN COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING DWARAKANAGAR,YELAHANKA BANGALORE ELECTRONICS & COMMUNICATION CERTIFICATECertified that seminar work entitled “ nanoelectronics ” is a bonafide work carried out in the eighth semesterby “ deepu. P.v ” in partial fulfillment for the award of bachelor of engineering in “ electronics &communication ” from visvesvaraya technological university during the academic year 2011-2012, whocarried out the seminar work under the guidance and no part of this work has been submitted earlier for theaward of any degreeSIGNATURE SIGNATUREV.K. GUPTA KEERTHI .N.VSEMINAR CO-ORDINATOR INTERNAL GUIDESR. LECTURER LECTURERDEPT OF ECE, BRCE DEPT OF ECE, BRCE SIGNATURE PROF G. VENKATESH HEAD OF THE DEPARTMENT DEPT OF ECE ,BRCEDEPT OF ECE BRCE
  3. 3. NANOELECTRONICS * CONTENTS Abstract : Nanoelectronics Chapter-1 : Introductio To Nanotechnology Chapter-2 : History Of Nanoelectronics Chapter-3 : Nanotechnologies Impact On Electronics Chapter-4 : How Can Nanotechnology Improve The Capabilities Of Electronic Components? Chapter-5 : Contribution Of Nanoelectronics To The World Chapter-6 : Advantages Of Nanoelectronics To The World Chapter-7 : Applications Under Development Chapter-8 : BibilographyDEPT OF ECE BRCE
  4. 4. NANOELECTRONICS List Of Tabels 1. Table 4.1: Scaling Principles List Of Figures 1. Fig 1.1 : Matter On Atomic And Molecular Scale. 2. Fig 2.1: Moore’s Law. 3. Fig 3.1: Smart Microprocessor Based Computer 4. Fig 4.1 :Scaling Principles 5. Fig 4.2:Schematic Representation Of Gate –Dielectric Tunneling And Direct Source-Drain Tunnelling 6. Fig 4.3: E J-Mosfet 7. Fig 4.4: Showing Resonant Tunnels 8. Fig 5.1: Transistor 9. Fig 5.2 : Nanofabrication 10. Fig 5.3 Molecular Electronics 11. Fig 5.4 : Nanoionics 12. Fig 5.5 : Nanno Photonics 13. Fig 5.6: Nanowire 14. Fig 5.7: Next Generation Display Screens 15. Fig 5.8 : Optics 16. Fig 5.9 : Handheld Devices 17. Fig 7.1 Transistors Built Using Carbon Nanotubes 18. Fig 7.2 Schematic Of A Graphine Transistor 19. Fig 7.3 : MramDEPT OF ECE BRCE
  5. 5. NANOELECTRONICS NANOELECTRONICS ABSTRACTElectronic industry is developing rapidly and tremendously over past few decades. Our traditionalmicroelectronic devices appear to be saturated for further miniaturization. Hence, new technologies aredeveloping vigorously. The range of nanotechnology and designs for nano electronic devices are discussedin this paper. The paper also describes and compares in nonmathematical way, the operating principles,advantages and status of new technologies that promise to continue miniaturization of computers to the scaleof few nanometers and ultimately to molecular scale. Devices having very small size and dimensions of onlyfew nanometers i.e (10 ^ -9m) are most promising alternatives for this problem. The research work is yetgoing on to design .in this paper first, we will discuss about nanotechnology , nanotechnologies impactelectronics, history of nanoelectronics . Second, we will review architectures being developed for circuit-level integration, hybrid crossbar/cmos circuits and array-based systems, including experimentaldemonstrations of key concepts such lithography-independent, chemically coded stochastic demultipluxers.These device structures show robust switching, promising performance metrics and the potential for terabit-scale density.then about the approaches of nanoelectronics .at last, we discuss about the future and the scopeof nano technology. Nanoelectronics will surely revolutionize almost all fields like biology, biophysics,bioinformatics, computer science, information technology, mathematics, physics, molecular biology andchemistry. As well, it will improve our lifestyleDEPT OF ECE BRCE
