HTM2118 Hospitality and CultureItaly Chester Chung Conry Koo Lisa Tam Viann Wong
Content History of Italy Geography and climate Religion Fashion Food and Beverage Music Sport Architecture Visual Art Social
Italian Tourism ．Italy is the fourth highest tourist earner in the world. ．Italy is the fifth most visited country in the world with 43.7 million international tourist arrivals and total receipts estimated at $42.7 Billion behind France (76.0 million), Spain (55.6 million), United States (49.4 million), and China (46.8 million). ．People mainly come to Italy for its rich art, cuisine, archaeology, history, fashion, and culture, its beautiful coastline and beaches.
History of Italy Romans (5th c. BC to 5th c. AD) Middle Ages (6th to 14th c.)Renaissance (15th to 16th c.) Foreign domination (1559 to 1814) Unification (1814 to 1861) Monarchy, Fascism and World Wars (1861-1945) Italian Republic (after 1945)
Romans (5th c. BC to 5th c. AD) I. Civil Wars (1st century BC) II. The Roman Empire (1st-2nd centuries AD) III. Decline and Fall (3rd-5th centuries)
． Nearly dominated the whole southern Europe． Later in A.D.395 separated into Western Roman Empire and Eastern Roman Empire ．In A.D.476, Roman Empire dissolved. ．Famous emperors: Constantinus I Magnus, Theodosius the Great Theodosius the Great
Middle Ages (6th to 14th c.) ．City- states: During the late Middle Ages Italy was divided into smaller city-states and territories: South :Kingdom of Naples Center: Republic of Florence and the Papal States North and West: Milanese East: Venetians ．Fifteenth-century Italy was one of the most urbanized areas in Europe and the birthplace of Renaissance.
Middle Ages (6th to 14th c.) ．Focused on trade: Venice and Genoa were Europe's gateways to trade with the East, with the former producer of the renowned venetian glass. Florence was the capital of silk, wool, banks and jewelry.
．Republic: Italy during this period became notable for its merchant Republics. These city-states, oligarchic in reality, had a dominant merchant class which under relative freedom nurtured academic and artistic advancement. The four classic Maritime Republics in Italy were Venice, Genoa, Pisa and Amalfi.
Renaissance (15th to 16th c.) ．It’s a cultural movement that spanned roughly the 14th to the 17th century, beginning in Florence in the Late Middle Ages and later spreading to the rest of Europe.
．The Renaissance was a cultural movement that began in Italy, and spreading to the rest of Europe by the 16th century, its influence affected literature, philosophy, art, politics, science, religion, and other aspects of intellectual inquiry.
Foreign domination (1559 - 1814) ．In 1494 the French king Charles VIII opened the first of a series of invasions, lasting up to sixteenth century, in a competition between France and Spain for the possession of Italy. ．Later, Austrian influence was getting bigger.．Napoleon Bonaparte conquered Italy during early 19-century and set up new kingdom. ．Later fell back into the hands of Austria during Metternich ‘s era. ．The foreign domination greatly stimulated nationalism which later greatly inspired unification. Napoleon Metternich
Unification (1814 to 1861) ．The unification was mainly led by House of Savoy.．Main obstacles were Austria and later France.．Methods: by universal suffrage, wars, foreign aid (early by France and later by Prussia)．Finally unified in 1861 (except Rome), in 1870, Rome was unified and became the capital of the new-born Italian kingdom. Significant figures: Mazzini, Garibaldi, Cavour Mazzini Garibaldi Cavour
Monarchy, Fascism and World Wars (1861-1945) ．Monarchy After unification, monarchy was adopted by House of Savoy. ．First World War (1914-1919) - firstly a member of Triple Alliance but later betrayed the Alliance.Italian therefore had been hated by Germans and Austrians. ．Fascism – the small National Fascist Party, led by Benito Mussolini which advocated Totalitarianism, Expansionism, Self-sufficient, glorifying wars and great past history…. -anti-American cultural policies -Extreme nationalism -anti-communism -violent expansion
Second World War (1939- 1945) ．Cooperated with Nazi Germany and Japan, formed Axis powers. ．Finally defeated by allied power. ．In September 1943, Italy surrendered, leading to the collapse of the fascist regime and the arrest of Mussolini. Mussolini Hitler
Italian Republic (after 1945) ．Republican: In the 1950s Italy became a member of NATO and allied itself with the United States. The Marshall Plan helped revive the Italian economy which, until the 1960s, enjoyed a period of sustained economic growth commonly called the "Economic Miracle". In 1957, Italy was a founder member of the European Economic Community (EEC), which became the European Union (EU) in 1993.
