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  • 1. Tennessee State UniversityBrown-Daniel LibraryChris LangerINFORMATION LITERACY FOR BUSINESS INFORMATION SYSTEMSSTUDENTSThe goal of this course is to ensure that Tennessee State University Business InformationSystems graduates are literate in regard to information, and can determine the type andamount of information they need; can access and judge the information critically andincorporate this information into a knowledge base and ethical outlook, use theinformation effectively to accomplish a specific purpose and understand the economic,legal and social issues about the use of information.Business Information Systems Students in General will be able to: determine the nature and extent of the information needed by - conferring with instructors and librarians to identify a research topic - formulating questions based on the information needed- achieving a manageable focus by defining or modifyingthe information needed- identifying the key concepts or terms that describe theinformation needed- using analytical and critical thinking skills in identifyinginformation needed identify, locate and retrieve information by- determining type of information needed- determining location of information- selecting efficient and effective strategies to accessinformation needed utilize or construct and implement effective search strategies by- formulating an effective search strategy- conducting searches using appropriate resources- evaluating search results and modifying searchstrategies as needed access the needed information effectively and efficientlyFirst Year Business Information Systems Students will be able to: access and navigate the Library’s web site efficiently to findinformation
  • 2. search the Library’s online catalog and electronic resources, includingdatabases, books and journals, and the resources on the Internet identify concepts and terms that describe the information needed byusing controlled vocabulary and information retrieval resources inBusiness Information Systems evaluate the scope, content and organization of information retrievalsources and information, and compile pertinent citation informationfor possible use draw conclusions based upon the information gathered, integrate newinformation with previous information and/or knowledge and identifythe one that supports the chosen thesis have an understanding of plagiarism and its consequences select an appropriate citation style and use it correctly and consistentlyIntermediate and Advanced Level Business Information Systems Students will be able to: develop a thesis statement and formulate questions based on theneeded information evaluate potential resources in a variety of formats, includingdatabases, data set, web sites, printed materials and others implement search strategy by using search engines with variety ofcommand languages, protocols and search parameters, including Ebscohost,CompendexWeb, ScienceDirect and others. broaden information seeking beyond the local resources, includinginterlibrary loan, Athena, TALC recognize that existing information combined with original thought,analysis and experimentation can produce new information recognize that knowledge can be organized into disciplines and canimpact the way information is accessed use a variety of technologies to retrieve the needed information,including software, reader/printer scanners, audio visual equipmentand others examine and compare information from various sources, includingjournals, conference papers and government publications to evaluatethe reliability, validity, accuracy, authority and bias, if any, of theinformation use computer and other technologies, including databases,spreadsheets, charts to study the interaction of ideas broaden the research topic to construct new hypothesis that mayrequire additional information test theories with appropriate discipline techniques, includingformulas, simulations question the source of data retrieved as to its accuracy, timeliness, andauthoritativeness properly use the obtained information by citing resources according to
  • 3. the copyright lawsRESEARCH STRATEGIESI. Define a Topic in Business Information Systems 1. Search for Ideas 2. Narrow or Broaden Your Topic as Needed 3. State Your Topic as a Question 4. Identify the Type of Information NeededII. Gather Background Information 1. Encyclopedias 2. Dictionaries 3. Almanacs and Yearbooks 4. Handbooks and Bibliographies 5. Dissertations, Theses and Senior Projects 6. Current ResearchIII. Search Databases for Journal Articles, Technical Reports,Conference Proceedings and Standards 1. What are Databases? a. Structure b. Type 1.Bibliographic 2. Full-Text 3. Numeric 4. Image 5. Audio c. Coverage 1. Subject Area 2. Type of Publication d. Attributes 2. Searching Databases a. Search Strategies b. Use of TSU Database Subscriptions in Business Information Systems ABI/Inform Academies of Science Abstracts Business Source Premier Dissertation Abstracts EBSCOhost (Academic Search Premier and Academic Search Elite) Compendex Web Ei Engineering Village INFOTRAC Expanded Academic (ASAP) MIT Press ScienceDirect SpringerLINK
