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  • 01 Chapter Notes

    1. 1. Chapter: The Nature of Science and Technology Table of Contents Section 3: Science and Technology Section 1: What is science? Section 2: Doing Science
    2. 2. <ul><li>Science is a way or a process used to investigate what is happening around you. </li></ul><ul><li>It can provide answers to many questions. </li></ul><ul><li>Tools, such as thermometers and metersticks, are used to give numbers to descriptions. </li></ul>Science in Society What is science? 1 <ul><li>Scientists observe, investigate, and experiment to find answers. </li></ul>
    3. 3. <ul><li>Throughout history, people have tried to find answers to questions about what was happening around them. </li></ul><ul><li>Early scientists tried to explain things based on their observations. </li></ul>Science Is Not New What is science? 1 <ul><li>They used their senses of sight, touch, smell, taste, and hearing to make these observations. </li></ul>
    4. 4. <ul><li>Cholera is a disease caused by a bacterium that is found in contaminated water. </li></ul><ul><li>People who eat food from this water or drink this water have bad cases of diarrhea and can become dehydrated quickly. </li></ul>Science as a Tool What is science? 1 <ul><li>They might even die. </li></ul>
    5. 5. <ul><li>E. Coli is another type of bacterium that can contaminate modern food and water supplies. </li></ul><ul><li>Some types of E. Coli are harmless, but others cause intestinal problems when contaminated food and water are consumed. </li></ul>Science as a Tool What is science? 1 <ul><li>Science can be used to compare how people tracked down the source of the cholera in 1871 with how they track down the source of the E. Coli now. </li></ul>
    6. 6. <ul><li>People in the past followed clues to track the source of cholera epidemics and solve their problem. </li></ul>Using Science Every Day—Scientists Use Clues What is science? 1 <ul><li>Today, scientists do the same thing by finding and following clues to track the source of E. Coli in food and water supplies. </li></ul>
    7. 7. <ul><li>Scientists use prior experience to predict what will occur in investigations. </li></ul>Using Prior Knowledge What is science? 1 <ul><li>Scientists form theories when their predictions have been well tested. </li></ul><ul><li>A theory is an explanation that is supported by facts. </li></ul><ul><li>Scientists also form laws, which are rules that describe a pattern in nature, like gravity. </li></ul>
    8. 8. <ul><li>Scientists use skills and tools to find the similarities and differences. </li></ul>Using Science and Technology What is science? 1 <ul><li>They use a variety of resource materials to find information. </li></ul>
    9. 9. Using Science and Technology What is science? 1 <ul><li>The computer is one tool that modern scientists use to find and analyze data. </li></ul><ul><li>The computer is an example of technology. </li></ul><ul><li>Technology is the application of science to make products or tools that people can use. </li></ul>
    10. 10. <ul><li>Doctors and scientists use skills such as observing, classifying, and interpreting data. </li></ul>Science Skills What is science? 1
    11. 11. <ul><li>Sometimes observation alone does not provide a complete picture of what is happening. </li></ul>Observation and Measurement What is science? 1 <ul><li>To ensure that your data are useful, accurate measurements must be taken, in addition to making careful observations. </li></ul>
    12. 12. Observation and Measurement What is science? 1 <ul><li>Comparing and contrasting are other important skills. </li></ul><ul><li>When scientists look for similarities among data, they compare them. </li></ul><ul><li>Contrasting the data is looking for differences. </li></ul>
    13. 13. <ul><li>The results of observations, experiments, and investigations are not of use to the rest of the world unless they are shared. </li></ul>Communication in Science What is science? 1 <ul><li>Scientists use several methods to communicate their observations. </li></ul>
    14. 14. Communication in Science What is science? 1 <ul><li>Results and conclusions of experiments often are reported in one of the thousands of </li></ul>scientific journals or magazines that are published each year.