．Failure of the government: From 1992 to 2009, Italy faced significant challenges, as voters, disenchanted with past political paralysis, massive government debt and extensive corruption NATO Silvio Berlusconi European Union
Cultural issue ．Italians are very proud of the past glorious Roman Empire, they think their race and culture are pretty superior in Europe. ．The Renaissance is also proud for Italians, it greatly affected the European culture in middle ages, the renaissance also affirmed the value of Italian culture. ．Italy was almost the latest western power which entered the tide of Industrial Revolution in 19-century, that’s why its economic development was slow. Because of this, Italians were always teased by other western power in that time. ．Italians always avoid talking about the matters involving the defeat in the Second World War and the shameful Fascism, which are the stains of their history, these topics always make Italians embarrassed. ．Nowadays, the inefficiency of the government and corruption problems make Italians feel great disappointed to politics.
Climate and Geography Italy is located on the Italian Peninsula in Southern Europe and on the two largest islands in the Mediterranean Sea, Sicily and Sardinia.
Mediterranean climate The climate is a typical Mediterranean climatewith hot, dry summers and mild, rainy winters.
Alps, Mount Vesuvius and Sicily ．Alps are located at the north of Italy are one of the great mountain range systems of Europe ．Mount Vesuvius is the only volcano on the European mainland to have erupted within the last hundred years ．Sicily is the largest island in the Mediterranean Sea.
Cultural issue ．Italians are Latin. Latin people are well known as enthusiastic, climate may contribute to formation of this personality. They tend to have fun outside rather than at home.． Italy is a peninsula and it nears Mediterranean Sea, Italians are adventurous because they used to travel and travel by ships. ．Volcanoes makes Italians feel insecure and so they have high tendency to avoid risk in daily life (Total life insurance premiums written in 2001 equaled US $68.988 billion compared to US $35.7 billion in 1992.)
How does it affect hospitality? ．The Italians hotels are always located at the coastal areas with very beautiful Mediterranean sea views, which attract a lot of tourists every year. ．The Mount Vesuvlus and Alps are famous attractions in Italy, they are valuable natural resources for Italian tourism industry, lots of people visit to the only volcano on the European mainland to have erupted within the last hundred years and the biggest mountain range on European continent. ．The special geographic location makes Venice the ‘City of water’ and it is affected by Mediterranean climate. Using boats to transport in the city is a special feature and it ‘s world-famous, some motels are built on water.
Brief Introduction of Religions in Italy Majority of Italian citizens are Rome Catholics Holy See (Vatican City), headquarters to 1 billion Catholics worldwide Also significant minority of other religion Jewish communities and an increasing Muslim immigrant population second largest denomination among native-born citizens
established in 1929 and is a self-contained sovereign state within Rome home of the government of the Roman Catholic Church and of the Pope
Catholicism in Italy National holiday Coronation Day of Pope BENEDICT XVI, 24 April (2005) Flag of Vatican city
Catholicism in Italy Children usually take their first communion at the age of eight or nine, usually in April or May (when they become full members of the Catholic church) Each day of the year has at least one patron saint associated with it Churches promote hierarchy ->more respect to older people, successful businessmen
Catholicism in Italy Constitution provides for freedom of religion, and the government is thought to generally respect this right in practice right to freedom of worship is guaranteed under the Italian constitution Every town has at least one Catholic church Religion makes Italian easily accept foreigners, because they believe everyone is brothers and sisters, no matter what their races are.
How Does it affect hospitality? Hotels are built near the Church -full of religious atmosphere -religious guests can go to church conveniently Growth of business related to Pilgrimage e.g. the JeriCo Christian Journeys helps plan and carry out pilgrimage itinerary
How Does it affect hospitality? Tour packages include the religious events pilgrimage http://www.scribd.com/doc/16200744/DWM-Pilgrimage-to-Italy-2009
How Does it affect hospitality? Religion advocates to love everyone, so Italian hotels try their best to make guests feel like home and beloved. A lot of foreigners come Italy for religious purposes, churches in Milan are hotspots for them, they love to visit Vatican City which is inside Rome too, the religious trips help developing Italy’s tourism industry.
