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The Scientific Method



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The Scientific Method

  1. 1. The Scientific Method <ul><li>To start click here </li></ul>
  2. 2. Click One of the Following To Start Your Tour <ul><li>Testable Question </li></ul><ul><li>Writing A Hypothesis </li></ul><ul><li>Gathering Materials </li></ul><ul><li>Writing A Procedure </li></ul><ul><li>Conducting The Investigation </li></ul><ul><li>Recording Data </li></ul><ul><li>Drawing Conclusions and Sharing Results </li></ul><ul><li>Quiz and Activity (Do Not Click Until All Others Have Been Studied) </li></ul>
  3. 3. The Testable Question (Problem) <ul><li>Before you start an experiment you must have a reason to do it. </li></ul><ul><li>You need to have a question that can be answered through an investigation </li></ul><ul><li>This is called a “Testable Question.” </li></ul>Click For More ->
  4. 4. Examples of the Testable Question <ul><li>Does the amount of sunlight a plant gets affect how it grows? </li></ul><ul><li>Does the size of the hole in the bottom of a sinking water clock affect how fast it sinks? </li></ul><ul><li>Does caffeine affect reaction time in middle school students? </li></ul><ul><li>Which disinfectant works the best on household germs? </li></ul>Next Slide ->
  5. 5. These Are Not Testable Questions <ul><li>Is Jerry Rice the best receiver of all time? </li></ul><ul><li>Does water smell good? </li></ul><ul><li>Is the cafeteria food good? </li></ul><ul><li>Will the school be open tomorrow? </li></ul><ul><li>You cannot answer these questions with an experiment. Opinion questions are not testable. </li></ul>Menu
  6. 6. Gathering Materials <ul><li>In order to do an experiment, you must make a list of the equipment you will use. </li></ul><ul><li>This list is written above your procedure. </li></ul><ul><li>It allows other people to do your experiment without having to ask you what they need. </li></ul>Home
  7. 7. Writing a Hypothesis <ul><li>A hypothesis is an “educated guess” about the out come of your experiment. </li></ul><ul><li>In order to make this guess, you must rely on your background knowledge and the research which you conducted before you began planning the experiment. </li></ul>Click Here for More!
  8. 8. Hypothesis and Research <ul><li>It is VERY important that you conduct research before you make your hypothesis. This research will give you the information you need to make a hypothesis that is scientific and accurate. </li></ul>
  9. 9. A Well Written Hypothesis <ul><li>A well written hypothesis consists of an “if” statement and a “then” statement. </li></ul><ul><li>The “if” statement contains information on what your are testing, and the “then” statement reflects your beliefs of the outcome of the experiment. </li></ul>Click Here For Some Examples!!!
  10. 10. Examples <ul><li>“ If we change the size of a hole in the bottom of a funnel, then the funnel will sink at a faster rate” </li></ul><ul><li>“ If caffeine is increased in someone’s body, then their reaction time will be quicker” </li></ul>Back Home
  11. 11. Writing A Procedure <ul><li>A procedure is a list of steps that a scientist takes to complete the experiment. </li></ul><ul><li>This is a very detailed list that is numbered in 1,2,3..... order. It is not a paragraph! It may include drawings. </li></ul><ul><li>You know you have written a good procedure when someone can read it and do the experiment exactly like you did. </li></ul>Click Here For An Example!
  12. 12. Water Clock Procedure <ul><li>1. Fill a clear, 4 liter bucket to 1 inch from the top </li></ul><ul><li>2. Place funnel on the top of the water with the hole facing down </li></ul><ul><li>3. Let funnel sink and record the time it takes to hit the bottom </li></ul><ul><li>4. Record this time in a data table </li></ul><ul><li>5. Take the funnel out of the water and place one, 3/4 inch brass washer inside the funnel. </li></ul><ul><li>6. Repeat steps 2 through 4. </li></ul><ul><li>7. Repeat step 5 by adding two, 3/4 inch brass washers inside the funnel. </li></ul><ul><li>8. Repeat steps 2 through 4 </li></ul><ul><li>9. Repeat step 5 by adding three, 3/4 inch brass washers inside the funnel. </li></ul><ul><li>10. Using your data table, make a line graph representing the sinking times of all three funnels. </li></ul>Home
  13. 13. Conducting The Investigation <ul><li>It is now time to start testing your hypothesis! </li></ul><ul><li>This is the step that we all want to jump right into. However, it is very important that we complete the previous steps first. </li></ul><ul><li>Safety is always an issue here. Be sure to follow all lab safety procedures while conducting the investigation </li></ul>More ->
  14. 14. Investigation <ul><li>If you have written a detailed procedure, your investigation should go smoothly. </li></ul><ul><li>Simply follow the steps in your procedure!! </li></ul><ul><li>Be sure to clean up your materials when you have finished! </li></ul>Home
