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Introduction to Nanotechnology: Part 1


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Introduction to Nanotechnology: Part 1

  1. 1. Basic Nanotechnology Introduction
  2. 2. Contact Information Glenn Fishbine Phone: 1-952-975-0856 Fax: 1- 775-908-1069 Email: [email_address] Website:
  3. 3. Why We Are Here <ul><ul><li>Provide an overview of nanotechnology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Discuss nanotechnology. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Introduction </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Current landscape </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Government and university </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>State of basic research </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Manufacturing processes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Commercial activity </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The future </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Answer your questions about nanotechnology </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Understanding Size <ul><li>How big (small) are we talking about? </li></ul>
  5. 5. Understanding Size <ul><li>1 meter </li></ul><ul><li>source: CERN </li></ul>
  6. 6. Understanding Size <ul><li>10 centimeters </li></ul><ul><li>source: CERN </li></ul>
  7. 7. Understanding Size <ul><li>1 centimeter </li></ul><ul><li>source: CERN </li></ul>
  8. 8. Understanding Size <ul><li>100 micrometers </li></ul><ul><li>source: CERN </li></ul>
  9. 9. Understanding Size <ul><li>10 micrometers </li></ul><ul><li>source: CERN </li></ul>
  10. 10. Understanding Size <ul><li>1 micrometer </li></ul><ul><li>source: CERN </li></ul>
  11. 11. Understanding Size <ul><li>100 nanometers </li></ul><ul><li>source: CERN </li></ul>
  12. 12. Understanding Size <ul><li>10 nanometers </li></ul><ul><li>source: CERN </li></ul>
  13. 13. Understanding Size <ul><li>1 nanometer </li></ul><ul><li>source: CERN </li></ul>
  14. 14. Size Matters <ul><li>It’s not just how big you are </li></ul><ul><li>It’s what you can do with it </li></ul>
  15. 15. Understanding Effects <ul><li>Physical processes do not scale uniformly </li></ul><ul><ul><li>gravity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>friction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>combustion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>electrostatic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>van der Walls </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>brownian </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>quantum </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Understanding Effects <ul><li>Gravity </li></ul>
  17. 17. Understanding Effects <ul><li>Friction </li></ul>
  18. 18. Understanding Effects <ul><li>Combustion </li></ul>
  19. 19. Understanding Effects <ul><li>Electrostatic </li></ul>
  20. 20. Understanding Effects <ul><li>van der Waals </li></ul>
  21. 21. Understanding Effects <ul><li>brownian </li></ul>
  22. 22. Understanding Effects <ul><li>Quantum </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;I don't like it, and I'm sorry I ever had anything to do with it.” - Erwin Schrodinger </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;I think that I can safely say that nobody understands quantum mechanics.” - Richard Feynman </li></ul>
  23. 23. Understanding Effects <ul><li>Centimeter: Gravity, friction, combustion </li></ul><ul><li>Millimeter: Gravity, friction, combustion, electrostatic </li></ul><ul><li>Micrometer: Electrostatic, van der Walls, Brownian </li></ul><ul><li>Nanometer: Electrostatic, van der Walls, Brownian, Quantum </li></ul><ul><li>Angstrom: Quantum mechanics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(1/10,000,000,000 meter) </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. Basic Nanotechnology Origins of Nanotechnology
  25. 25. Earliest References
  26. 26. In the Beginning - 4,000 BCE
  27. 27. Yielding
  28. 28. Leucippus of Miletus <ul><li>5th century BC </li></ul><ul><li>Greek - Democritus of Abdera </li></ul><ul><ul><li>All matter is made up of undividable particles called atoms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>There is a void, which is empty space between atoms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Atoms are completely solid </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Atoms are homogeneous, with no internal structure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Atoms vary in </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1) Size </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>2) Shape </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>3) Weight </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  29. 29. John Dalton - 1803 <ul><ul><li>1) chemical elements are made of atoms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2) the atoms of an element are identical in their masses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3) atoms of different elements have different masses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>4) atoms only combine in small, whole number ratios such as 1:1, 1:2, 2:3 and so on </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>5) atoms can be neither created nor destroyed </li></ul></ul>
  30. 30. Ernest Rutherford - 1908
  31. 31. Niels Bohr - 1915