History of Italy fashion Italian fashion design became well-known in 1951 when the Italian designer Count Giorgini held a fashion show for open public in Florence, attracted people’s attention toward Italian fashion
In fifties, only nobility could wear proper Italian fashion clothes Other ordinary Italian actually didn’t care what they wore and what was so called ‘fashion’ In the Sixties, Italy fashion changed from elegant to manufactured clothes due to the protest and industrial boom In the Seventies and Eighties, Italy fashion widely spread, continuously affecting the whole world until now
Fashion’s social role in Italy For Italians, one’s class is determined according to what one wears Fashion is almost a national passion, there are trends that worn to show off the best of the wearer Italian fashion has always been considered as a means of social status confirmation and communication exchange for different people
How Does it affect other counties “Italy has built a reputation for itself in the global markets for its fashion clothing and footwear industry and any problem befalling the sector could have a severe impact on the ‘Made in Italy’ label and the manufacturing industry” said the head of representatives of the trade body from the sector; Sistema Moda Italia
Italy dominate the world in the fashion aspect Everyone desires Italian brands or something ‘ made in Italy’ Foster the relationship between global brands because of the other brands may want to crossover with Italian brands
some fashion show, especially in Italian design, may held in hotel’s venue. some hotels’ uniforms are using Italian design How Does it affect hospitality?
History of Italy food culture The culinary history of Italy established a reputation more than 2,000 years ago The spread of Italian food began after theRoman Empire when individual city started to maintain separate identities and traditions.
Each region began to display its own unique way of cooking, and eventually mixed up and become the Italian cuisine in nowadays Over the years, Italian cuisine evolvedbecause of a wealth of outside influences that have added to its characteristic flavor and appeal
Features of Italian food Italian food is famous and imitated by many countries Italian cookery isnutritious and healthy The whole cooking process emphasis natural ingredients The ingredients used are linked to the changing seasons.
traditions have been handed down from one family to the next over the centuries There is no absolute “classics” of Italian cookery. Italian cuisine is varied. Dining in Italian restaurant can help one escape from normal busy, industrial city anywhere in the world Because Italian food is perceived and represented in the media as one aspect of a lifestyle: People are more relaxed and everybody takes their time to eat, drink and share with families or friends.
How Does it affect other countries Many chefs start introducing Italy cuisine in restaurant Many ingredients are imported from Italy on an almost daily basis Italy cuisine is boosted by magazines and other media over the world
How Does it affect hospitality? the ingredients using in food and beverage must be ensured fresh and match up with the best season, thus quality control is highly concerned menus in restaurant should be redesigned regularly to match up with the changing seasons courses in menu must be creative and unique health must be the prerequisite of menu design
health must be the prerequisite of menu design Italians prefer cook by themselves, so hotel restaurant may think of other ways to attract customers For example, celebrate birthdays, weddings, have dates, mark holidays and special occasions
Beverage Italy is well known of its wine. Entire regions aggressively compete on the quality wine market. Everyone in Italy, either local resident or tourists, loves to have a taste on the local wine By a law of 1992 wines were classified in a pyramidal scale at the bottom are the table wines with no indication of provenance, year or wine species; further up wines with Typical Geographic Specifications (IGT) and at the top, the DOC and DOCG wines (Controlled and Guaranteed Denomination of Origin).
How Does it affect hospitality? Researches are very important, selling the most suitable wine to customers Wine must be well maintained and stored because most customers assume that wine in Italy are in high quality
Italy hosts many music festivals of all types—classical, jazz, and pop—throughout the year
Italian pop music is represented annually at the Festival of San Remo
a large number of theatres in Italy, many of which are privately run
Italian Classical Music Italy - a center for European classical music decidedly romantic and melodic Italian music had little in common with the French after World War 1, Italian music became more European and less distinctly Italian new music was characterized by the abandonment of historically , harmony and melody in favor of experimental music these changes have also made classical music less accessible to many people Important modern composers of 20th–century Italian music are Luciano Berio, Luigi Dallapiccola,etc
Italian Jazz The first Italian jazz orchestras were formed during 1920s and enjoyed immediate success In the immediate post-war years jazz took off in Italy All American post-war jazz styles, from be-bop to Free Jazz and Fusion have their equivalents in Italy there are jazz festivals each year in Italy (the best-known of which is the Umbria Jazz Festival) and there are prominent publications such as the journal, Musica Jazz
Opera Early opera The period of Italy's greatest musical influence throughout Europe is referred to as Baroque. (1500's to the mid 1700's) During this period new attitudes embraced new appreciation of the relation of lyrics to music and the treatment of rhythm The resulting style of the baroque music brought forth several new genres of music such as: oratorio, concerto, and sinfonia and opera The first opera The first true opera is thought to be Dafne (1598) composed by Peri at the home of Jacopo Corsi in Florence Italy. Dafne was the first in a series of similar productions that established an enduring tradition-Italian opera
Sport ．Italy has a long sporting tradition. In almost all sports, both individual and team, Italy has good representative and many successes. The most popular sport is Football. ．Cycling and Volleyball are the next most popular/played, with Italy having a rich tradition in both.