    15. 15. <ul><li>Another method to communicate scientific data and results is to keep a Science Journal. </li></ul>Science Journal What is science? 1 <ul><li>Observations and plans for investigations can be recorded, along with the step-by-step procedures that were followed. </li></ul><ul><li>Listings of materials and drawings of how equipment was set up should be in a journal, along with the specific results of an investigation. </li></ul>
    16. 16. <ul><li>You should record mathematical measurements or formulas that were used to analyze the data. </li></ul>Science Journal What is science? 1 <ul><li>Problems that occurred and questions that came up during the investigation should be noted, as well as any possible solutions. </li></ul><ul><li>Your data might be summarized in the form of tables, charts, or graphs, or they might be recorded in a paragraph. </li></ul>
    17. 17. Solving Problems—Identify the Problem <ul><li>Although the investigation of each problem is different, scientists use some steps in all investigations. </li></ul><ul><li>Scientists first make sure that everyone working to solve the problem has a clear understanding of the problem. </li></ul><ul><li>Sometimes, scientists find that the problem is easy to identify or that several problems need to be solved. </li></ul>Doing Science 2
    18. 18. How can the problem be solved? <ul><li>Two of the methods used to answer questions are descriptive research and experimental research design. </li></ul><ul><li>Descriptive research answers scientific questions through observation. </li></ul><ul><li>Experimental research design is used to answer scientific questions by testing a hypothesis through the use of a series of carefully controlled steps. </li></ul>Doing Science 2
    19. 19. How can the problem be solved? <ul><li>Scientific methods are ways, or steps to follow, to try to solve problems. </li></ul>Doing Science 2
    20. 20. Descriptive Research <ul><li>Some scientific problems can be solved, or questions answered, by using descriptive research. </li></ul>Doing Science 2 <ul><li>Descriptive research is based mostly on observations. </li></ul><ul><li>Descriptive research can be used in investigations when experiments would be impossible to perform. </li></ul><ul><li>Descriptive research usually involves the following steps. </li></ul>
    21. 21. State the Research Objective <ul><li>This is the first step in solving a problem using descriptive research. </li></ul>Doing Science 2 <ul><li>A research objective is what you want to find out, or what question you would like to answer. </li></ul>
    22. 22. Describe the Research Design <ul><li>How will you carry out your investigation? How will the data be recorded and analyzed? </li></ul>Doing Science 2 <ul><li>An important part of any research design is safety. </li></ul>Click image to view movie. <ul><li>These are a few of the things scientists think about when they </li></ul>design an investigation using descriptive research.
    23. 23. Describe the Research Design <ul><li>While investigating a cholera outbreak in the 1800s, Dr. John Snow, included the map in his research design. </li></ul>Doing Science 2
    24. 24. Describe the Research Design Doing Science 2 <ul><li>He used these data to predict that the water from the Broad Street pump was the source of the contamination. </li></ul><ul><li>The map showed where people with cholera had lived, and where they obtained their water. </li></ul>
    25. 25. Eliminate Bias <ul><li>Sometimes, scientists might expect certain results. This is known as bias. </li></ul>Doing Science 2 <ul><li>Good investigations avoid bias. </li></ul><ul><li>One way to avoid bias is to use careful numerical measurements for all data. </li></ul><ul><li>Another type of bias can occur in surveys or groups that are chosen for investigations. </li></ul><ul><li>To get an accurate result, you need to use a random sample. </li></ul>
    26. 26. Equipment, Materials, and Models <ul><li>When a scientific problem is solved by descriptive research, the equipment and materials used to carry out the investigation and analyze the data are important. </li></ul>Doing Science 2
    27. 27. Selecting Your Materials <ul><li>Scientists try to use the most up-to-date materials available to them. </li></ul>Doing Science 2 <ul><li>If possible, you should use scientific equipment such as balances, spring sales, microscopes, and metric measurements when performing investigations and gathering data. </li></ul>
    28. 28. Selecting Your Materials Doing Science 2 <ul><li>Calculators and computers can be helpful in </li></ul>evaluating or displaying data.
    29. 29. Selecting Your Materials <ul><li>However, you don’t have to have the latest or most expensive materials and tools to conduct good scientific investigations. </li></ul>Doing Science 2 <ul><li>Your investigations can be completed successfully and the data displayed with materials found in your home or classroom. </li></ul><ul><li>An organized presentation of data is as effective as a computer graphic or an extravagant display. </li></ul>
    30. 30. Using Models <ul><li>One part of carrying out the investigation plan might include making or using scientific models. </li></ul>Doing Science 2 <ul><li>In science, a model represents things that happen too slowly, too quickly, or are too big or too small to observe directly. </li></ul><ul><li>Models also are useful in situations in which direct observation would be too dangerous or expensive. </li></ul>
    31. 31. Using Models <ul><li>Dr. John Snow’s map of the cholera epidemic was a model that allowed him to predict possible sources of the epidemic. </li></ul>Doing Science 2 <ul><li>Many kinds of models are made on computers. </li></ul><ul><li>Graphs, tables, and spreadsheets are models that display information. </li></ul>
    32. 32. Scientific Methods Doing Science 2 <ul><li>This allows them to understand each other’s research and compare results. </li></ul><ul><li>Scientists around the world use a system of measurements called the International </li></ul>System of Units, or SI, to make observations.
