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Endocrine System
Endocrine System
Endocrine System
Endocrine System
Endocrine System
Endocrine System
Endocrine System
Endocrine System
Endocrine System
Endocrine System
Endocrine System
Endocrine System
Endocrine System
Endocrine System
Endocrine System
Endocrine System
Endocrine System
Endocrine System
Endocrine System
Endocrine System
Endocrine System
Endocrine System
Endocrine System
Endocrine System
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Endocrine System

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Transcript

  • 1.  
  • 2.
    • Greek- to excite
    • Chemicals released in minute amount that can elicit specific response
      • Not all hormones are released by glands (e.g. Hypothalamus)
  • 3.
    • Nerves communicate faster due to impulses and structure of neurons
    • The endocrine system is responsible for slower biological processes (e.g. Growth)
  • 4.
    • The endocrine system and nervous system are structurally, chemically and functionally related
    • Presence of neurosecretory cells- specialized neurons
    • Chemicals that function as both hormones and neurotransmitters
  • 5.
    • Positive feedback
      • Nervous- opening of sodium ion gates during the threshold potential
      • Endocrine- release of milk
    • Negative feedback
  • 6.
    • Hydra- hormone for growth and budding; prevents sexual reproduction
    • More complex- both are integrated in the control of reproduction and development
    • Aplysia- hormone for egg-laying counters feeding and locomotion
    • Arthropods - presence of ecdysone
      • Insects- secreted by prothoracic glands
  • 7.
    • Responsible for molting
    • Favors metamorphosis
    • Some insects- presence of brain hormone (BH)
      • Promotes development by stimulating the prothoracic glands
    • Juvenile hormone (JH)- balances BH and ecdysone
      • From corpora allata
  • 8.
    • Occurs when corpora allata stops producing JH
      • Regulation of production is not known
    • Could be nervous or neurohormonal
    • Adult: inhibition via nervous connection in the brain
  • 9.
    • Larvae: corpora allata is activated by neurohumoral factor from the brain during development
    • Inactivated by nervous inhibition before metamorphosis
  • 10.
    • Endocrine glands- ductless glands that release hormones (via the bloodstream)
    • Paracrine glands- like endocrine but target adjacent cells
    • Exocrine glands- release secretions through ducts
  • 11.
    • Holocrine- releases secretions through rupture of the plasma membrane (oil gland)
    • Apocrine – releases secretions through membrane-bound vesicles (mammary gland)
    • Merocrine- releases their secretion through exocytosis of their secretory vesicles
  • 12.  
  • 13.
    • hormones- via the bloodstream
    • Local regulators- targets nearby cells
    • Pheromones- carry messages to different individuals
      • Mate attraction
  • 14.
    • Secreted by cells to nearby/adjacent target cells
      • E.g. Interleukin, growth factor
  • 15.
    • Peptides and proteins that stimulate cell proliferation
    • a given growth factor can have different effects depending on the target cell
      • Nerve growth factor (NGF)
        • Speeds up development of embryonic nerve cells
        • Also affects developing white blood cell and other kinds of cell
  • 16.
    • A form of a non-surgical operation in treating injuries
    • Use of blood plasma where some growth factors are present
  • 17.
    • Highly reactive and toxic
    • Action is rapid
    • When secreted by neurons: neurotransmitter
    • WBC: kills bacteria and cancer cells
    • Endothelial cells: dilate BVs; relax smooth muscles
  • 18.
    • Modified fatty acid from lipids of plasma membrane
    • First found in semen
    • In semen: stimulates uterine contraction
    • In placenta: induce labor
    • Induce fever, inflammation and intensify sensation of pain
    • PGE: muscle relaxation in the lungs
    • PGF: muscle contraction in the lungs
  • 19.
    • Signal molecule: has specific shape
    • Reception: binding of signal to receptor
      • Located at the plasma membrane or inside the cell
    • Signal transduction- series of events signalled by the reception of signal mol on the plasma membrane
    • Response- change in a cell’s behavior
  • 20.
    • Occurs if there is a correct signal molecule
    • Specific receptor is present
    • Depends on the location of the binding site of a signal molecule
  • 21.
    • Signal transduction
      • Receptor is on the surface
      • Composed of series of events that can lead to a response
      • E.g. Response is in the form of enzyme activation
    • Change in gene expression
      • Signal molecule penetrates the cell and binds to a receptor inside
      • Receptor acts as transcription factor
      • Change in gene expression
  • 22.
    • Darkness of skin depends on arrangement of melanocytes in the skin
    • Light skin: melanosome at the nuclei
    • Dark skin: melanosome in the cytoplasm
    • Arrangement of melanosome is controlled by MSH
  • 23.
    • Secreted by the pituitary gland
    • MSH present: melanosomes disperse
    • MSH absent: at the nuclei
    • Direct injection does not lead to dispersion
      • Why?
  • 24.
    • Signal receptor at the plasma membrane
    • Converts extracellular signal to intracellular response
    • Can amplify a signal to substantial response

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