According to Antiochus of Syracuse (420 BC), the wordItalia indicated the southern portion of the Bruttium peninsula
The Greeks gradually came to apply the name "Italia" to a larger region, but it was during the reign of EmperorAugustus (63 BC. – 14 AD) that the term was expanded to cover the entire peninsula until the Alps
• In 1797 the French Republic sends Napoleon to face the Austrian troops on Italian soil.• After a series of victories Napoleon’s troops move south marching towards Rome.• Pope Pius VI is captured and sent to France, but dies on the way.• The Kingdom of Naples tries to resist the French, but soon king Ferdinand IV flees leaving for Palermo escorted by the English Admiral Nelson.• After 3 years of fighting and political adjustments Italy is divided into 5 Republics.
The republican experience andthe national ideals of the FrenchRevolution inspire many Italianintellectuals.Filippo Maria Buonarroti fightsfor a Unitarian National Statewriting:“We can’t wait to see ourHomeland free! And thepointless distinctions of beingborn in Naples, Milan, Turinshould disappear forever amongus patriots. We all belong to onecountry, to one Homeland. […] “
In March 1799 the Austrian an Russian troopsattack the French.The Italian republics fall and the old monarchiesare restored.Cardinal Fabrizio Ruffo creates an army calledSantafede.In Napoli alone more than 100 revolutionarypatriots are executed while the Santafede bringson a real massacre in the nearby towns and inthe countryside.
• In 1804 France becomes an Empire and Napoleon its Emperor.• Between 1806 and 1809 he conquers again the Italian peninsula.• 3 new reigns are formed under French command.• Sicily remains under the Bourbons.• Sardinia under the house of Savoia (future kings of unified Italy).
For the first timesince the end ofthe RomanEmpire, the entire“boot” shares onecommonconstitution, fiscalsystem and law.
The invasion causes the rise of an anti-French movement, a strengthening of thenational Italian ideal and the birth ofunderground patriotic revolutionarysocieties.Great examples of “nationalistic” literature:-Ultime lettere di Jacopo Ortis by Ugo Foscolo-Platone in Italia by Vincenzo Cuoco
The situation is “brought back in time” to theasset of 1795.The people of Italy had experienced a moredemocratic life and could not accept arestoration of the ancient noble rights over theterritory.Political and social unrest favors the illegalactivity of political sects.
The “CARBONERIA”• The Carbonari ("charcoal burners”) were organised in the fashion of Freemasonry, broken into small cells scattered across Italy.• Most of the membership sought the creation of a liberal, unified Italy.
Catholicism and National Movement• The nationalistic societies identify the patriotic hero with Jesus.• The Carbonari state that Christ was the 1st mason.• The initiation right sees the mason in the role of Jesus who swears fidelity while being crucified.
• The religious terminology adds “nobility and dignity” to the initiation process.• It is the foundation of national ideology as political religion of the contemporary era.• This can explain the high number of priests involved in the illegal nationalistic operations in the 1800s.
• The underground sects organize a series of successful revolutions that restore republics throughout Italy but fail (or do not intend) to unify the country.• In 1830 Austria fights back restoring the reigns under the rule of the Italian nobles.
• Southern Carbonari imagine a unified Italian State within the borders of the Reign of Naples.• Others think that a broader national state could include all peoples from the Alps to Sicily.• According to the second group Italians are united by:- Blood - Culture- Language - Common past- One religion
La Giovine ItaliaIn 1831 Mazzini went to Marseille, where hebecame a popular figure to the other Italianexiles. He organized a new political societycalled La giovine Italia
The groups motto was Godand the People, and its basicprinciple was the unification of the several states and kingdoms of the peninsulainto a single republic as the only true foundation of Italian liberty. The new nation had to be: "One, Independent, Free Republic".
• In 1848 a series of protests in the Kingdome of Naples pushes Ferdinand II to grant a more democratic constitution with elected representatives.• Carlo Alberto King of Sardinia, Piedmont and Savoia follows the example of Ferdinand.• Even the Pope, Pius IX, delivers a speech blessing Italy and its Nation.
In 1848 Lombardia andVeneto were still underAustrian domination.News of successfulrevolutions in Piedmontand Naples reached thecity of Milano.March 18 the peopleformed barricades in thestreets and began fightingthe Austrian troops.After 5 days of fighting thecity was freed.
The end of a dream• Carlo Alberto di Savoia declared war to Austria and marched towards Milano meeting with the revolutionaries.• The Pope organized his own army to fight the war for the independence of Italy.• King Ferdinand prepared an army to attack the Austrians from the Southern Front.• France decided not to interfere.
King Carlo Alberto annexes Lombardia andVeneto to his reign.The Pope reconsiders his position: He doesn’trepresent Italians, he represents all Catholics.He cannot fight a nationalist war.King Ferdinand decides not to intervene in thewar as he fears that King Carlo would try toextend his influence to Southern Italy.The Austrian fight back and 9 August 1848Milano is back under the control of Austriantroops.
. Carlo Alberto gives his people a liberal andmore democratic constitution and CamilloBenso Conte di Cavour is elected as primeminister.
• 14 January 1858 Felice Orsini throws 3 bombs at Napoleon III in Paris.• He holds Napoleon III responsible for the Italian situation• More than 50 people die but Napoleon survives
• Napoleon III understands that the political and social unrest in Italy could constitute a problem for the French borders.• He promises Vittorio Emanuele II King of Sardinia to fight for the liberation of Italy in exchange of the territories of Nizza and Savoia
• French and Piedmontese troops face the Austrians 1859 in Montebello• Garibaldi collects a victory after the other liberating Lombardia• In the battle of Solferino and San Martino 1,662 French and 12,000 Austrian soldiers die.
• The French leave the Italian territory.• The Piedmontese troops are left to face the Austrians backed by groups of volunteers.• Lombardia, Emilia, Romagna and Toscana are annexed to the crown of Piedmont.
L’impresa dei Mille• 5 May 1860 Giuseppe Garibaldi leaves from the port of Quarto with 1,000 volunteers (I Mille).• 11 May the Mille get to Marsala, Sicily.• Garibaldi proclaims himself dictator of the island in the name of Vittorio Emanuele.• 20,000 volunteers come from different regions to fight with Garibaldi• The Borbonic troops are defeated and 6 September Francis II abandons Naples.
Elections and the Unification• The people of Southern Italy vote for the annexation to the Kingdome of Piedmont.• 26 October 1860 Garibaldi and Vittorio Emanuele meet at Teano in Campania, but he’s dismissed from command.• 4 November 1860, Marche and Umbria become part of the Kingdome.• 17 March 1861 Vittorio Emanuele is proclamed king of Italy.
• Rome was proclaimed Capital even though still under French protection.• The Third War of Independence freed Veneto from the Austrians in 1866.• In July 1870 Napoleon III ordered his men to leave Rome. General Cadorna entered into the city which became part of the Kingdome against the Pope’s will.
After 150 years songs about Garibaldi are still being sang• http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_a1j6za86Gc http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_a1j6za86Gc
The history of the unification is still controversial• Many believe that the annexation of the Southern territories to the reign of Piedmont should be interpreted as a “conquest” driven by Garibaldi in the name of the king. In their view the modern national state and the Italian national identity is the product of an act of violence.
This anti-national poster reads: “I don’t celebrate 150 years of lies!”