  6. 6. NANOELECTRONICS CHAPTER-1 INTRODUCTIO TO NANOTECHNOLOGY A shortened of "nanotech", is the study of the controlling of matter on an atomic and molecular scale. Generally nanotechnology deals with structures of the size 100 nanometres or smaller in at least one dimension, and involves developing materials or devices within that size. Nanotechnology is very diverse, ranging from extensions of conventional device physics to completely new approaches based upon molecular self-assembly, from developing materials with dimensions on the Nano scale to investigating whether we canFIG 1.1 : Matter on atomic and molecular scale. directly control matter on the atomic scale. NANOTECHNOLOGY DEALS WITH SYSTEMS DESIGNED AND MANUFACTURED AT THE SCALE OF THE ATOM, ORHE NANOMETRE SCALE. MORE SPECIFICALLY, NANOTECHNOLOGY DEALS WITH STRUCTURES OF LESS THAN100 NANOMETRES (NM). ONE NM IS 1 BILLIONTH OF A METER. NANOTECHNOLOGY INVOLVES THEMANIPULATION AND CONTROL OF ATOMS AND MOLECULES, THE BUILDING BLOCKS OF ALL MATERIALS.BROADLY SPEAKING, THERE ARE TWO APPROACHES IN NANOTECHNOLOGY: BOTTOM-UP AND TOP-DOWN.THE FIRST APPROACH, THE BOTTOM-UP, INVOLVES MANIPULATING SMALL NUMBERS INDIVIDUAL ATOMS ORMORE COMPLEX MOLECULES, INTO STRUCTURES TYPICALLY USING MINUTE PROBES. THE SECOND, TOP-DOWN, APPROACH IMPLIES CONTROLLING PROCESSES TO FORCE ATOMS AND MOLECULES TO BUILD-UPTHEMSELVES TO DESIRED LOCATIONS AND/OR STRUCTURES. Nano’ materials have a size or features on the scale of around 1nm to 100nm nanometres.DEPT OF ECE BRCE
  7. 7. NANOELECTRONICS CHAPTER-2 HISTORY OF NANOELECTRONICS In 1965, gordon moore, one of the founders of intel corporation, made the outstanding prediction that the number of transistors that could be fit in a given area would double every 18 months for the next ten years. This it did and the phenomenon became known as moores law Fig 2.1: Moore’s law. This trend has continued far past the predicted 10 years until this day, going from just over 2000 transistors in the original 4004 processors of 1971 to over 700,000,000 transistors in the core 2. There has, of course, been a corresponding decrease in the size of individual electronic elements, going from millimeters in the 60s to hundreds of nanometers in modern circuitry The term "nanotechnology" was first defined by norio taniguchi of the tokyo science university in a 1974 paper [6] as follows: "nano-technology mainly consists of the processing of, separation, consolidation, and deformation of materials by one atom or one molecule." since that time the definition of nanotechnology has generally been extended to include features as large as 100 nm. Additionally, the idea that nanotechnology embraces structures exhibiting quantum mechanical aspects, such as quantum dots, has further evolved its definition. Nanotechnology and nanoscience got a boost in the early 1980s with two major developments: the birth of cluster science and the invention of the scanning tunneling microscope (stm). This development led to the discovery of fullerenes in 1985 and the structural assignment of carbon nanotubes a few years later. In another development, the synthesis and properties of semiconductor nanocrystals were studied. This led to a fast increasing number of semiconductor nanoparticles of quantum dots.DEPT OF ECE BRCE
  8. 8. NANOELECTRONICS Chapter-3 Nanotechnologies Impact On Electronics Nanotechnology is already being used by the electronic industry and you will be surprised to know that many of today’s electronics have already incorporated many applications that the nanotechnology science has developed. For example, new computer microprocessors have less than 100 nanometres (nm) features. Smaller sizes mean a significant increase in speed and more processing capability. FIG 3.1: Smart microprocessor basedcomputer These advances will undoubtedly help achieve better computers. However, at some point in time (very near in the future) current electronic technology will no longer be enough to handle the demand for new chips microprocessors. Right now, the method for chip manufacturing is known as lithography or etching. By this technology, a probe literally writes over a surface the chip circuit. Besides being small and allowing more transistors to be packed into a single chip, the uniform and symmetrical structure of nanotubes allows a higher electron mobility (faster electron movement in the material),a higher dielectric constant (faster frequency), and a symmetrical electron/hole characteristic.[4] Also, nano particles can be used as quantum dots.DEPT OF ECE BRCE