  32. 32. Einstein Pauli Bose Heisenberg etc <ul><li>Von Neumann - 1932 mathematical synthesis </li></ul><ul><li>Gravity - Graviton -  Always attracts, never repels; curves space. Gravity is the only force to which all particles are subjected - Indefinite </li></ul><ul><li>Strong Force - Gluon (8 kinds) - Binds quarks into nucleons and nucleons into nuclei - Limited to the atomic nucleus </li></ul><ul><li>  Electromagnetism -Photon - Binds electrons to the nucleus; allows all physical and chemical processes - Indefinite </li></ul><ul><li>  Weak Force - Weak bosons (3 kinds) - Causes unstable particles and nuclei to decay - Limited to the atomic nucleus </li></ul>
  33. 33. Max Knoll and Ernst Ruska - 1931 electron microscopy <ul><li>fly wing 1935 bacteria 1937 iron 1937 </li></ul>
  34. 34. Richard P. Feynman
  35. 35. A Nanotechnology Can Exist <ul><li>There’s Plenty of Room at the Bottom - December 29th 1959 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Manipulating and controlling things on a small scale </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Write the Encyclopedia Brittanica on the head of a pin </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>How do we write small? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Information on a small scale </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Better electron microscopes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The marvelous biological system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Miniaturizing the computer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Miniaturization by evaporation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Problems of lubrication </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A hundred tiny hands </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rearranging the atoms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Atoms in a small world </li></ul></ul>
  36. 36. K. Eric Drexler - 1981 <ul><li>Development of the ability to design protein molecules will open a path to the fabrication of devices to complex atomic specifications </li></ul>
  37. 37. Engines of Creation - 1985 <ul><li>PART ONE - THE FOUNDATIONS OF FORESIGHT </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1 - Engines of Construction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2 - The Principles of Change </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3 - Predicting and Projecting </li></ul></ul><ul><li>PART TWO - PROFILES OF THE POSSIBLE </li></ul><ul><ul><li>4 - Engines of Abundance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>5 - Thinking Machines </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>6 - The World Beyond Earth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>7 - Engines of Healing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>8 - Long Life in an Open World </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>9 - A Door to the Future </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>10 - The Limits to Growth </li></ul></ul><ul><li>PART THREE - DANGERS AND HOPES </li></ul><ul><ul><li>11 - Engines of Destruction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>12 - Strategies and Survival </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>13 - Finding the Facts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>14 - The Network of Knowledge </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>15 - Worlds Enough, and Time </li></ul></ul>
  38. 38. Fullerenes – 1985 (1996) <ul><li>Robert F. Curl Jr. Richard E. Smalley </li></ul><ul><li>Sir Harold W. Kroto </li></ul>
  39. 39. IBM - 1985
  40. 40. Nanotechnology <ul><li>Has a long history </li></ul><ul><li>Has a solid theoretical basis </li></ul><ul><li>Has been looked at seriously for nearly 30 years </li></ul><ul><li>So, what is it? </li></ul>
  41. 41. Nanotechnology could be... <ul><li>Nano (metrology) </li></ul><ul><li>nanoscale science (effects) </li></ul><ul><li>nanoscale technology (fabrication) </li></ul><ul><li>molecular nanotechnology (chemistry) </li></ul>
  42. 42. So who cares? <ul><li>The worldwide annual industrial production in the nanotech sectors is estimated to exceed $1 trillion in 10 - 15 years from now, which would require about 2 million nanotechnology workers. - M.C. Roco Chair, WH/NSTC/Nanoscale Science, Engineering and Technology Subcommittee (NSEC), and Senior Advisor, NSF </li></ul>
  43. 43. What does this mean? - 1994
  44. 44. When for what? - 1994 <ul><li>Birge Brenner Drexler Hall Smalley </li></ul><ul><li>Molecular Assembler: 2005 2025 2015 2010 2000 </li></ul><ul><li>Nanocomputer: 2040 2040 2017 2010 2100 </li></ul><ul><li>Cell Repair: 2030 2035 2018 2050 2010 </li></ul><ul><li>Commercial product: 2002 2000 2015 2005 2000 </li></ul><ul><li>Nanotech laws: 1998 2036 2015 1995 2000 </li></ul>
  45. 45. So where are we now? <ul><li>Overview of who's doing what </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>government </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>universities </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>commercial enterprises </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Segmentation of activities into technology, product, market/application </li></ul><ul><li>Scale of investment, implications </li></ul><ul><li>Patent landscape and implications </li></ul>
  46. 46. Break
  47. 47. Basic Nanotechnology Where Are We Today?