  • 4. Wiley InterScience WilsonWeb (Applied Science) 3. Locating Print and Electronic Journal ArticlesIV. Search TSU Online Catalog for Books and Other Resources 1. How to use TSU Online catalog? a. Keyword Search b. Subject search c. Author Search d. Title Search e. Search Commands 1. Boolean operators 2. Search Qualifiers 3. Tips 2. Location of Materials 3. Library of Congress Classification System 4. What is a Call Number ? 5. How to Read Call Numbers? 6. Electronic BooksV. Explore Internet Resources 1. Structures and Attributes of the Internet 2. Search Tools for the Internet a. Google b. AllThe.com c. Yahoo d. AltaVista e. Ask Jeeves f. HotBot g. Dogpile h. Search Engine Tips 3. Types of Web Sites 4. Categories of Information on the Internet a. Free Web Sites with Valuable Information 1. Current Company Information 2. Current Events or Topics 3. State and federal Government Information 4. Information About and From Associations 5. WWW Resources at TSU 1. Virtual reference 2. Tennessee Resources 3. Government Resources 6. Web Sites in Business Information Systems
  • 5. VI. Evaluate Research Materials 1. Criteria to Evaluate Research Materials in Business Information Systems 2. Criteria to Evaluate the Web ResourcesVII. Write the Research Paper 1. Organization of Information 2. Citing Sources and Ethical Issues 3. Guidebooks on ResearchVIII. Cite Your Sources 1. Style Manuals I. Define a Topic in Business Information SystemsPresume you are interested in writing a paper onComputers . You may want to define the scope of yourpaper by defining what constitutes Robotics Design.1. Search for IdeasIf you do not have an idea what constitutes Computers ,search and read articles or books on the topic.For example, use ScienceDirect online database,set Dates from 2000 to present to retrieve the mostrecent information, set terms by using connectorAND within Abstract, Title, Keywords or Full-Text.Select Subject, in this case either Business Information Systems andTechnology or Computer Science. Type:ComputersYou will access articles with varying numbers according to thesearch choices you made.OR, you may do a subject search in the Library’s online catalogunder Computers.After scanning through some article and books, you shouldbe able to come up with preliminary ideas about yourtopic. You can always talk to your reference librarians in theReference Area or send e-mails or chat online via the ASK ALibrarian service located on the Library’s web page. You canconsult your instructor.2. Narrow or Broaden Your TopicYou may find too much information on your topic. In that case,you may want to narrow your topic. For example, in ScienceDirectyou may find over 10,000 full-text articles under Computers. You mayqualify your search by limiting your topic to a certain area such ashard drives or a time period such as 1990 to present or acountry such as United States or even a certain manufacturer suchas Dell.If you can find only few sources, you may want to broaden your
  • 6. topic by related fields such as Command and Control Systems, Airborne Computers,Hybrid Computers. For example, you may find 500 articles in WileyInterScience that can assist you in broadening your topic.3. State Your Topic as a QuestionStating your topic as a question may help you to stay within thescope of your selected topic. For example, what is the effect ofComputers in manufacturing or research? Or what is the effect of computers in academeor in secondary education?4. Identify the Type of Information NeededThe type of information needed depends on the following: Type of Assignment- is this a presentation, term paper, senior project,thesis or dissertation? Amount of Information- how much information is needed for thisassignment? Currency of Information- does this assignment require current,historical or a combination? Type of Resources Needed- should the information come fromscholarly and professional journals only? Primary vs Secondary Resources- should the information come fromprimary or secondary sources? Information in Various Formats- should the information come fromonly print resources or include other formats such as visual/ graphicsources, numeric sources (statistics), audio sources and/or electronicsources?II. Gather Background InformationA brief background information in your topic would enable you to focuson a theme and an outline effectively. As you peruse the backgroundinformation make note of relevant issues within your topic, differingissues and definitions of key concepts. Appropriate sources for locatingbackground information include encyclopedias, almanacs and yearbooks,and handbooks and bibliographies. In order to find information inComputers, you need to look for background resources in Business Information Systemsand technology. You will locate these resources by1. searching the Library’s online catalog under the subjectheading Encyclopedias and Dictionaries. From theentries retrieved, you may chose the relevant ones.2. Note the appropriate classification numbers forspecific resources or resources in the subject area andlocate them in the appropriate reference section.3. You may advance your search by searching viakeyword and combining words in general areas such asBusiness Information Systems, automation, computers with such wordsas encyclopedia, dictionary, etc.Resources that provide background information include