  9. 9. NANOELECTRONICS Chapter-4 How Can Nanotechnology Improve The Capabilities Of Electronic Components? Nanoelectronics holds some answers for how we might increase the capabilities of electronics devices while we reduce their weight and power consumption. Some of the nanoelectronics areas under development, which you can explore in more detail by following the links provided in the next section, include the following topics. Improving display screens on electronics devices. This involves reducing power consumption while decreasing the weight and thickness of the screens. INCREASING THE DENSITY OF MEMORY CHIPS. RESEARCHERS ARE DEVELOPING A TYPE OF MEMORY CHIP WITH A PROJECTED DENSITY OF ONE TERABYTE OF MEMORY PER SQUARE INCH OR GREATER. REDUCING THE SIZE OF TRANSISTORS USED IN INTEGRATED CIRCUITS. ONE RESEARCHER BELIEVES IT MAY BE POSSIBLE TO "PUT THE POWER OF ALL OF TODAYS PRESENT COMPUTERS IN THE PALM OF YOUR HAND".4.1 Scaling principles For designing nano fet apart from channel length, other parameters like doping, voltages etc. Are to be also scaled TABLE 4.1: SCALING PRINCIPLESDEPT OF ECE BRCE
  11. 11. NANOELECTRONICS 4.2 NANO MOSFET Ej mosfet (electrically variable shallow junction mosfet) 4.2.1 SCALING LIMITS OF MOSFET Technical problem: for channel length<30nm , insulating sio2 is expected to be less than 2nm thick. This thin layer causes gate dielectric tunneling Physical problem: for channel length<10nm, direct source-drain tunneling occurs. Fig 4.2:schematic representation of gate –dielectric tunneling and direct source-drain tunnelingDEPT OF ECE BRCE
  12. 12. NANOELECTRONICS 4.3 EJ- MOSFET * Construction It consists of 2 gates :upper gate and a lower gate. Gates are insulated fromeach other by an integrate oxide layer FIG 4.3: E J-MOSFET * Working  Upper layer electrically induces the inversion layers that are self aligned to the lower gate and the lower gate controls the current between the inversion layer.  Presence of two gates helps in suppressing short channel effectsDEPT OF ECE BRCE
  13. 13. NANOELECTRONICS 4.4 basic phenomenon observed in nano devices 4.4.1 ballistic transport in nano structures  At room temperature mean free path of electron is around, at ultrashort channel length electron scattering decreases considerably.  At channel length less than 10nm,scattering approaches zero. It is called ballistic transport.  With decrease in temperature mean free path can be increased & ballistic transport can be obtained at larger channel length. 4.4.2 resonant tunneling in nano devices Rt is observed in hetero-structure semiconductor devices made from pairs of different alloys iii-v alloys. Eg. Algaas/gaas/algaas diodes FIG 4.4: SHOWING RESONANT TUNNELSDEPT OF ECE BRCE
  14. 14. NANOELECTRONICS Chapter-5 Contribution of nanoelectronics to the world5.1 NANOELECTRONICS Nanoelectronics refer to the use of nanotechnology on electronic components, especially transistors. Although the term nanotechnology is generally defined as utilizing technology less than 100 nm in size, nanoelectronics often refer to transistor devices that are so small that inter-atomic interactions and mechanical properties need to be studied extensively. As a result, present transistors do not fall under this category, even though these devices are manufactured with 45 nm or 32 nm technology, FIG 5.1: TRANSISTOR Nanoelectronics are sometimes considered as disruptive technology because present candidates are significantly different from traditional transistors. Some of these candidates include: hybrid molecular/semiconductor electronics, one dimensional nanotubes/nanowires, or advanced molecular electronics. Although all of these hold promise for the future, they are still under development and will most likely not be used for manufacturing any time soon.DEPT OF ECE BRCE