Football Their honours include: 4 FIFA World Cups 1 European Football Championship 1 Olympic Gold Medal 5 European Championships U21 3 European Championships U18 2 European Championships U16 8 World Military Championships
Football ．Italians are very proud of their achievements in football. Also they are very loyal fans of the football clubs that they like. Famous clubs: Juventus, AC Milan, Internazionale ．Violent disputes always take place between fans of different Italian football clubs.
Volleyball ．Volleyball (pallavolo) is played by a lot of amateur players and professional players compete in the Italian Volleyball League. Italian national male and female teams are often in top four ranking of national teams in the world, ．Italians regarded it as the best volleyball league in the world.
Cycling ．Cycling is also a well represented sport in Italy. Italians have won more World Cycling Championships than any other country except Belgium. ．2008 UCI Road World Championship was held in Italy – Varesa.
Other sports Bocce is traditionally played on natural soil or asphalt courts approximately 20 to 27 metres in length and 2.5 to 4 metres wide, sometimes with wooden boards of approximately 15 centimetres in height surrounding the court. Ski is very popular in Italy with more than 2,000,000 skiers, most of them in the north and in the center. Italian skiers received good results in the Winter Olympic Games, World Cup and World Championship.
Culture issue Sports can show some personalities of Italians. Loyalty: Fans of football clubs are very loyal, violent events always take place during big matches. Enthusiastic: Fans always support their beloved teams by entering the stadium in person. Conservative: The traditional strategy of Italian national football team is defense. They are not willing to take risk during matches and that’s why they always just win 1-0. The strategy also show the pragmatism of Italians, they do not advocate beautiful football but practical strategy. Self – confident: Italians always claim that their national team or football league are the best in world, it is even a little bit arrogant.
Architecture ．Romanesque architecture is the most famous style of Italian architecture. ．Romanesque architecture is an architectural style of Medieval Europe, characterized by semi-circular arches, and evolving into the Gothic style, characterized by pointed arches, beginning in the 12th century.
Walls & Columns ．The walls of Romanesque buildings are often of massive thickness with few and comparatively small openings. They are often double shells, filled with rubble. ．Columns are an important structural feature of Romanesque architecture. Colonnettes and attached shafts are also used structurally and for decoration.
Towers & Pointed arched vault ．Towers were an important feature of Romanesque churches and a great number of them are still standing. They take a variety of forms, square, circular and octagonal, ．Pointed arched vault - Late in the Romanesque period another solution came into use for regulating the height of diagonal and transverse ribs. This was to use arches of the same diameter for both horizontal and transverse ribs, causing the transverse ribs to meet at a point.
Sculpture ．Figurative sculpture - With the fall of the Roman Empire, the tradition of carving large works in stone and sculpting figures in bronze died out, as it effectively did (for religious reasons) in the Byzantine world. ．Architectural sculpture - The Romanesque period produced a profusion of sculptural ornamentation. This most frequently took a purely geometric form and was particularly applied to mouldings, both straight courses and the curved moldings of arches.
How does it affect hospitality? Italian hotels: ．keep Italian architecture style – thick walls, arched vaults and columns. ．Have a lot of sculptures inside or outside ．Are elegant, well-built and well-designed A lot of tourists love the Italian hotel because of the designs and architectures.
