Italy

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Italy

  1. 1. CONTENTS: 1. Map of Italy.................................................................................................................4 2. Portrait of Italy and places to visit...............................................................................5 2.1. Rome...............................................................................................................9 2.1.1. The Catacombs and Saint Sebastian.........................................................9 2.1.2. The Colosseum.........................................................................................11 2.1.3. The Roman Forum....................................................................................12 2.1.4. Fontana di Trevi........................................................................................14 2.1.5. Piazza Navona and Piazza di Spagna......................................................15 2.1.6. The Pantheon...........................................................................................16 2.2. Vatican City....................................................................................................17 2.3. Siena.............................................................................................................18 2.4. Venice............................................................................................................19 2.5. Florence.........................................................................................................20 3
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  3. 3. Italy, officially the Italian Republic, is located in Southern Europe. It comprises the Italian Peninsula, the Po Valley and some islands. It is delimited by the Alps to the north and it borders with France, Switzerland, Austria and Slovenia. To the south, there's the Mediterranean Sea and the two biggest Mediterranean islands: Sicily and Sardinia. Its capital is Rome, it's also the largest city in the country. It has been for centuries the political, religious and cultural centre of the Western civilization. It was the capital of the Roman Empire and Christianity too. Other important cities are Milan, Turin, Florence, Genoa, Naples, Palermo... This country is an unitary parliamentary republic (a democratic republic). It's president is Giorgio Napolitano since 2006 and the Prime Minister is Enrico Letta. Italy is a founding member of the European Union and the NATO (North Atlantic Treaty Organization). It is part of the Schengen Area and it has been a member of the Eurozone (so its coin is the Euro, since 2002). It's also member of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, the World Trade Organization, the G7, the G8, the G20, the Council of Europe and the United Nations. This country, specially Rome, has a strong repercussion on universal organizations as FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization), IFAD (International Fund for Agricultural Development), the Glocal Forum and WFP (World Food Programme). Italy's the fifth most populous country in Europe. In 2011 it had 60,626,442 inhabitants according to municipal records (Anagrafe). And according to the Italian government, there were 4,570,317 foreign residents in Italy. Italy's situation. 5
  4. 4. We can find three different climatic regions in the country: – The Mediterranean climate in the south of Italy, with hot summers. – The continental climate in the plains of the Po river, where the winter is very cold and summer is very hot. – In the Apennines (Liguria), winters are warm, temperatures are low in summer and it rains a lot. Italy's official language is Italian. A minority of languages have co-official status alongside Italian in different parts of the country like: French (Valle d’Aosta), German (South Tyrol) and Slovene (Trieste, Gorizia and Udine). In Sardinia people also speak Sardinian and Catalan. The national symbols of Italy are: The foreign population of Italy. Europe Africa Asia America Oceania Italy's population evolution. Flag of Italy. Coat of arms. 6
  5. 5. Italy is known due to these reasons: It has more UNESCO World Heritage Sites (49) than any other country in the world, so it has lots of monuments and places with a high value and beauty. Thus, it has many collections of art, culture and literature from many different periods; and all of them are well-known and valued. This country is the third most visited country of the European Union and Rome is the the third most visited city. I think that people love visit Italy because of the warm or hot climate in summers, the beaches of the Mediterranean sea and the large variety of monuments, palaces, buildings, statues, churches, art galleries, fountains, historic places... National Anthem: “Inno degli italiani”. Emblem: Stella d'Italia. National aerobatic team: Frecce Tricolori. National Monument: Altare della Patria. 7