  • 7. 1. Encyclopedias –General-Britannica Onlinehttp://www.tnstate.edu/library/database/htm#BEncyclopedia AmericanaRef. AE 5 .E333 1996Subject-Encyclopedia of Science and TechnologyRef. Q121 .E53 2001The Cutting Edge: an Encyclopedia of AdvancedTechnologiesRef. T9 .C96 2000Encyclopedia of Computer Science and TechnologyRef. QA76.15 .E5 v.432. Dictionaries-General-Random House Webster’s DictionaryRef. PE 1628 .R294 2001Subject-Dictionary of Computer Science, Engineering andTechnologyRef. QA76.15 .D5258 2000Welcome to the Academic Press Dictionary ofScience & Technologyhttp://www.harcourt.com/dictionary3. Almanacs and Yearbooks-Infoplease.com (electronic resource)http://www.infoplease.com/Educational Media and Technology Yearbook, 2000(electronic resource – electronic book)LB1028.3 .E372 2000eb4. Handbooks and BibliographiesHandbook of computers and data processingQA76 .H278 1983How to Write Usable User DocumentationQA76.165 .W44 1991The McGraw-Hill computer handbook (electronic resource-electronic book) QA76 .M37 1983III. Search the Databases for Journal Articles,Technical Reports, Conference Proceedings and Standards1. What are databases?In general, databases are organized collections ofinformation. For example, TSU Library’s onlinecatalog is a database as well as electronic periodicalindexes that provide full-text articles, includingScienceDirect, Wiley InterScience, and citation
  • 8. Indexes such as CompendexWeb and others. You maylocate and access Library’s databases online fromour web page athttp://www.tnstate.edu/interior.asp?mid=777&ptid=1In order to use the databases properly, you should beable to understand the structure, type, coverage andattributes of them.a. Structure-Databases contain records that are informationabout each item within those databases.For example, the Library’s online cataloghas a record for each book, journal, microfilm,etc owned by it. In turn, each record containsinformation called fields. The fields in a recordmay include author, title, publisher, subjectheadings, and others. Other database recordsmay contain fields that include author,title, title of the periodical, volumenumber, date, year and page numbers.b. Type-The nature of the information contained in adatabase determines its type. The main typesof databases include Bibliographic, Full-textNumeric, Image, Audio and Mixed.Bibliographic databases do not contain theitems, however, they provide information asto where you can find it. The informationprovided by the Bibliographic database maycontain items such as Author, Title, Publisher,Date, Volume Number, Page Number andothers that is called “citation”. Sometimesthey include abstracts ( a summary) ordescriptions of items. If you are interested infinding records or citations about a certaintopic then you can choose to use thesedatabases to create bibliographies. However, ifyou want to read the information in its entirety,you will either locate the source given in therecord or use a full-text database. An exampleof a record from a bibliographic database suchas an online catalog may look like this:Title: Absolute beginners guide to programming / Greg PerryCall Number: QA76.6 .P464 2001ebPublisher: Boulder, Colo. : NetLibrary, 2003Subject Heading(s): Computer programming.Display Related Subjects
  • 9. Description: xiv, 416 p. : ill. ; 24 cm.Notes: Includes indexISBN: 0768655331 (electronic bk.)Item HoldingsLocation – InternetCall Number-QA76.6 .P464 2001ebVolume-Material- BookStatus- AvailableThe information we gather from this record isextensive. We obtain the title of the book, author(s)or editor(s), call number, publisher, place ofpublication, publisher and the year copyrighted andpublished, subject area of the book, number ofpreliminary pages, number of pages in the text,whether or not the text contains illustrations, size ofthe book, whether or not the book containsbibliographical references and an index, names ofco-author(s) or editor(s), whether or not the book ispart of a series, international standard book numberassigned to the book, and the location and theavailability of the item you are searching for.A bibliographic index for journal articles such asEiVillage-CompendexWeb will provide citationsand abstracts on your topic. For example,you may search under computers and education.You may limit your search to abstracts, to journalarticles, to English language only and to certainyears. If you used the above example, you willretrieve 46854 records which are available to youimmediately. Press Detailed Records button for afull citation for a record. For example, you willretrieve the accession number , title, Author(s), Firstauthor affiliation, serial title, abbreviated serial title,volume, issue, issue date, publication year, pages,language, ISSN, CODEN, document type,publisher, abstract, abstract type, Ei main heading,Ei controlled terms, uncontrolled terms, Eiclassification codes, treatment, and database.Full-text DatabasesThese databases are called full-text because theycontain the complete text of publications. Forexample, Wiley InterScience provides full-textarticles from scientific journals and books inaddition to summaries. For example, a BasicJournal Search under software will retrieve 10024