  48. 48. So where are we now? <ul><li>Overview of who's doing what </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>government </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>universities </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>commercial enterprises </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Segmentation of activities into technology, product, market/application </li></ul><ul><li>Scale of investment, implications </li></ul><ul><li>Patent landscape and implications </li></ul>
  49. 49. Government <ul><li>Suppose you were an idiot. </li></ul><ul><li>And suppose you were a member of Congress. </li></ul><ul><li>But I repeat myself. </li></ul><ul><li>- Mark Twain </li></ul>
  50. 50. Government <ul><li>Federal State </li></ul>
  51. 51. Federal Government <ul><li>National Nanotechnology Initiative </li></ul><ul><ul><li>$600 million 2002 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>$700 million 2003 </li></ul></ul>Department of Agriculture    (USDA) Department of Treasury    (DOTreas) Department of Commerce (DOC) Department of State    (DOS) National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Department of Defense (DOD) Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Department of Energy (DOE) National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Department of Justice (DOJ) National Institutes of Health (NIH) Intelligence Community (IC) Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Department of Transportation (DOT) National Science Foundation (NSF)
  52. 52. NNI Definition of Nanotechnology <ul><li>Research and technology development at the atomic, molecular or macromolecular levels, in the length scale of approximately 1 - 100 nanometer range, </li></ul><ul><li>to provide a fundamental understanding of phenomena and materials at the nanoscale </li></ul><ul><li>and to create and use structures, devices and systems that have novel properties and functions because of their small and/or intermediate size. </li></ul><ul><li>Nanotechnology research and development includes manipulation under control of the nanoscale structures and their integration into larger material components, systems and architectures. </li></ul><ul><li>Within these larger scale assemblies, the control and construction of their structures and components remains at the nanometer scale. </li></ul>
  53. 53. NNI Intentions <ul><li>First Generation: passive nanostructures in coatings, nanoparticles, bulk materials (nanostructured metals, polymers, ceramics): ~ 2001 – </li></ul><ul><li>Second Generation: active nanostructures such as transistors, amplifiers, actuators, adaptive structures: ~ 2005 – </li></ul><ul><li>Third Generation: 3D nanosystems with heterogeneous nanocomponents and various assembling techniques ~ 2010 – </li></ul><ul><li>Fourth Generation: molecular nanosystems with heterogeneous molecules, based on biomimetics and new design ~ 2020 (?) </li></ul>
  54. 54. NNI Activities <ul><li>Fundamental Research -Provides sustained support to individual investigators and small groups doing fundamental, innovative research </li></ul><ul><li>Grand Challenges for research on major, long-term objectives </li></ul><ul><li>Centers and Networks of Excellence for interdisciplinary research, networking, industry partnerships </li></ul><ul><li>Research Infrastructure metrology, instrumentation, modeling/simulation, user facilities </li></ul><ul><li>Societal Implications and Workforce Education and Training for a new generation of skilled workers; the impact of nanotechnology on society (legal, ethical, social, economic) </li></ul>