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  7. 7. Catacombs of Rome are underground mausoleums (huge cemeteries). We can find them on the outskirts of the city. They date back to the 2nd Century AD because the Christians were persecuted and they had to bury their dead secretly. For this reason they built cemeteries underground. They used volcanic tuff rock for tunnelling, because Catacombs are many kilometres deep in tunnels. We can find fresco and sculptures, relics of many saints and graffiti dedicated to different saints. The Catacombs of Saint Sebastian is one of the smallest ones and one of the least preserved. A basilica is built on the top. There is the tomb of the Innocentiores and a room called Triglia, which was used for funeral banquets. CATACOMBS OF SAINT SEBASTIAN Hours Monday-Saturday 9am-noon and 2-5pm Transportation Bus: 118 Phone 06-7850350 Prices 8€ adults, 5€ children 6-15, free for children 5 and under For more information you can visit the web site Catacombs of St. Sebastian http://www.frommers.com/destinations/rome/attractions/ 207636#ixzz2qY4yd3Eo Sights of the ornamentacions. Catacombs of Saint Sebastian. 9
  8. 8. This painting is called Saint Sebastian. The painter is Giovanni Antonio Bazzi. This picture has a width of 154 cm and a height of 206 cm. It was painted in 1525 and, currently it is in the Galleria degli Uffizi, Florence. It is made of oil an canvas. In this painting we can see the execution of Saint Sebastian and an angel flying above him. The man is tied to a tree and he's wearing a piece of fabric around hi waist. An arrow has passed through his neck and another one through his thigh. There are other arrows stuck on the tree. There is much light around the angel. In the background, we can see mountains and a lot of vegetation. There are some men with horses too. This painting is realistic, with the exception of the angel. The artist painted the people with realistic trait, he didn't idealise them. The figures give a sensation of movement and their postured are rigid. They are well-proportioned too. They wear realistic clothes. The composition is quite harmonious because of the light and there are strong contrasts between light and dark. The painting was painted in 1525, so it belongs to the Renaissance period. It is related to religion, a very important theme in that epoch, and Giovanni has a lot of painting related to it. The painting represents Sebastian's death. Personally, I don't like this painting because it's too depressing and sad. I prefer painting that transmit calm and happiness. The only thing I like from it is the light, at least it isn't extremely dark. Saint Sebastian's painting. 10
  9. 9. The Colosseum, also known as the Flavian Amphitheatre, is a tourist attraction. It receives 3.9 millions of tourists every year. It is situated in the city centre of Rome (in the east of the Roman Forum). It's the largest amphitheatre in the world, this building could hold 50,000 spectators. It's construction started in 70 A.D. The Emperor Vespatian ordered its construction in honour of his son Titus. The construction lasted ten years (it finished in 80 A.D). This building was used for doing different shows like an entertainment. The emperor let citizens watch shows to gain their favour. Some popular shows in the Colosseum were gladiator games, animal hunt, chariot races and theatrical plays. The gladiators were slaves, prisoners of war and criminals. Tigers, lions, elephants, bears and alligators were used in fights. The Colosseum is an elliptical amphitheatre: an oval area of ground with tiers of seats around it for watching plays, sports, contests... The nobles sat near the arena and the citizens sat at the top of the stadium. It's built of concrete and stone. It's 157 feet high and perimeter measured 1778 feet. This building is make up of four floors, the three first have got eighty semi-circular arches. All the eighty arches from the first floor were entrances. We can see Doric, Ionic and Corinthian columns next to the arches. Under the Colosseum there were tunnels and rooms housed gladiators and animals. The southern part of the building was quite destroyed by an earthquake. Colosseum's interior view. Colosseum's exterior view. 11
  10. 10. The Roman Forum (their ruins) is situated in the centre of Rome, specifically in a valley between the Capitoline Hill (site of the Jupiter Temple) and the Palatine Hill (where the royal palace and other palaces of noble families were located). The Forum was built from 8BC to 312AD, because there are buildings built in different years. It was a large public space used like a market and meeting venue. It is a rectangular square surrounded by the ruins of important buildings: 1- Curia 2- Arch of Septimus Severus 3- Rostra 4- Temple of Vespasian 5- Via Sacra 6- Temple of Saturn 7- Colonna du Foca 8- Basilica Iulia 9- Basilica Emilia 10- Temple of Julius Caesar 11- Temple of Vestals 12- Temple of Castor 13- Church of Santa Maria Antiqua 14- Temple of Augustus 15- Temple of Antoninus and Faustino 16- Temple of Romulus 17- Temple of Venus and Rome 18- House of Vesta 19- Basilica di Maxentius. 20- Coliseum 21- Arch of Titus 22- Palatine 12