  • 10. documents. You may choose to read the abstract todetermine if this article is useful for your research.If so you may want to read or print the article. Ifyou would like to retrieve chapters in books aboutsoftware, you can search Wiley InterScienceunder Book search. Your search will yield 5documents in full-text and/or summary of thechapter.Numeric DatabasesThese databases generally provide numeric data,including statistics, financial data, censusinformation, economic indicators and others.For example, FIS Online will provide statisticalinformation about companies and countries. CensusData would provide statistics about people,business and others.Image DatabasesThese are the databases that provide access to artprints, animations, photos and others. For example,If you access the library’s Artstor database you will findMany images of paintingsAudio DatabasesThese databases provide access to audio clips tomusic and sound effects. For example, Library’sVirtual Reference web page would provide accessto the Internet Public Library Listening Roomwhere you may listen to and observe the videos ofRay Brooks, Steve Wood Quintet, Pamela Wise,Blue Dog and others.c. CoverageThe selection of appropriate databases is animportant factor in finding relevant information.A description of information covered by a databaseis usually found in the introductory screen.Subject Area-Some databases cover a specific subject area ordiscipline such as Business Information Systems, psychology, nursingand others. Others cover areas in more general innature or a mixture of subject areas. For example,in Business Information Systems, your library provides you access toBusiness Source Premier, Academic Search Premier, ScienceDirect,Wiley InterScience, Ei Village-CompendexWeb, MIT Press, SpringerLink,WilsonWeb-Applied Science and TechnologyIndex. Due to its varied nature, the subject of Business Information Systemsmay be found under business, engineering, computers, and
  • 11. other database classifications. You can also find a list of databasesaccording to their subject coverage in the Library’sweb page under Databases by Subject athttp://www.tnstate.edu/interior.asp?ptid=1&mid=784Type of Publication-Databases may contain information from onlyperiodicals. For example, MIT Press, Business Source Premierand Academic Search Premier will give youaccess to periodical articles they publish in the areasof science and technology and business. Some databases willinclude information from a combination of sourcessuch as periodicals and books. For example,ScienceDirect, WilsonWeb-Applied Science andTechnology Index, and Wiley InterScience willprovide you with articles from periodicals andchapters from books. Some databases includeonly popular sources such as magazines andnewspapers. You can use these databases for leisurereading. For example, InfoTrac-ExpandedAcademic ASAP will provide you access to somesources related to Business Information Systems such as PopularMechanics. On the other hand, some databasesinclude scholarly materials found in scientificjournals, conference proceedings and reports.For example, Wiley InterScience, ScienceDirectand MIT Press will provide access to scientificjournals and materials. Databases differ in terms offrequency of updating materials, accessibility ofthe most recent periodical articles and thepublication dates of the materials included.Sometimes publishers put an embargo on theavailability of the recent issues. For example, whilesearching the EBSCOHost, you may come acrosssome periodicals that are not currently accessible.That is, an embargo has been placed for the last twoyears. Another feature to consider in selecting adatabase is the availability of the material. Youmay select a full-text database so that you can readthe material immediately. Or you may choose adatabase that may provide only bibliographicinformation, however, you library owns a majorityof the items. If you are willing to wait, you may useamore comprehensive database that indexed a greatnumber of items your library does not subscribe tobut is able to obtain them for you through
  • 12. interlibrary loan. The decision is yours.d. AttributesAfter you make the selection of the databases youwould like to use, you will need to determine if thedatabases use controlled vocabulary and if thedatabases do field search or free-text indexing.In performing searches you will find that somedatabases use controlled vocabulary which is aspecific list of subject terms in organizing thedatabase contents by subject. If you want to retrieverelevant items or information , you should be awareof “controlled vocabulary”. For example,Business Source Premier and Academic Search Premierprovide you with a Thesaurus.This is a list of subject headings you can useto retrieve the relevant information you need. If youlook under Software you will find the followingsubject headings to chose from:Software metering Use Computer software meteringSoftware packages Use Integrated SoftwareSoftware portability Use Software compatibilitySoftware quality Use Computer software—Quality controlAnd so on. These entries tell us to use the controlled termin place of our own search