  15. 15. Recording Data <ul><li>All measurements in an investigation need to be recorded in a data table. </li></ul><ul><li>The table must have a title (related to what you are measuring), and appropriate labels for the rows and columns. </li></ul>Sinking Time For Funnels (seconds) Trial Number 1 2 3 Avg. Number Of Washers 0 1 2 3 110 90 80 93.3 36 31 40 35 12 17 17 15 12 10 14 12 Click To See The Graph
  16. 16. Graphing Your Data Table <ul><li>In order to understand and interpret you data, you need to make a graph. </li></ul><ul><li>A graph lets you see trends in the data and it also helps you look at the data in a way that is easy to understand. </li></ul><ul><li>When graphing, use the “T.A.I.L.S.” method. This will insure that all of your labels and increments are correct! </li></ul><ul><li>Remembe r your labels!! </li></ul>Home
  17. 17. Drawing Conclusions <ul><li>The final piece of the scientific method is drawing conclusions. </li></ul><ul><li>In this step we analyze our data and graphs and decide if our hypothesis was correct or incorrect! We always restate our hypothesis in our conclusion. </li></ul><ul><li>We discuss any trends we see and we attempt to explain why our hypothesis was correct or incorrect. </li></ul><ul><li>This is always in paragraph form! </li></ul>Conclusion In conclusion, I can say that my hypothesis (if we add more washers to the funnel, then it will sink faster) was correct. The funnel did sink faster when I added more washers. My graph shows a decrease in sinking time so I have proved that this is true. Sharing Conclusions
  18. 18. Sharing Conclusions <ul><li>To make our experiment complete we must share our findings with other people. </li></ul><ul><li>This can be through discussion or a lab report printed for a magazine. Scientists love to read about other’s experiments! </li></ul>Sinking Water Clocks Homeward Bound
  19. 19. Quiz <ul><li>Directions: Click on the correct answer. When you are finished with the multiple choice part, write your score and answer the “Fill In The Blank Questions” on a separate piece of paper. Click next to begin! </li></ul>Next
  20. 20. Quiz Page 1 Multiple Choice <ul><li>1. The first step in the scientific method is: A. conducting an investigation B. writing a testable question C. writing a hypothesis D. drawing conclusions </li></ul>
  21. 21. Quiz Page 2 <ul><li>2. Opinion questions are: A. testable B. not testable C. scientific </li></ul>
  22. 22. Quiz Page 3 Multiple Choice <ul><li>3. After writing a testable question you need to: A. start the investigation B. write conclusions C. gather materials </li></ul>
  23. 23. Quiz Page 4 <ul><li>4. An educated guess about the outcome of the investigation is called a: A. guess B. hippopotamus C. hypothesis D. hyperbole </li></ul>
  24. 24. Quiz Page 5 Multiple Choice <ul><li>5. A hypothesis must contain an “____, ____” statement: A. here, now B. if, not C. if, then D. why, why not </li></ul>
  25. 25. Quiz Page 6 <ul><li>6. In a well written hypothesis, the dependent variable can be found in the “____” statement. A. if B. then </li></ul>
  26. 26. Quiz Page 7 Multiple Choice <ul><li>7. When writing a procedure, it should contain lots of: A. words B. paper C. details </li></ul>
  27. 27. Quiz Page 8 <ul><li>8. A procedure should be in _______ form. A. paragraph B. circular C. square D. list </li></ul>
  28. 28. Quiz Page 9 Multiple Choice <ul><li>9. If you have written a good procedure, someone should be able to do your experiment almost like you did. A. True B. False </li></ul>
  29. 29. Quiz Page 10 <ul><li>10. After writing a good procedure, it is time to start: A. dancing B. your engines C. your investigation </li></ul>
  30. 30. Quiz Page 11 Fill In The Blank <ul><li>11. A ________ helps you look at data in a way that is easy to understand. It shows trends. </li></ul><ul><li>12. It is very important to place a _______ on the top of your graph and ________ on the axis. </li></ul><ul><li>13. Using the __________ method will help you remember your graphing rules </li></ul>
  31. 31. Quiz Page 12 Fill In The Blank <ul><li>14. When doing an experiment, you record your data in a _______ _________. </li></ul><ul><li>15. A data table must also have a ________ at the top and the ______ and ________ must be labeled too. </li></ul><ul><li>16. The final part of the scientific method is making __________. This is when you see if your _________ was correct. </li></ul>
  32. 32. Quiz Page 13 Fill In The Blank <ul><li>17. To make our experiment complete, we must _______ our findings with other people. The End Of The Quiz </li></ul><ul><li>You will now choose a project on the following slide. You may only choose 1. You must work by yourself! It will be due on the last day of the second marking period. Please see Mr. Scheuch for the rubric of your project. </li></ul>To Project Options
  33. 33. Project Options <ul><li>1. Design and conduct your own investigation. You will need to gather your own materials and you may only work on this in class. Investigation idea must be approved by Mr. Scheuch before you begin. </li></ul><ul><li>2. Make a poster explaining all parts of the scientific method (including variables). Mr Scheuch has the rubric for this project. </li></ul><ul><li>3. Research a famous scientist and present his/her contribution to science. This can be a poster, model, or report. See Mr. Scheuch for rubric. </li></ul>Please Reset Me!