    33. 33. Scientific Methods <ul><li>Because SI uses certain metric units that are based on units of ten, multiplication and division are easy to do. </li></ul>Doing Science 2 <ul><li>Prefixes are used with units to change their names to larger or smaller units. </li></ul>
    34. 34. Data—Designing Your Data Tables <ul><li>A well-planned investigation includes ways to record results and observations accurately. </li></ul>Doing Science 2 <ul><li>Data tables are one way to do this. </li></ul>
    35. 35. Data—Designing Your Data Tables Doing Science 2 <ul><li>Most tables have a title that tells you at a glance what the table is about. </li></ul><ul><li>The table is divided into columns and rows. These are usually trials or characteristics to be compared. </li></ul>
    36. 36. Data—Designing Your Data Tables Doing Science 2 <ul><li>The first row contains the titles of the columns. </li></ul><ul><li>The first column identifies what each row represents. </li></ul>
    37. 37. Analyze Your Data <ul><li>Your data must be organized to analyze them. </li></ul>Doing Science 2 <ul><li>Charts and graphs are excellent ways to organize data. </li></ul><ul><li>You can draw the charts and graphs or use a computer to make them. </li></ul>
    38. 38. Draw Conclusions <ul><li>After you have organized your data, you are ready to draw a conclusion. </li></ul>Doing Science 2 <ul><li>Sometimes, your data are not what you expected, but remember, scientists understand that it is important to know when something doesn’t work. </li></ul><ul><li>A successful investigation is not always the one that comes out the way you originally predicted. </li></ul>
    39. 39. Communicating Your Results <ul><li>Every investigation begins because a problem needs to be solved. </li></ul>Doing Science 2 <ul><li>Analyzing data and drawing conclusions are the end of the investigation. </li></ul><ul><li>Usually, scientists communicate their results to other scientists, government agencies, private industries, or the public. </li></ul><ul><li>Scientists usually publish their most important findings. </li></ul>
    40. 40. Communicating Your Results <ul><li>You can communicate your data and conclusions to other members of your science class. </li></ul>Doing Science 2 <ul><li>Organized data and careful analysis will enable you to answer most questions and to discuss your work confidently. </li></ul><ul><li>Analyzing and sharing data are important parts of descriptive and experimental research. </li></ul>
    41. 41. Experimental Research Design <ul><li>Another way to solve scientific problems is through experimentation. </li></ul>Doing Science 2 <ul><li>Experimental research design answers scientific questions by observation of a controlled situation. </li></ul><ul><li>Experimental research design includes several steps. </li></ul>
    42. 42. Form a Hypothesis <ul><li>A hypothesis (hi PAH thuh sus) is a prediction, or statement, that can be tested. </li></ul>Doing Science 2 <ul><li>You use your prior knowledge, new </li></ul>information, and any previous observations to form a hypothesis.
    43. 43. Variables <ul><li>In well-planned experiments, one factor, or variable, is changed at a time. </li></ul>Doing Science 2 <ul><li>This means that the variable is controlled. </li></ul><ul><li>The variable that is changed is called the independent variable . </li></ul><ul><li>A dependant variable is the factor being measured. </li></ul>
    44. 44. Variables <ul><li>To test which of two antibiotics will kill a type of bacterium, you must make sure that every variable remains the same but the type of antibiotic. </li></ul>Doing Science 2 <ul><li>The dependant variable is the growth of the bacteria. </li></ul><ul><li>In this experiment, the independent variable is </li></ul>the amount or type of antibiotic applied to the bacteria.