term to improve our search.Subject Headings may be found in specialthesaurus, like in ERIC, in the Thesaurus of Descriptors,or provided by the database,or in the Library of Congress Subject Headingssource. You may search most databases bysubject, using controlled vocabularyORkeyword, by using your own wordsSome databases use field searching which meansthat the search term you used is only looked inspecific fields. For example, if you are using theLibrary’s online catalog and select the keywordsearch, your search will locate items with thatspecific search term in the title, subject or contentfields. On the other hand, some databases use free-text searching which means that the search termyou have selected will locate items anywhere in adocument or record. This type of searching mayreturn false drops or irrelevant items because thesearch term you have located will be located nomatter where it is. Some databases may give you thechoice for field or free-text searching, such as Business Source
  • 13. Premier or Academic Search Premier. Check thesites for this information before you begin yoursearch.2. Searching DatabasesA. Search Strategies –Your library provides access to over 101 databases.You can search these databases from any computeron campus and/or from off campus sites. Inselecting the type of database that will provideappropriate and relevant articles, you may considerthe following: subject discipline of your topic –specialized or multidisciplinary type of resources needed – basic sources,scholarly sources or professional/tradesources the target audience – is the research for a termpaper, independent study, senior project,thesis or dissertation?B. Use of Databases Subscribed by TSULibraries in Business Information SystemsYour Library subscribes to over 101 onlinedatabases in general and subject fields. Thedatabases in subject field – Business InformationSystems include the following that provide themost appropriate and relevant information:CompendexWebYears Covered: 1970-PresentRelevancy: Computer ScienceTruncation: *Search Tips:1. You need to use truncation (*) to search for words that beginwith the same letters. For example, robot* will return with robot,robots, robotic, robotics, robotization.2. Terms are automatically stemmed except in the author field. Forexample, the word management will retrieve manage, managed,manager, managers, managing, management. You can disable thisfeature by clicking on “ Autostemming ”.3. To search for an exact phrase or phrase containing stop words such asand, or, not, near, enclose term in braces {} or quotation marks “ “.For example, {Robotics and Autonomous Systems} or “networkedrobotics”.Browse the author look-up index to select all variations of an author’sname. For example, Smith, A. OR Smith, A.J. OR Smith, Allen J.MIT PressYears Covered: Varies by journal titles. You may want to browse journals
  • 14. by subject or title to see the coverage for each journal.Relevancy: Computer & Information Systems EngineeringTruncation: *Search Tips:1. You can search this database by BROWSING the journals and/orby searching a phrase or phrases. For example, you can browse theMIT database by journals subscribed by your library. In this caseyou will have access to full-text articles. You may chose the formatof the article by clicking next to RealPage, RealPage Plugin, PDF(full-document), PDF (page at a time) and SVG (page at a time).You can also browse by title, subject, publisher and LCClassification of the MIT journals. If you chose to browse allMIT Journals, you will only retrieve abstracts of articles that arenot subscribed by your library. However, your Interlibrary Loanlibrarian can obtain articles you need.2. You can retrieve information from this databases by using theSEARCH mode. You can search for articles throughcombinations of authors, article titles and abstract keywords.To include the fulltext of the articles, please either check theInclude Fulltext box, or select Fulltext from the drop down list offields.ScienceDirectYears Covered: Varies by journal titles. You may want to browse journalsby title, subject and publisher to find out the years covered.Usually the coverage is from the date the journal ispublished.Relevancy: Computer Science,Electrical and Electronic Engineering.Truncation: (!) , (*), (**)Search Tips: (!) Use this wildcard character to find root word plus allthe words made by adding letters to the end of it. Forexample, computer! would find computer, computers, computerize,computerized.(*) Use an asterisk to replace characters anywhere in aword, except the first character. Use one astrict for eachcharacter you want to replace. For example, wom*n wouldfind woman and women.(*) Use the asterisk to hold a space for variations inspelling at any point in a word. For example, bernst*would find both the ei and the ie spelling of the name.If you use (*) asterisks at the end of a word, they do not allhave to be filled, but may find up to the specific number ofcharacters. For example, transplant** would findtransplant, transplanted, transplanter.Note: transplant** does not find transplantation ortransplanting because only two wildcard characters areused. To find all the variations of transplant, use the (!)
