includes two large islands, Sardinia and Sicily, and many smaller ones </li></li></ul><li>GEOGRAPHY(introduction)<br />Location: Southern Europe, bordering Austria 430 km, France 488 km, Holy See (Vatican City) 3.2 km, San Marino 39 km, Slovenia 232 km, Switzerland 740 km<br />Capital: Rome<br />Climate: predominantly Mediterranean; Alpine in far north; hot, dry in south<br />Population: 58,057,477 (July 2004 est.)<br />Ethnic Make-up: Italian (includes small clusters of German-, French-, and Slovene-Italians in the north and Albanian-Italians and Greek-Italians in the south)<br />
Religions: predominately Roman Catholic with mature Protestant and Jewish communities and a growing Muslim immigrant community<br />the Italian Republic, is located on the Italian Peninsula in Southern Europe, and on the two largest islands in the Mediterranean Sea, Sicily and Sardinia. <br />The independent states of San Marino and the Vatican City are enclaves within the Italian Peninsula<br />
Politics(Machiavelli)</li></li></ul><li>ITALIAN REPUBLIC<br />The birth of the Italian Republic (officially on June 2, 1946) <br />Until 1946, Italy was officially a monarchy ruled by the House of Savoy, kings of Italy since the Risorgimento (and previously of Sardinia)<br />Benito Mussolini, enjoying the support of the monarchy, imposed fascism after the October 28, 1922 March on Rome<br />In 1946, Italy became a republic after the results of a popular referendum<br />
LANGUAGE<br />Italian is the official language of Italy, and 93% of population are native Italian speaker<br />Around 50% of population speak a regional dialect as mother tongue<br />Many dialects are mutually unintelligible and thus considered by linguists as separate languages, but are not officially recognised<br />
POLITICS AND ECONOMIC SITUATION<br />The seat of government is in Rome<br />The head of state is the President of the Republic, who controls the armed forces and the judiciary<br />Parliament <br />The President of the Senate <br />The President of the Chamber of Deputies <br />
The Italian economy ranks as the world's sixth largest economy measured by GDP <br />economic strength owes much to the success of small and medium-sized companies <br />Key industries include automobiles, shipbuilding, chemicals, furniture, clothing and textiles, leather goods and footwear, food processing, ceramic products, components and machinery <br />
MEETING ETIQUETTE<br />Greetings are enthusiastic yet rather formal<br />The usual handshake with direct eye contact and a smile suffices between strangers!<br />Italians are guided by first impressions, so it is important that you demonstrate propriety and respect when greeting people, especially when meeting them for the first time!<br />Wait until invited to move to a first name basis!<br />
GIFT GIVING ETIQUETTE<br /><ul><li> Do not: give chrysanthemums as they are used at funerals,red flowers as they indicate secrecy,yellow flowers as they indicate jealousy
If you bring wine, make sure it is a good vintage. Quality, rather than quantity, is important.
Do not wrap gifts in black, as is traditionally a mourning colour.
Do not wrap gifts in purple, as it is a symbol of bad luck.
Gifts are usually opened when received. </li></li></ul><li>DINING ETIQUETTE<br />If you are invited to an Italian house: If an invitation says the dress is informal, wear stylish clothes that are still rather formal.<br />Punctuality is not mandatory. You may arrive between 15 minutes late if invited to dinner and up to 30 minutes late if invited to a party. <br /> If you are invited to a meal, bring gift-wrapped!<br />
TABLE MANNERS<br />Remain standing until you are invited to sit down. You may be shown to a particular seat.<br />Do not keep your hands in your lap during the meal; however, do not rest your elbows on the table either<br />If you do not want more wine, leave your wineglass nearly full<br />
RELATIONSHIPS AND COMMUNICATION<br />Italians prefer to do business with people they know and trust<br />they prefer face-to-face contact<br />Italians judge people on appearances and the first impression you make,will be a lasting one<br />Italians are extremely expressive communicators. <br />
BUSINESS MEETING ETIQUETTE<br />Appointments are mandatory and should be made in writing (in Italian) 2 to 3 weeks in advance<br />Many companies are closed in August, so it is best not to try to schedule meetings then<br />It is common to be interrupted while talking<br />People often raise their voice to be heard over other speakers<br />
BUSINESS NOGOTIATION<br />In the north, people are direct, see time as money, and get down to business after only a brief period of social talk<br />Never use high-pressure sales tactics<br />Hierarchy is the cornerstone of Italian business. Italians respect power and age<br />Decisions are often based more on how you are viewed by the other party than on concrete business objectives<br />
DRESS ETIQUETTE<br />Dressing well is a priority in Italy<br />Men should wear dark coloured, conservative business suits<br />Women should wear either business suits or conservative dresses<br />Elegant accessories are equally important for men and women<br />