  11. 11. Titus Flavius lived between 9AD and 79AD. He was a Roman Emperor from 69AD to 79AD. He ruled and reigned over an empire. Beside three emperors, Vespatian expanded the Roman Empire, they made a very important conquest. Julius Caesar lived between 100BC and 44BC. He was a Roman general, statesman, Consul and author of Latin prose. He reigned from 49BC to 44BC. He is known because of his military campaigns, he conquered the Gaul. Romulus was one of the legendary founders of Rome. His mother was the daughter of the king of Alba Longa and his father was the God Mars. However, he was suckled by a wolf and raised by a shepherd. The Vestals were priestesses of Vesta, goddess of the hearth. They married people and bear children. At the beginning they were selected by the Emperor. They were between six and ten years old. They had to keep the sacred fire in the temple. Venus is the goddess of love and beauty. Venus was married to Vulcan (the god of fire). His son was Cupido. She's also the goddess of fertility and prosperity. She's the Roman version of the Greek Aphrodite. Venus on seashell, from the Casa di Venus. Titus Flavius Vespatian. Julius Caesar. Romulus and Remus with the wolf. Virgo Vestalis Maxima. 13
  12. 12. Fontana di Trevi is a fountain situated in the centre of Rome, specifically in the Trevi district. It's 26.3 metres high and 49.15 metres wide. The fountain's construction was from 1732 to 1762. Nicola Salvi designed it and Pietro Bracci completed it. The monument is a mixture of rocks and water (the theme of it is the sea). The sculpture is a cart in the shape of a shell. On the top of it, there's the god Neptune. There are also some tritons and horses. Near Neptune, we can see Abundance spilling water from her urn and Salubrity with a snake drinking from a cup. At the background there's the Palazzo Poli (it's a palace which has got Corinthian pilasters). Fontana di Trevi is a Baroque fountain. It's the largest one in the city and one of the most important in the world. The Baroque period of artistic style was from 1600 to 1725. The exaggeration, the grandeur and the exuberance are characteristic of this order. We can note that the fountain belongs to the Baroque period because it has got a lot of characteristics of that order. It was built because the Roman Catholic Church wanted to use art for spreading religious matters. Because of that, the fountain represents the sea and also religious aspects (there's the god Neptune). This monument is very important for the tourism of the city. It receives a lot of visitors every year. Some people throw some coins into it looking for luck. Approximately 3,000 Euros are thrown every day into the water. I quite like this fountain because it's a very large one and it's incredible. The only thing I don't like it very much is that it's too exaggerated. Fontana di Trevi. 14
  13. 13. Piazza Navona is a city square of Rome, it is situated between the Castle Sant Angelo and the Pantheon. It was built on the site of the Stadium of Domitian, where the ancient Romans went to watch the agones (games). It dates back the 1st century AD, when the pontificate of Innocent X ordered its construction. This square is one of the most important of the city and an incredible example of the Baroque Roman architecture and art. It presents important sculptures and architectural creations. In the middle there's the Fontana dei Quattro Fiumi (Fountain of the Four Rivers: the Danube, the Ganges, the Nile and the Rio de la Plata). It was built in 1651 by Gian Lorenzo Bernini. It is topped by the Obelisk of Domitian. There are two other fountains: at the southern end the Fontana del Moro and at the northern end the Fountain of Neptune. During history, the square has hosted theatrical events and other activities. For exemple, a Christmas market takes place in the square. There are important monuments near it: the Stabilimenti Spagnoli, the Palazzo de Cupis Palazzo Torres Massimo Lancellotti, the Church of Nostra Signora del Sacro Cuore, the Palazzo Braschi (Museo di Roma) and the Sant'Agnese in Agone. Piazza di Spagna is situated at the bottom of the Spanish Steps (near to the Villa Borghese). It is one of the most famous squares of Rome (Italy). In the centre of the square there's the famous Fontana della Barcaccia. It dates back to the beginning of the baroque age. It was sculpted by Pietro Bernini and his son, Gian Lorenzo Bernini. The 135-step staircase (the Spanish Steps) was inaugurated by Pope Benedict XIII during 1725. Its construction had specific purpose: connect the Bourbon Spanish embassy to the Church of Trinità dei Monti. This project was designed by Alessandro Specchi and Francesco De Sanctis. The staircase is decorated with many garden-terraces with flowers. The creation is typical of the baroque architecture. Near the Spanish Steps there's the house of the English poet John Keats, the Babington's tea room, the Giorgio De Chirico House, the Column of the Immaculate Conception... Panoramic view of Piazza Navona. Fontana della Barcaccia and the Spanish Steps. 15