  • 15. wildcard character.To find a journal or publication you can use the journaltitle finder search box, available when you click onjournals on the navigation bar. Alternatively, you canbrowse the alphabetical journal list. The journal screenallows you different options for browsing the list. A dropdown menu allows you to choose to view the entire journallist available on ScienceDirect {Subscribed (by yourlibrary) or Non-Subscribed ( not subscribed by yourlibrary)}.Quick Search – can be performed for an author, subjectof interest. The search will look for any relevant resultsfrom abstracts, titles, authors and article keywords. Enterthe search terms into the Quick Search bar beneath themain navigation bar. You can search all Full-text Sources,All Journals, This Journal, This Issue, This article, etc. Youmay use the Boolean syntax to produce precise results. It isbetter not to use words that are too general, such as “cell”or “behaviour” as they will retrieve too many results.Basic and Advanced Searching- will perform accurate ordetailed search queries, improve the relevancy of theretrieved articles or save your search queries. With this typeof search you can search across all journals, a subset ofjournals (by subject), abstracts databases, Scirus, etc.Additionally, you can specify to search for your phrasewithin the abstract, title, author, references, or full-text ofthe content. You can also limit your search by date or thejournal volume, issue and page number.Search Within Results- will enable you to refine yourSearch. You can run a new search that is restricted to thelist of articles you are already viewing. You can performunlimited number of refinements, each time restricting yoursearch to only the list of results you already have. Eachstage of refinement appears in the search history, allowingyou to return to any stage of your search at any time.Search Using Scirus- You can search across the entire webfor additional scientific information via Scirus tab on thesearch form. This search complements the content availableon ScienceDirect. A Basic Search under server retrieves3361 articles, a search under Scirus that searches the entireweb renders 9,737,413 entries.Business Source PremierYears Covered:Relevancy: Computer Science, Business
  • 16. • Truncation: The wildcard is represented by a question mark (?). To use the wildcard, enter your search terms and replace each unknown character with a ?. EBSCOhost finds all citations of that word with the ? replaced by a letter.For example, type ne?t to find all citations containing neat, nest or next. EBSCOhostdoes not find net because the wildcard replaces a single character. • Truncation is represented by an asterisk (*). To use truncation, enter the root of a search term and replace the ending with an *. EBSCOhost finds all forms of that word.For example, type comput* to find the words computer or computingSearch Tips: Business Source Premier basic search allows you to search using: either connected by AND (default) to find articles that contain all theterms such as computers AND education. or connected by OR to find articles that contain any of the terms suchas computers OR education. The basic search screen looks like this:Notice that you can limit by full text, references available, peer reviewed, publication,publication type,etc. Basic Search allows searching in the title, author, abstract fields. The Advanced Search looks like this:
  • 17. Automatic linking of terms with and, or and not is offered in the drop down menus on theleft. On the right are drop down menus for searchable fields, including title, authoraccession number, abstract, company entity, and more. No natural language searching isavailable in Business Source Premier. However, grouping with parentheses is allowed.For example one might compose this search: dog or cat and show or parade. A more focused search would be: (dog or cat) and (show or parade).In the first example, the search will retrieve everything on dog or cat shows AS WELLAS everything on parades, whether or not the articles refer to dogs or cats. In the secondexample, we have used the parentheses to control our query to only find articles aboutshows or parades that reference dogs or cats. Clicking the Company Profiles button reveals a list like this:Many companies are listed in alphabetical order, accessible by browsing or by clickingon a letter in the menu. Location and industry type of the company are also listed. The Thesaurus button reveals a controlled vocabulary which will allow you totranslate your terms into Business Source Premier terms. E.g., if I search for theabrogation of legislation, the thesaurus will correct me saying the correct term is repeal oflegislation. It will also tell me if I am using the correct term. For example, if I query the
  • 18. thesaurus on Abstracting and Indexing services, it will tell me I am using the correct termin the controlled vocabulary.Wiley InterScienceThe opening screen for Wiley Interscience looks like this:Years Covered:Relevancy: Computer Science, BusinessTruncation: *Search Tips:Basic Search allows you tosearch either all content, or by publication title. It also allowsyou to browse by subject, e.g., Business, Computer Science,Education, etc.Advanced Search looks like this and allows you to
  • 19. search limiting by various fields such as Funding Agency, Keyword, ISSN, Author, andArticle title. One can also limit by product type, i.e., journals, online books, references,etc. One can search online bookshelves, such as Biotechnology and Food Science, orsingle subjects such as chemistry, or limit by date.Boolean operators may be used from the pull down menus on the left, or entered in theboxes with the terms. Use NEAR/ with a number to indicate proximity. Example: ratAND cancer NEAR/5 prostate matches rat and cancer within 5 words of prostate. Youcan use an asterisk (*) as a wildcard character. As a shortcut for OR, you can use acomma ",". Example: gene, therapy matches gene OR therapy". Search for exact phrasesby enclosing a string in quotation marks.You can use parentheses to create nestedsearches. Example: (brain AND serotonin) OR (brain AND dopamine)Acronym finder, which looks like this:
