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Ch 2 ecology notes

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  1. 1. Methods of Science 2.1/2.2 Science is the study of nature- it involves researching, and trying to explain our natural world <ul><li>_____________ ( made directly or with tools like_____) </li></ul><ul><li>State the problem </li></ul><ul><li>Research- find out what other know about the problem </li></ul><ul><li>Hypothesis ( possible explanation for a set of observations) </li></ul><ul><li>_______________________ </li></ul>
  2. 2. Experiments <ul><li>Designed to test hypothesis </li></ul><ul><li>Must be repeatable </li></ul><ul><li>Should only test 1 variable ( any factor that affects the outcome of an experiment) at a time </li></ul><ul><li>Often has 2 groups- a control group and a experimental group </li></ul><ul><li>- control group- have all factors </li></ul><ul><li>- experimental group- one of the variables is purposefully changed to see what happens </li></ul><ul><li>variable being tested is called the independent variable; the variable that changes as a result of the independent variable is called the dependent variable </li></ul>
  3. 3. Collecting, Analyzing and Organizing Data <ul><li>Once data has been acquired scientists try to analyze it </li></ul><ul><li>They can organize the data into graphs, charts, tables; dependent variable is on y -axis, independent variable is on x -axis </li></ul><ul><li>Scientists then share their work and results with others- communicating by publishing in periodicals, presenting papers etc. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Theory <ul><li>is an explanation </li></ul><ul><li>explains many pieces of data and predicts </li></ul><ul><li>can be, and often is modified as new info is found </li></ul><ul><li>can _________________ </li></ul>Activity- look at list of criteria for science Examine a scientific periodical, a newspaper, and a tabloid article. What criteria of science do they Meet and don’t meet.
  5. 5. Hypothesis and Theories <ul><li>Must be testable </li></ul><ul><li>If later observations do not fit the hypothesis, then you change it </li></ul><ul><li>Science is never 100% certain- it is based on the data we have at hand- new data can be discovered, new instruments made so we get new data; scientists have many times altered, thrown out, or confirmed their ideas about how things work </li></ul>
  6. 6. Science & Society Science finds out information ; it does not decide on the value of that information, or how it is used
  7. 7. 2.3 Environmental Science Our surroundings is called the _______________ Environmental Science is the study of our Surroundings and the interactions that occur with it. Env. Sci is an integrated science- uses many other fields of science such as 1.__________________ 2._________________ 3._________________
  8. 8. <ul><li>Types of scientists </li></ul><ul><li>hydrologist _____________________ </li></ul><ul><li>oceanographer _____________________ </li></ul><ul><li>Meteorologist _____________________ </li></ul><ul><li>Climatologist _____________________ </li></ul><ul><li>Geologist ______________________ </li></ul><ul><li>Seismologist _____________________ </li></ul><ul><li>Biologist ______________________ </li></ul><ul><li>Ecologist ______________________ </li></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>Paleontologist ______________________ </li></ul><ul><li>Anthropologist ______________________ </li></ul>2 Main Factors in the Environment 1._________- nonliving factors 2._________- living factors There is constant interaction between and among these factors
  10. 10. Ecology and Environmental Science <ul><li>Ecology is the study of the environment- regardless of human society </li></ul><ul><li>Environmental science studies how humans affect the ecology of a system </li></ul><ul><li>1 st semester- ecology </li></ul><ul><li>2 nd semester is environmental science- deals more with human interactions with the environment </li></ul>
  11. 11. Interactions <ul><li>The interaction of biotic and abiotic factors play a central role in ecology- sometimes we study the interactions between the living and non-living parts; sometimes we study the interactions between the biotic factors- read pg 28 about the interactions between the coyotes, deer, wolves and mountain lions in Arizona. </li></ul>