  55. 55. NNI Industry Support <ul><li>Fund partnerships with industrial partner - all agencies </li></ul><ul><li>Provide the NNI results to industry – create data base </li></ul><ul><li>Provide user facilities: NSF, DOE, NASA </li></ul><ul><li>Assistance for instrumentation, standards, tools for manufacturing: NIST </li></ul><ul><li>Direct technology transfer and funding industrial projects SBIR/STTR all agencies , DARPA/DOD, DOE, NASA, NIST, NIH </li></ul><ul><li>Partnerships with industrial groups </li></ul><ul><li>Information data base of nanotechnology companies, and commercial success stories </li></ul><ul><li>Outreach: series of workshops, involve new industries, networking </li></ul>
  56. 56. NNI SBIR <ul><li>Small Business Innovation Research </li></ul><ul><ul><li>SBIR (Small Business Innovation Research) is a federal government program administered by 10 federal agencies for the purpose of helping to provide early-stage Research and Development funding to small technology companies (or individual entrepreneurs who form a company). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Phase I is the startup phase. Awards of up to $100,000 for approximately 6 months support exploration of the technical merit or feasibility of an idea or technology. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Phase II awards of up to $750,000, for as many as 2 years, expand Phase I results. During this time, the R&D work is performed and the developer evaluates commercialization potential. Only Phase I award winners are considered for Phase II. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Phase III is the period during which Phase II innovation moves from the laboratory into the marketplace. No SBIR funds support this phase. The small business must find funding in the private sector or other non-SBIR federal agency funding. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  57. 57. NNI STTR <ul><li>Small Business Technology Transfer </li></ul><ul><li>Central to the program is expansion of the public/private sector partnership to include the joint venture opportunities for small business and the nation's premier nonprofit research institutions. STTR's most important role is to foster the innovation necessary to meet the nation's scientific and technological challenges in the 21st century. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Phase I is the startup phase. Awards of up to $100,000 for approximately one year fund the exploration of the scientific, technical, and commercial feasibility of an idea or technology. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Phase II awards of up to $500,000, for as long as two years, expand Phase I results. During this period, the R&D work is performed and the developer begins to consider commercial potential. Only Phase I award winners are considered for Phase II. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Phase III is the period during which Phase II innovation moves from the laboratory into the marketplace. No STTR funds support this phase. The small business must find funding in the private sector or other non-STTR federal agency funding. </li></ul></ul>
  58. 58. NNI - Where the Money Goes <ul><li>Biosystems at the Nanoscale ~ 14% </li></ul><ul><ul><li>biostructures, mimicry, bio-chips </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Nanostructure ‘by Design’, Novel Phenomena 45% </li></ul><ul><ul><li>physical, biological, electronic, optical, magnetic </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Device and System Architecture 20% </li></ul><ul><ul><li>interconnect, system integration, pathways </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Environmental Processes 6 % </li></ul><ul><ul><li>filtering, absorption, low energy, low waste </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Multiscale and Multiphenomena Modeling 9 % </li></ul><ul><li>Manufacturing at the nanoscale 6% </li></ul><ul><li>Education and Social Implications (distributed) </li></ul>
  59. 59. Other Federal $