  • 20. will search for acronyms, using exact match, Match beginning of term, or wildcardmatch. Limitation by subject is also possible.WilsonWeb-Applied Science andTechnologyYears Covered: 1983-PresentRelevancy:Artificial Intelligence, Communication and Information Technology,Computer Databases and Software, Electrical andElectronic Engineering, Machine Learning, and Solid StateTechnology.Truncation Symbol: *Search Tips: Basic Search screen looks like this. You may pick a database.then enter your search in the box.The truncation symbol (*) serves as a substitute for zero or a string of characters.For example the search:cat* retrieves catalyst, catatonic, as well as categorym*cdonald retrieves both mcdonald and macdonald.The wildcard symbol (?) serves as a substitute for a single alphanumeric character. It isparticularly useful when you are unsure of spelling.For example, the search einst??n retrieves the correctly spelled einstein (albert einstein).When searching for SIC codes, which are 4 digits, use the wildcard symbol (?) to searchranges. For example, 12?? <in> sic retrieves all available codes between 1200 and 1300.
  • 21. You can use the <wildcard> operator in a constructed search query to specify a pattern orrange of characters. You must enclose the word that includes a range or pattern in singlequotes (). You must also enclose the pattern in brackets or braces, without spaces.For example the search: <wildcard> bank{s,er,ing} locates one of each pattern, as inbanks, banker, and banking <wildcard> c[auo]t locates one of any character, as in cat,cut, cotRelational OperatorsYou can use relational operators in a constructed search query to find a term (in context)or number (in a sequence). For example, to locate a series of numbers within the DeweyDecimal Classification system the search ddc<starts>75 retrieves all headings between750 and 759.Relational operators are: <contains>, <ends>, <matches>, <starts>, <substring>.StemmingIn the Basic Search and Advanced Search screens, when you search on a single word thesearch engine will find documents that include that word as well as variations on theword as a root. For example, if you search for condition, the results will includedocuments with the words conditioning and conditioner. To restrict your search to theword itself, enclose it in quotation marks; "condition" will retrieve only those documentswith that word.In both Basic and Advanced search Boolean searching is possible . One just enters thesearch terms, strings them together with and, or, or not and the database understands thetype of search to be done. One may also use parentheses, like so: (painters or sculptors)and italy to make a nested search. Also one may use this formation: "Performanceartists" — a bound phrase using double quotation marks, which will search for thewords as a phrase only.Advanced Search looks like this:Again you can pick a database. Again you can enter up to three search terms and separatethem by and, or, or not. If I click on the Sort by menu I get:
  • 22. So a high degree of control is possible here in my sorting. I can sort by Person, Dewey Decimal Number, ISSN, Date of Death, Date, and so on. Databases in general that will provide in formation in the area of Business Information Systems include ABI Inform Academic Search Premier Academies of Science Abstracts Business Source Premier EBSCOHost-Academic Search Premier Emerald Engineering Village Factiva Findlaw SpringerLink WilsonWeb3. Locating Print and Electronic Journal ArticlesThe quickest way to locate and access journals is via Full-text Electronic, Print and Microform Journal Holdings.You will find this service on the Library’s web page athttp://www.tnstate.edu/interior.asp?mid=777&ptid=1. The page in questionlooks like this:The link in question is Journals.This service will provide you with accessibility to the journals you are looking for
  • 23. the list of databases that include the journals you are looking forIV. Search TSU Online Catalog for Print and ElectronicBooks and Other Resources1. How to Use the TSU Online Catalog?The access points in finding a book in the area of servers arekeyword, subject, author and title.Keyword Search is a primary method for searching for a topic.It allows you to search for individual words in the title, subjectand other fields in the bibliographic record. This is generally theeasiest type of search to do, but it also produces the largest hit list.You may limit the number of items retrieved by using operatorsand qualifiers discussed under Search Commands. You will findKeyword search in The Library’ online catalog. For a successfulkeyword search for servers, you need to identifyMain Concepts- For example,” what is the impact ofservers in internet industry?” The main concepts canbe impact, servers, internet and industry.Choice of Words- You may try use those key terms thatmay be used to describe your main concept. For example,impact: impacting, influence, resultingservers: computers, networking, electronicinternet: world wide web, global community,industry: manufacturing, manufacturersSubject Search is a method of searching by using subjectheadings. The online catalog automatically does it for you. Subjectheading describes the items and there are one or more subjectheadings assigned to them. The TSU Library uses Library ofCongress Subject Headings. You may want to consult the LibraryOf Congress Subject Headings located at the Circulation Desk tomake sure that you are using the correct words for a subject search.For example, if you use the subject heading Robots, you mayretrieve a book titled “Teaching and learning with robots”. Youcan look for additional books in the area of Robots by using thesuggested subject headings in the record, including Robotics andTeaching-Aids and devices.Author Search is used when you have the name of an author andwould like to retrieve a list of items written by that author. Forexample, if you do an author search under Goodwill, James,you will find three (3) books located in the TSU Library. They areApache Jakarta Tomcat, Mastering Jakarta Struts, and Pure Java Server Pages.You may search the online catalog under Author Search by typing theauthor’s last name first and first name last. If you need to findinformation about the author, in this case, James Goodwill,you may do a subject research using his last name, first name.