  15. 15. NANOELECTRONICS.5.2 NANOFABRICATION. Nanofabrication can be used to construct ultra- dense parallel arrays of nanowires, as an alternative to synthesizing nanowires individually. For example, single electron transistors, which involve transistor operation based on a single electron. Nanoelectromechanical systems also falls under this category FIG 5.2 : NANOFABRICATION5.3 MOLECULAR ELECTRONICS Single molecule devices are another possibility. These schemes would make heavy use of molecular self-assembly, designing the device components to construct a larger structure or even a complete system on their own. This can be very useful for reconfigurable computing, and may even FIG 5.3 MOLECULAR ELECTRONICS completely replace present fpga technology. Molecular electronics is a new technology which is still in its infancy, but also brings hope for truly atomic scale electronic systems in the future. One of the more promising applications of molecular electronics was proposed by the ibm researcher ari aviram and the theoretical chemist mark ratner in their 1974 and 1988 papers molecules for memory, logic and amplification, (see unimolecular rectify) . This is one of many possible ways in which a molecular level diode / transistor might be synthesized by organic chemistry. A model system was proposed with a spiro carbon structure giving a molecular diode about half a nanometre across which could be connected by polythiophene molecular wires. Theoretical calculations showed the design to be sound in principle and there is still hope that such a system can be made to work.DEPT OF ECE BRCE
  16. 16. NANOELECTRONICS5.4 NANOIONICS : is the study and application of phenomena, properties, effects and mechanisms of processes connected with fast ion transport (fit) in all-solid- state nanoscale systems. The topics of interest include fundamental properties of oxide ceramics at nanometer length scales, and fast ion conductor (advanced superionic conductor)/electronic FIG 5.4 : NANOIONICS conductor heterostructures.5.5 NANOPHOTONICS: nanophotonics or nano-optics is the study of the behavior of light on the nanometer scale. It is considered as a branch of optical engineering which deals with optics, or the interaction of light with particles or substances, at deeply sub-wavelength length scales. Technologies in the realm of nano- optics include near-field scanning optical microscopy (nsom), photoassisted scanning tunnelling microscopy, and surface plasmon optics. FIG 5.5 : NANNO PHOTONICS5.6 NANOWIRES : Nanowires are ultrafine wires or linear arrays of dots, formed by self- assembly. They can be made from a wide range of materials. Semiconductor nanowires made of silicon, gallium nitride and indium phosphide have demonstrated remarkable optical, electronic and magnetic characteristics.DEPT OF ECE BRCE
  17. 17. NANOELECTRONICS5.7 Display : new class of display using carbon nanotubes as emission device for the next generation of monitor and television (fed field-emission displays). FIG 5.7: NEXT GENERATION DISPLAY SCREENS5.8 OPTICS An area of electronics in which nanotechnology can make a significant difference is in optics; specifically displays and lighting. It is true that displays have been becoming lighter and of a much higher standard in recent years, but the limits of current technology are fast being reached . Fig 5.8 : optics . Displays are still not very portable, and usually take up a lot of space. Imagine if a crystal-clear display existed that could be rolled up or folded away when not in use? Or a lightbulb that wasted no energy and saved the user vast amounts of money? Traditional light bulbs waste about 90% of their electricity use by turning it into heat. Development of applications incorporating semiconductor nanoparticles to be used in the next generation of products, such as display technology, lighting, solar cells and biological imaging; see quantum dots.DEPT OF ECE BRCE