  60. 60. Regional Nano-Organizations <ul><li>Nanotechnology Alliance in Southern California </li></ul><ul><li>Nanotechnology Franklin Institute, Pennsylvania </li></ul><ul><li>Texas Nanotechnology Initiative </li></ul><ul><li>Virginia Nanotechnology Initiative </li></ul><ul><li>Denver Nano Hub </li></ul><ul><li>Silicon Valley, San Diego and Michigan Nano Hubs </li></ul><ul><li>Massachusetts Nanotech Initiative (MNI) </li></ul><ul><li>Connecticut Nanotechnology Initiative (CNI) </li></ul>
  61. 61. States <ul><li>CA California NanoSystem Instititute $100M/ 4yrs </li></ul><ul><li>NY Center of Excellence in Nanoelectronics; Albany Center $50M, $212M/ 5yrs </li></ul><ul><li>PA Nanotechnology Center $37M </li></ul><ul><li>IL Nanoscience Center $34M </li></ul><ul><li>IN Nanotechnology Center $5M </li></ul><ul><li>TX Nanotechnology Center $0.5M over 2 yrs </li></ul><ul><li>SC NanoCenter $1M </li></ul><ul><li>NM Consortium University of NM and National labs </li></ul><ul><li>NJ Support at NJIT and future nanophotonics consortium </li></ul><ul><li>FL Center at the University of South Florida </li></ul><ul><li>GA Center at Georgia Tech </li></ul><ul><li>OK Nano-Net (~$3M/yr for 5 years) </li></ul><ul><li>Pending: Ohio (support Center), Tennessee ($24M), Louisiana </li></ul>
  62. 62. Universities <ul><li>If you have both feet planted on level ground, </li></ul><ul><li>then the university has failed you. </li></ul><ul><li>- Robert Goheen </li></ul>
  63. 63. Universities <ul><li>Beckman Institute for Advanced Science and Technology </li></ul><ul><li>California University </li></ul><ul><li>Caltech </li></ul><ul><li>City University of New York </li></ul><ul><li>Clarkson University </li></ul><ul><li>Cornell </li></ul><ul><li>Cranfield University </li></ul><ul><li>Delft University of Technology </li></ul><ul><li>Duke Univresity </li></ul><ul><li>Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne </li></ul><ul><li>Georgia Institute of Technology </li></ul><ul><li>Harvard </li></ul><ul><li>Hungarian Academy of Sciences Research </li></ul><ul><li>Kyushu University </li></ul><ul><li>La Clemson University </li></ul><ul><li>Ludwig-Mazimillians Universitat Munchen </li></ul><ul><li>Michigan State University </li></ul><ul><li>Moscow State University </li></ul><ul><li>New York University </li></ul><ul><li>Northwestern University </li></ul><ul><li>Paul Scherrer Institute </li></ul><ul><li>Pennsylvania State University </li></ul><ul><li>Princeton </li></ul><ul><li>Purdue University </li></ul><ul><li>Renssellaer Polytechnic Institute </li></ul><ul><li>Rice University </li></ul><ul><li>Stanford </li></ul><ul><li>Stony Brook </li></ul><ul><li>The University of Birmingham </li></ul><ul><li>The University of Queensland </li></ul><ul><li>UC Santa Barbara </li></ul><ul><li>University of Arizona </li></ul><ul><li>University of Birmingham </li></ul><ul><li>University of California -Davis </li></ul><ul><li>University of Florida </li></ul><ul><li>University of Glasgow </li></ul><ul><li>University of Minnesota </li></ul><ul><li>University of Nebraska </li></ul><ul><li>University of North Carolina </li></ul><ul><li>University of Southern California </li></ul><ul><li>University of Sussex </li></ul><ul><li>University of Texas </li></ul><ul><li>University of Ulm </li></ul><ul><li>University of Washington </li></ul><ul><li>University of Wien </li></ul><ul><li>University of Wisconsin, Madison </li></ul><ul><li>Widener University </li></ul><ul><li>Yale University </li></ul>