Italian Art 40% of the art of the world in Italy (by UNESCO study ) Italian painting characterized by a warmth and light color and imposed all the manifestations of Italians thought and feeling
Different art periods: 8th centuries BC 2nd centuries BC 4th centuries AD 11th centuries AD The Etruscans Early Christian and Late Medieval Art Prehistoric Civilizations Roman Period 5th centuries AD 11th centuries AD 14th centuries AD 16th centuries AD Romanesque Gothic Renaissance Mannerism Neo-Classicism and Romanticism 12th centuries AD 15th centuries AD
Early Christian Art (4th to 7th centuries AD ) Most early religious artists worked in manner that was derived from Roman art present images which would draw the spectator into the inner eye of their work, pointing to its spiritual significance The first Christians don't see in art a way of expressing beauty, but one of transmitting their faith and beliefs as well as to teach them.
Romanesque Art (11th to 12th centuries AD ) the first epoch of medieval art that encompassed all of Europe greatly affected by the social and political change Its origins hearken back to characteristic elements of Roman construction Architecture, painting, and sculpture were permeated with the Christian worldview and the spirit of the religion
Italian Renaissance (1330-1550) "Renaissance" means "rebirth” in Italian. began in Florence at the dawn of the 15th century about the idea of redeveloping the ancient and middle age culture which was promoted by the young scholars also the age of natural beauty discovery and reality of the world the single most important artistic and cultural movement in the history of Western Civilization a movement which also pointed the way for many future European achievements in the arts
emphasized the importance of individual achievement in a wide range of fields Italian merchants and political officials supported and commissioned the great artists of the day, thus the products of the Renaissance grew up inside their walls famous artist like Michelangelo, Leonardo da Vinci, Raphael, Titian, Donatello, Piero della Francesca, Mantegna, Antonello da Messina, Carpaccio, Giorgione, Paolo Uccello and many others
famous artists in Renaissance Michelangelo (1475-1564) he was gifted as a painter, a sculptor, an architect, an engineer, and a poet Michelangelo's life coincided with a period of enormous papal power, he was subject to political pressures, wars, papal orders and counter orders. His greatest painting, the decoration of the Sistine Chapel was painted single-handedly between 1508 and 1512. Michelangelo's genius influenced Raphael, whose work sums up the best of the classical Renaissance
The Creation of Adam by Michelangelo The Last Judgment by Michelangelo
Leonardo da Vinci (1452-1519) he became an independent artist under the protection of Lorenzo the Magnificent in1478 he painted the famous painting Mona Lisa in 1502-03 and worked on dissection of corpses at the hospital and on theoretical mathematical problems Leonardo's knowledge extended to such widely separated fields as architectural, engineering project philosophy, natural history, anatomy, biology, medicine, optics, acoustics, astronomy, botany, geology, flight science, mathematics, hydraulics, warfare, and the arts For Leonardo, painting was the supreme one for expressing spiritual values famous artists in Renaissance
The Last Supper (ca. 1492/94–1498) Leonardo da Vinci Mona Lisa (ca. 1503–6 and later) Leonardo da Vinci
HOTEL DEGLI ARANCI - Rome How does it affect hospitality? Hotels in Italy are full of artistic characteristics since visual art has a large influence on Italians lots of art decorations such as paintings and sculpture
HOTEL FENICE PALACE - Florence Focus on the atmosphere Tourists may feel relax and enjoyable
Social change - Population Low birth rate – Italy is well known as low birth rate, it is second low in western world. In early 21 century, it is only 1.23 children per woman. Catholic country should always have higher birth rate but the situation of Italy is odd.Reasons: ．Due to the social change, women tend to work rather than stay at home, they have no time to afford an extra child. ．Traditionally, Italian men do not spend much time at home, they are not willing to spend time to look after their new born babies, that’s why Italians are always be described as lazy and low sense of responsibility. ．Due to the social change, pension system develops better day by day, aging parents are less dependent to their children.
Social change – Rise of women Liberation of women was a world trend since early 20 century. ．In1898 various Radical feminists formed an association’ For Woman’ ．Committees for Female Suffrage existed in all the major cities by 1906 ．In 1908, the Union of Women founded ．In 1910 there was a women’s trade union Women take part in various occupations such as judges, fashion designers, athletes etc.
Social change - leisure ．Before Industrial Revolution, Italians liked to spend their leisure time by enjoying wine and coffee, and also playing Bocce (a traditional sport of Italy) and winter sports.．After the entrance of football craze in Europe, invention of bicycle and movie in 19 century, they started to play a important roles in the leisure time. In 1906, the people of Milan drank 213 liters of wines each and in 1911, according to a research, Italian people spent on average two hours a day in the wine shops.