  18. 18. NANOELECTRONICS5.9 TELECOMMUNICATIONS AND HANDHELD DEVICES More and more in modern life, people are working on the move, which means taking their laptop, phone, and other electronic equipment everywhere they go. There is a need to combine all these functions in one device so that people can communicate with colleagues and clients, whilst continuously having access to their files regardless of their location. Fig 5.9 : handheld devicesNanotechnology can offer improved versatility through faster data transfer, more mobile processing powerand larger data storage CHAPTER-6 ADVANTAGES OF NANOELECTRONICS TO THE WORLD  One of the obvious advantage is that nanoelectronics reduces size and scale of the machine with the help of complex integration on the circuit silicon chips.  Advanced properties of semiconductors can be determined with the help of nanoelectronics.  Molecular scale nanoelectronics is also known as “the next step” in the miniaturization of electronic devices, with latest electronics theory and research in the field of nanoelectronics, it is possible to explore the diverse properties of molecules.  Extreme fabrication also supported the multiple use of single machine. Parallel processing is also empowered by nanoelectronics.DEPT OF ECE BRCE
  19. 19. NANOELECTRONICS CHAPTER-7 APPLICATIONS UNDER DEVELOPMENTResearchers are looking into the following nanoelectronics projects: 1. Building transistors from carbon nanotube to enable minimum transistor dimensions of a few nanometers and developing techniques to manufacture transistors. Using electrodes made from nanowires that would enable flat panel displays to be flexible as well as thinner than current flat panel displays. fig 7.1 transistors built using carbon nanotubes 2. Using mems techniques to control an array of probes whose tips have a radius of a few nanometers. These probes are used to write and read data onto a polymer film, with the aim of producing memory chips with a density of one terabyte per square inch or greater. 3. Transistors built in single atom thick graphene film to enable very high speed transistors. A small sheet of graphene is taken & channels are carved into it using electron beam lithography. Fig 7.2 schematic of a graphine transistor 4. Combining gold nanoparticles with organic molecules to create a transistor known as a nomfet (nanoparticle organic memory field-effect transistor).DEPT OF ECE BRCE
  20. 20. NANOELECTRONICS 5. Using carbon nanotubes to direct electrons to illuminate pixels, resulting in a lightweight, millimeter thick "nanoemmissive" display panel. 6. making integrated circuits with features that can be measured in nanometers (nm), such as the process that allows the production of integrated circuits with 45 nm wide transistor gates. 7. Using nano sized magnetic rings to make magneto resistive random access memory (mram) which research has indicated may allow memory density of 400 gb per square inch Fig 7.3 : mram 8. Developing molecular-sized transistors which may allow us to shrink the width of transistor gates to approximately one nm which will significantly increase transistor density in integrated circuits. 9. Using self-aligning nanostructures to manufacture nanoscale integrated circuits. 10. Using nanowires to build transistors without p-n junctions. 11. Using magnetic quantum dots in spintronic semiconductor devices. Spintronic devices are expected to be significantly higher density and lower power consumption because they measure the spin of electronics to determine a 1 or 0, rather than measuring groups of electronics as done in current semiconductor devicesDEPT OF ECE BRCE
  21. 21. NANOELECTRONICS CHAPTER-8 BIBILOGRAPHY 1. “Introductio To Nanotechnology, History Of Nanoelectronics, Nanotechnologies Impact On Electronics” . From Http://En.Wikipedia.Org/Wiki/Nanotechnology 2. “How can nanotechnology improve the capabilities of electronic components?” From 3. Contribution of nanoelectronics to the world”, advantages of nanoelectronics to the world from 4. Applications under development from:- +development+of+nanoelectronics&source=bl&ots=qda8y3vzsa&sig=m05eeudqfkdp- czhksmmcuavoqa&hl=en&sa=x&ei=wamlt-pjh4- hrafpztxscw&ved=0cfiq6aewba#v=onepage&q&f=false 5. Images and tables from OF ECE BRCE