  64. 64. Universities – 2/3 of NNI’s $ <ul><li>Bayh-Dole </li></ul><ul><li>A uniform federal patent policy. </li></ul><ul><li>Universities are encouraged to collaborate with business to promote the utilization of inventions arising from federal funding. </li></ul><ul><li>Universities can elect to retain title to inventions developed under governmental funding. </li></ul><ul><li>Universities are required to file patents on inventions they choose to own. </li></ul><ul><li>The government retains a non-exclusive license to practice the invention throughout the world. </li></ul><ul><li>The government retains march-in rights </li></ul><ul><ul><li>This is the right of the government to require, under certain conditions, that an exclusive license be revoked. In such cases, a variety of provisions are possible, but the idea is, under certain conditions, the government can force an exclusive license to become non-exclusive. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Preference in licensing has to be given to small business. </li></ul><ul><li>Uniform guidelines for granting licenses are provided. </li></ul>
  65. 65. Commercial <ul><li>In theory, there is no difference between theory and practice; </li></ul><ul><li>In practice, there is. </li></ul><ul><li>- Chuck Reid </li></ul>
  66. 66. Commercial <ul><li>Prominent Nano Companies </li></ul><ul><li>Dupont Co. Nasdaq: DPMI  </li></ul><ul><li>Hewlett Packard NYSE: HPQ  </li></ul><ul><li>IBM NYSE:  IBM </li></ul><ul><li>ExxonMobil NYSE: XOM </li></ul><ul><li>Emerging Companies </li></ul><ul><li>•  Altair Nanotechnologies Nasdaq: ALTI </li></ul><ul><li>•  Applied Nanotech, Inc. </li></ul><ul><li>•  Degussa </li></ul><ul><li>•  Henkel </li></ul><ul><li>•  Nanogen   Nasdaq: NGEN </li></ul><ul><li>•  Nanometrics Nasdaq: NANO </li></ul><ul><li>•  Nanophase Technologies Nasdaq: NANX  </li></ul><ul><li>•  NanoPierce Technologies OTC:      NPCT  </li></ul><ul><li>•  Obducat NGM:     OBDU B </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>OBDU KVB </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>•  SI Diamond Technology, Inc. OTC BB:  SIDT </li></ul><ul><li>•  Veeco </li></ul>
  67. 67. Activities Segmentation <ul><li>The first rule to tinkering is to save all the parts. - Paul Erlich </li></ul>
  68. 68. Activities Segmentation <ul><li>Thomas Register </li></ul><ul><li>Classification # of companies </li></ul><ul><li>Nano Inspection Systems 1 </li></ul><ul><li>Nano Motion Systems 1 </li></ul><ul><li>Actuators: Linear, Micro & Nano-Positioning 11 </li></ul><ul><li>Connectors: Nano Miniature 18 </li></ul><ul><li>Positioners: Nano 5 </li></ul><ul><li>Powder: Nano 1 </li></ul><ul><li>Stages: Micro- & Nano-Positioning 8 </li></ul>
  69. 69. Activities Segmentation <ul><li>NNI </li></ul><ul><li>Theory, Modeling, and Simulation </li></ul><ul><li>Experimental Methods and Probes </li></ul><ul><li>Synthesis, Assembly, and Processing of Nanostructures </li></ul><ul><li>Dispersions, Coatings, and Other Large Surface Area Structures </li></ul><ul><li>Nanodevices, Nanoelectronics, and Nanosensors </li></ul><ul><li>Consolidated Nanostructures </li></ul><ul><li>Biological, Medical, and Health </li></ul><ul><li>Energy and Chemicals </li></ul><ul><li>Nanoscale Processes and the Environment </li></ul>
  70. 70. Activities Segmentation <ul><li>Me </li></ul><ul><li>Biological </li></ul><ul><li>Chemical </li></ul><ul><li>Nanomaterials and composites </li></ul><ul><li>Aerospace </li></ul><ul><li>Military </li></ul>
  71. 71. Scale of Investment <ul><li>There are two times in a man's life when he should not speculate: </li></ul><ul><li>when he can't afford it, </li></ul><ul><li>and when he can. </li></ul><ul><li>- Mark Twain </li></ul>
  72. 72. Scale of Investment <ul><li>Estimated government sponsored R&D in $ millions/year </li></ul><ul><li>Fiscal Year 1997 2000 2001 2002 2003 </li></ul><ul><li>_________________________________________________________________________ </li></ul><ul><li>W. Europe 126 200 270 400 </li></ul><ul><li>Japan 120 245 465 650 </li></ul><ul><li>USA 116 270 465 604 710 </li></ul><ul><li>Others 70 110 380 520 </li></ul><ul><li>_________________________________________________________________________ </li></ul><ul><li>TOTAL 432 825 1,492 2,174 </li></ul><ul><li>100% 190% 350% 503% </li></ul><ul><li>Others: Australia, Canada, China, E. Europe, FSU, Israel, Korea, Singapore, Taiwan </li></ul>