Social – Education System The Italian Economist Sylos Labini: (an Italian is) ‘A people of semi-illiterates’. ．The Italian school teach in traditional ways: ‘assessing, testing, selecting.’ ．The education system ‘overproduces useless graduates, classifying everyone else as a failure, there was no attempt to link the separate subjects.’ Official ‘Illiterate rate’ In 1951: 12.9% In 1971: 5.2% In recent years: 1.5%For a western developed country, the illiterate rate is pretty high.
Social – Mafia In Cantonese: ‘Black Hand Secret Society’ Started by stimulation of nationalism in 1282. For protecting their families from the invasion of French in Sicily. ．Mafia is usually a family-run criminal society, the structure and composition of mafia is very tidy. Hierarchy is very obvious because lower-class members must listen to higher-class members. ．Mafia plays a unique role in Italian culture because many Italian and Hollywood movies take Mafia as a subject matter. E.g. The Godfather ( The Corleone family)
Reference Adams, L. S. (2000). Key Monuments of the Italian Renaissance. ITILIA- Art Periods in Italy (2008). Retrieved October 20, 2009 from E.N.I.T. North America, Web site: http://www.italiantourism.com/art_italy.html Italian art-art of Italy- Italian paintings - Italian artists (2009). Retrieved October 20, 2009 from E.N.I.T. North America, Web site: http://www.italiamia.com/art_2.html The music of Italy, a guide to Italian music (2009). Retrieved October 24, 2009 from E.N.I.T. North America, Web site: http://www.italiamia.com/music.html Food culture in Italy – Fabio Parasecoil www.italianculture.net Fashion industry runs to Govt for help - Fibre2fashion News Desk - India
Reference Italian hotels, Italian geography, Italian scenes pictures(2009), Retrieved October 17,2009 from: Web site: http://www.italytraveller.com/ Italian football (2009), Retrieved October 19,2009 from:– Website : http://www.bestplayersdirectory.com/index.php/link-directory-2/Male-football-players/Italian Italian Sports (2009), Retrieved October 19,2009 from: Web site: http://www.torino2006.org/eng/index.asp , http://www.stanford.edu/group/resed/row/italiana/culture/sport.htm http://www.lifeinitaly.com/sport/default.asp Italian Social change, leisure, rise of women, Education system (2009), Retrieved October 14,2009 from ReClark,M (1996). Modern Italy 1871 – 1995 2th Edition History of Italy – Italian unification, Monarchy, Fascism and World Wars,Italian Republic (2009), Retrieved October 17,2009 from ReClark,M (1996). Modern Italy 1871 – 1995 2th Edition
Reference History of Italy – Italian unification, Monarchy, Fascism and World Wars,Italian Republic (2009), Retrieved October 17,2009 from ReClark,M (1996). Modern Italy 1871 – 1995 2th Edition History of Italy – Romans, Middle Ages, Renaissance, Foreign domination (2009), retrieved October 21, 2009 from Website: http://www.lifeinitaly.com/history http://www.indigoguide.com/italy/history.htm Italian Tourism(2009), Retrieved October 19,2009 from: Web site: http://www.italiantourism.com/ http://www.italia.it/en/home.html Italian climate(2009) Retrieved October 19,2009 from: Web site: http://www.indigoguide.com/italy/weather.htm
Reference Italian geography - Alps, Mount Vesuvius and Sicily(2009), Retrieved October 11,2009 from: Web site: http://geography.about.com/library/cia/blcitaly.htm Italian architecture - Walls & Columns, Towers & Pointed arched vault, Sculpture(2009) ,Retrieved October 19,2009 from: Web site: http://elc.polyu.edu.hk/cill/referenceMachine.htm http://www.italian-architecture.info/ How does religion affect hospitality? (2009) ,Retrieved October 19,2009 from: Web site: http://www.catholichospitality.com/why.htm
Reference Religion in Italy- Italy Religion (2008). Retrieved October 28, 2009 from seeitalia.com, Web site: http://www.seeitalia.com/essentials/religion/ http://www.justlanded.com/english/Italy/Articles/Culture/Religion-in-Italy http://www.biblestudy.org/biblepic/vatican-city-rome-italy.html http://www.jericojourneys.com/italy.htm http://www.vatican.va/archive/ENG0015/_INDEX.HTM