    45. 45. Variables <ul><li>The variables that stay the same are called constants . </li></ul>Doing Science 2 <ul><li>You cannot run the experiments at two different room temperatures, for different lengths of time, or with different amounts of antibiotics. </li></ul>
    46. 46. Identify Controls <ul><li>Your experiment will not be valid unless a control is used. </li></ul>Doing Science 2 <ul><li>A control is a sample that is treated like the other experimental groups except that the independent variable is not applied to it. </li></ul>
    47. 47. Identify Controls Doing Science 2 <ul><li>In the experiment with antibiotics, your control is a sample of bacteria that is not treated with either antibiotic. </li></ul><ul><li>The control shows how the bacteria grow when left untreated by either antibiotic. </li></ul>
    48. 48. Identify Controls <ul><li>Once you begin an experiment, make sure to carry it out as planned. </li></ul>Doing Science 2 <ul><li>Don’t skip or change steps in the middle. </li></ul><ul><li>Also, you should record your observations and complete your data tables in a timely manner. </li></ul><ul><li>Incomplete observations and reports result in data that are difficult to analyze and threaten the accuracy of your conclusions. </li></ul>
    49. 49. Number of Trials <ul><li>Experiments done the same way do not always have the same results. </li></ul>Doing Science 2 <ul><li>To make sure that your results are valid, you need to conduct several trials of your experiment. </li></ul><ul><li>Multiple trials mean that an unusual outcome of the experiment won’t be considered the true result. </li></ul><ul><li>The more trials you do using the same methods, the more likely it is that your results will be reliable and repeatable. </li></ul>
    50. 50. Analyze Your Results <ul><li>When you analyze your results, you can see if your data support your hypothesis. </li></ul>Doing Science 2 <ul><li>If the data do not support your original hypothesis, you can still learn from the experiment. </li></ul><ul><li>Experiments that don’t work out as you had planned can still provide valuable information. </li></ul><ul><li>Professional scientists rarely have results that support their hypothesis without completing numerous trials first. </li></ul>
    51. 51. Analyze Your Results <ul><li>After your results are analyzed, you can communicate them to your teacher and your class. </li></ul>Doing Science 2 <ul><li>Sharing the results of experiments allows you to hear new ideas from other students that might improve your research. </li></ul><ul><li>Your results might contain information that will be helpful to other students. </li></ul>
    52. 52. Scientific Discoveries <ul><li>New discoveries constantly lead to new products that influence your lifestyle or standard of living. </li></ul><ul><li>In the last 100 years, technological advances have enabled environments to move from live stage shows to large movie screens. </li></ul>Science and Technology 3
    53. 53. Scientific Discoveries Science and Technology 3 <ul><li>Now, DVDs enable users to choose a variety of options while viewing a movie. </li></ul>
    54. 54. Technological Advances <ul><li>Technology also makes your life more convenient. </li></ul><ul><li>Foods can be prepared quickly in microwave ovens, and hydraulic tools make construction work easier and faster. </li></ul>Science and Technology 3 <ul><li>New discoveries influence other areas of your life as well, including your health. </li></ul><ul><li>A disease might be controlled by a skin patch that releases a constant dose of medicine into your body. </li></ul>
    55. 55. Science—The Product of Many <ul><li>New scientific knowledge can mean that old ways of thinking or doing things are challenged. </li></ul>Science and Technology 3 <ul><li>Aristotle, an ancient Greek philosopher, classified living organisms into plants and animals. </li></ul>Click image to view movie.
    56. 56. Science—The Product of Many <ul><li>This system worked until new tools, such as the microscope, enabled scientists to study organisms in greater detail. </li></ul>Science and Technology 3 <ul><li>The new information changed how scientists viewed the living world. </li></ul><ul><li>The current classification system will be used only as long as it continues to answer questions scientists have or until a new discovery enables them to look at information in a different way. </li></ul>
    57. 57. Who practices science? <ul><li>Scientific discoveries have never been limited to people of one race, sex, culture, or time period, or to professional scientists. </li></ul>Science and Technology 3 <ul><li>In fact, students your age have made some important discoveries. </li></ul>
    58. 58. Use of Scientific Information <ul><li>Science provides new information every day that people use to make decisions. </li></ul>Science and Technology 3 <ul><li>However, science cannot decide whether the new information is good or bad, moral or immoral. </li></ul><ul><li>People decide whether the new information is used to help or harm the world and its inhabitants. </li></ul>
    59. 59. Looking to the Future <ul><li>Today’s scientists use cellular phones and computers to communicate with each other. </li></ul>Science and Technology 3 <ul><li>This information technology has led to the globalization, or worldwide distribution, of information. </li></ul>