  73. 73. Scale of Investment <ul><li>Estimated private sector investment in nanotechnology </li></ul><ul><li>Fiscal Year 1997 2000 2001 2002 2003 </li></ul><ul><li>_________________________________________________________________________ </li></ul><ul><li>TOTAL 10? 25? 50? 150? ? </li></ul>
  74. 74. Patent Landscape <ul><li>I have, as you say, been interested in patents and patentees. </li></ul><ul><li>If your books tell how to exterminate inventors send me nine editions. </li></ul><ul><li>Send them by express. </li></ul><ul><li>- Mark Twain </li></ul>
  75. 75. Patent Landscape Copyright 2003 ©Thomson Derwent All rights reserved
  76. 76. Patent Landscape <ul><li>Search Term No. of Patents USPTO </li></ul><ul><li>____________________________________________________ </li></ul><ul><li>Nanotechnology 99 </li></ul><ul><li>Nanostructured 434 </li></ul><ul><li>Nanofabrication 72 </li></ul><ul><li>Nanodevice 10 </li></ul><ul><li>Nanoprobe 14 </li></ul><ul><li>Nanomechanical 23 </li></ul><ul><li>Nanotube 164 </li></ul><ul><li>Carbon nanotube 129 </li></ul><ul><li>Molecular switch 56 </li></ul><ul><li>Nanocluster 44 </li></ul><ul><li>Nanomagnetic 2 source: The MITRE Corporation 2002 </li></ul>
  77. 77. Europe <ul><li>Austria </li></ul><ul><li>Belgium </li></ul><ul><li>Bulgaria </li></ul><ul><li>Cyprus </li></ul><ul><li>Czech Republic </li></ul><ul><li>Denmark </li></ul><ul><li>Estonia </li></ul><ul><li>Finland </li></ul><ul><li>France </li></ul><ul><li>Germany </li></ul><ul><li>Greece </li></ul><ul><li>Hungary </li></ul><ul><li>Iceland </li></ul><ul><li>Ireland </li></ul><ul><li>Italy </li></ul><ul><li>Latvia </li></ul><ul><li>Liechtenstein </li></ul><ul><li>Lithuania </li></ul><ul><li>Luxembourg </li></ul><ul><li>Malta </li></ul><ul><li>Netherlands </li></ul><ul><li>Norway </li></ul><ul><li>Poland </li></ul><ul><li>Portugal </li></ul><ul><li>Romania </li></ul><ul><li>Slovak Rep. </li></ul><ul><li>Slovenia </li></ul><ul><li>Spain </li></ul><ul><li>Sweden </li></ul><ul><li>Switzerland </li></ul><ul><li>United Kingdom </li></ul><ul><li>Belarus </li></ul><ul><li>Bosnia & Herzegovina </li></ul><ul><li>Croatia </li></ul><ul><li>Georgia </li></ul><ul><li>Moldova </li></ul><ul><li>Russia </li></ul><ul><li>Turkey </li></ul><ul><li>Ukraine </li></ul><ul><li>Yugoslavia </li></ul>
  78. 78. Europe <ul><li>The EU does not have a standard definition of Nanotechnology </li></ul><ul><li>€ 700 over 2002-2006 for processes manipulating atoms & molecules </li></ul><ul><li>If “nano inside” accounted, €850 million/year </li></ul><ul><li>Source: European Nanobusiness Association </li></ul>
  79. 79. Europe - Nanotech Areas <ul><li>Nanotechnology for structural applications </li></ul><ul><li>Nanotechnology for information processing, storage and transmission </li></ul><ul><li>Nano-biotechnology </li></ul><ul><li>Nanotechnology for chemical applications </li></ul><ul><li>Nanotechnology for sensor applications </li></ul><ul><li>Long term research with generic applications </li></ul><ul><li>Instruments and equipment, supporting sciences and technologies </li></ul>
  80. 80. EC influence <ul><li>The European Commission is committed to supporting the development of a real European research and innovation area (ERA). This ambitious project places a strong emphasis on the establishment of a coherent and optimised use of European research resources. Research networking , which facilitates the development of synergistic interactions, in particular between EU and Member State activities, will play a prominent role therein. </li></ul>
  81. 81. EC nano-networks