  14. 14. The Pantheon of Rome is a building devoted to the Gods of ancient Rome. It is situated in the Piazza de la Rotonda. The word Pantheon derives from Greek and it means all Gods. This building is still preserved. It was built in year 27 AC by Marcus Agrippa. In the year 80 AD, a fire destroyed the building, so Romans rebuilt it. However, thirty years later, another fire destroyed it again. The Romans rebuilt the temple under the emperor Hadrian. He preserved the text at the entrance in honour to Agrippa. In the 7th century the Pantheon became a church devoted to St. Mary and the martyrs. This building is very famous for the inside. The inside has the shape of a perfect sphere. There, we can find a hole in the roof named oculus, to let the light into the building and to let out the sacred smoke, it also rains both inside and outside. There are also some sculptures of Roman Gods, such as Saturn and Venus. It is also a mausoleum, because the Royal Family and many Renaissance artists like Raphael are buried there. The columns of the entrance belong to the Corithian order, they are made with marble and they come from Greece. The Pantheon is a radial building, so it has got a central point. It accommodates a sphere in the centre. The designers of this building were obsessed with spheres, rectangles,circles, perfect geometrical shapes... Inside, you could rotate and have a feeling of freedom because the space is vast. The dome lays on concrete and brick. The dominant colours of marble are purple, orange and blue. Other buildings in the world which are inspired in the Pantheon are: St Peter's Basilica in Rome, National Gallery of Washington... The oculus. The pantheon (the outside). 16
  15. 15. The Vatican City is a landlocked sovereign city-state which is situated in Rome, Italy. We can find there famous attractions, such as St. Peter's Basilica, Gardens, the Vatican Museums, the Vatican Guards and St. Peter's square. In the place of the obelisk at St. Peter's square St. Peter was crucified. Christianity was legalised in 338 AD by Emperor Constantine. When you enter St. Peter's Basilica, your first impression is that it's big and glorious. Inside St. Peter's Basilica you can find a very famous sculpture: la Pieta (by Michelangelo). The altar is attributed to Bernini, it belongs to the Baroque period. The Dome was designed by Michelangelo, Inside there's the inscription TU ES PETRUS which means you are Peter. You have to climb 300 steps if you want to climb to the cupola. In the Vatican museums you can find frescoes, paintings, graffiti, tapestries, sculptures. The Vatican City. 17
  16. 16. Siena is situated in Tuscany, Italy. It is a cultural city. The historic centre of Siena has been declared by UNESCO a World Heritage Site. It is recieves a lot of tourists every year. There is the Piazza del Campo, which has the shape of a shell. It is the town square and be can find there several buildings: the Palazzo Pubblico, the Torre del Mangia, the Palazzo Pubblico... The Palio di Siena is a traditional medieval horse race which takes place around the Piazza del Campo because there are treacherous turns and you can circle the square. It is celebrated twice a year, on 2nd July and 16th August. Seventeen Contrade (which are city neighbourhoods) fight for the trophy: a painted banner, or Palio bearing an image of the Blessed Virgin Mary. The race lasts three minutes. The contrada of Oca won last 2013 July competition and the region that has won more times is Chiocciola. Views of Piazza del Campo. 18
  17. 17. Venice is a city in northeaster Italy. The best form to reach there is by plane. There are two airports: the Marco Polo airport and the Treviso airport. You have to cross a bridge if you want to reach the city centre. The city is considered one of the most car free cities. There you can discover a lot of water streets, canals and narrow streets. The most common mean of transportation is the gondola. A 40 minute ride without music costs 80€. The name of the square at the heart of Venice is St. Mark's square. In that square you can have a coffee for 6€. You also can buy some souvenirs like masks, jewels, paintings... There is also the Palazzo Ducale which was the residence of the Dukes. Next to the Palazzo Ducale there is St. Mark's Basilica and in the inside we can find the relics of St. Mark. The tallest building in Venice is St. Mark's campanile. The Canal Grande is a canal which goes through Venice. The vaporetti are water buses, which are used inside the city. Murano is a small island located on the north of Venice, which is well known for glass making. A canal in Venice. 19
  18. 18. Florence is situated at the fit of the Apenine mountains in Italy. Its buildings and monuments tell stories about art, war and life. Several illustrious minds thread their way around Florence, for example, da Vinci, Michelangelo or Dante. You can take a shuttle bus from Pisa Airport to Florence, which takes you 70 minutes. The temperatures in Florence in the summer are usually about 40º in summer and in winter the temperature decreases until below 0º. The best months to visit Florence are March and September. Explore the city's marvels it takes you one or two days. The museums are closed on Mondays in the city. The busiest building in the entire city is The Uffizzi Gallery. In La Galleria de la Academia, you can see Michelangelo's David. Inside the Palazzo Vecchio you can visit secret paths and rooms. The Duomo is a cathedral, which its entrance is free, except if you want to reach the bell tower. The dome was painted by Brunelleschi, it takes you between 10 and 15 minutes if you want to reach there. Panoramic views of Florence. 20

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