  82. 82. EC nano-centers The Swiss 'National Centre for Nano Scale Science' at Universität Basel Nanoscience at Cambridge University London Centre for Nanotechnology Center for Competence in Nano-Scale Analysis in Hamburg Nanolink at University of Twente Center of Competence in Nano-Scale Analysis in Hamburg Center for NanoScience based at Ludwig-Maximillians-Universität, München Competence Center for NanoBioTechnology, Saarland, Germany The German Ministry of Education and Research supports six national Competence Centres Nano-World, The Computer-Supported Cooperative Learning Environment on Nanophysics, a Swiss Virtual Campus Center for NanoMaterials at Technische Universiteit Eindhoven, Holland Center for Ultrastructure Research, Austria Nano-Science Center at Københavns Universitet MIC National Micro- and Nanotechnology Research Center at DTU
  83. 83. EC nano-companies 120 companies estimated to reside in Europe Primarily semiconductor (many contained on previous list)
  84. 84. Asia ~ $1 Billion in 2002? Japan $650 Million Korea $160 Million Taiwan $100 Million China $100 Million Singapore >$50 Million India ~ $20 Million Australia ~ $40 Million
  85. 85. Asia - Activities • Ministry of Science and Technology, China • China Nanotech Business Network (to be launched in Nov. 2002) • Hong Kong Innovation Technology Commission (ITC) • Nanotechnology Researchers Network Center of Japan (MEXT) • Council for Science and Technology Policy, Japan • Japan Nanotech Business Network (METI) • Korea Institute of Science and Technology Information (KISTI) (MOST) • Korea Nanotechnology Research Association • Singapore Economic Development Board (EDB) • National Uni. Of Singapore (NUS) Nano Science and Technology Initiative • Industrial Technology Research Institute, Taiwan • National Science Council, Taiwan • APEC Center for Technology Foresight, Thailand
  86. 86. Australia Nanotechnology Nanotechnology Programs Programs Center for Quantum Computer Technology Center for Quantum Computer Technology Australia Research Council Special Research Center Australian Institute of Bio Australian Institute of Bio Nanotechnology Nanotechnology Initiative Initiative ARC Center of Excellence Program ( ARC Center of Excellence Program Undergraduate and Graduate Programs at UNSW
  87. 87. Japan <ul><li>Nanoelectronics Industry Initiative started 2001 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Atsuka Project (70 -- 100nm technology) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>MIRAI Project (50 -- 70nm technology) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>HALCA Project (LSI production) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>strong bio-nano emphasis </li></ul>
  88. 88. China $300m allocated for allocated for Nanotechnology over 5 years National Nanotechnology Center (starting soon) Major Nanotechnology Centers (Beijing, Shang Hai, TianJin, Qing Dao, Xiamen) SME Innovation Investment Fund Hong Kong Nanotechnology Initiative (HKITC) HKUST Nanotechnology Nanotechnology Center Local government support plus manufacturing industry investment Over 700 companies registered and active, over 170 R & D organizations 17 companies are listed on the stock market in China and Hong Kong Over 50 companies (mainly manufacturing) listed on stock exchange Invested in nanotechnology
  89. 89. Korea 10 Year Nanotechnology Plan Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST) Tera -- Level Nanodevices Program MOST Focuses on Convergence of Nanotech and Bio Korean Science & Engineering Foundation (KOSEF) Nano Bioelectronics & Systems Research Center Ministry of Health and Welfare Ministry of Health and Welfare
  90. 90. Singapore Agency for Science, Technology and Research (A* STAR) National Nanotechnology Initiative Established end of 2001 Economic Development Board (EDB) Economic Development Board (EDB) Nanotechnology Investment Initiative National University of Singapore Nanoscience and Nanotechnology Initiative Established Jan. 2002
  91. 91. Taiwan Nanotechnology Initiative starts 2003 Nanotechnology Research Center
  92. 92. End Of Part 1