  • 24. Title Search is used when you know the title of an item. One pointto remember is that if the title begins with an A, An or the,disregard them and search under the second word of the title.These are called stop words. Do not discard the articles inbetween words. Title Search works bestif you are looking for a specific item and know the exact title. Ifyou do not know the title, a Subject Search would yield betterresults.Search Commands- the following commands may be used insearching most databases. Same may be titled and used somewhatdifferently. You may use the following search commands for asuccessful search:BOOLEAN OPERATORSAND is used when you want the records to includeboth search terms to narrow a search. For example,Robotics AND Car Manufacturing. In this case you arelimiting your search to only Robotics and CarManufacturing.OR is used to find records in which one or both searchterms appear thus broadening the search. For example,Robotics OR Automation. In this case you are broadeningyour search to include Robotics and automation ingeneral.NOT is used find those records that contain the first searchterm but not the second search term. In this case thosearticles containing both terms are not retrieved. Forexample, Robotics NOT Automation. You will findarticles only about Robotics. Articles with Automation willnot be retrieved.* Truncation is used to retrieve variant endings of a word.For example, Robot* will retrieve any words starting withRobot-Robots, etc.( ) Parentheses will signal priority and order. For example,(robotics*OR automation*) AND car manufacturing*will first find records containing words that start withRobotics or words that start with Automation or both, thenthose records that also mention words that start with CarManufacturing.# Pound Sign represents a single character. For example,Robot# will retrieve robot and robots.? Question Mark represents characters at the end of asearch term. For example, Robot? may retrieve recordsabout Robot, Robots, Robotics and Automation? mayretrieve Automation, Automated, Automating.SEARCH QUALIFIERSSearch Qualifiers include author (au), title (ti), and
  • 25. subject(su). They will allow you to limit your search tospecific fields. By using the Search Qualifiers you canspeed up response time and narrow the search to the morerelevant records. For example,su robotics not manufacturing will retrieve allrecords on the subject of robotics that do notcontain the word manufacturing anywhere in therecord.ti robotics and Young will retrieve all records withthe word robotics in the title field and Young in theauthor fieldTIPS:1. When you search the Library’s Online Catalog, you shouldstart with a keyword (Word/Phrase) search. For a successfulsearch, find relevant subject headings and use them for yoursearch.For example, a Keyword search in the Library’s onlineCatalog in the order below will retrieve 212 resources:(servers or internet)2. Online Library Catalogs may differ, some of the featuresof the TSU Online Catalog are as follows: Searching byAuthor, Title and Subject, Keyword, Call no. Govdoc no.,Journal title and ISBN-ISSN Limiting the Searches by Netlibrary, Main or Downtown Campus,and available items.2. Location of MaterialsOn the first floor of the Brown-Daniel Library books arearranged according to the Library of CongressClassification from classification A to LD. On the thirdfloor you will find books from classification M to Z. Inaddition, on this floor, you will have access to the books inthe Dewey Classification, over sized books and the YouthCollection. Few journal titles are also housed on the thirdfloor. On the second floor you will find Reference Booksjournals and microform collections. Reference Books arearranged on the shelves by Library of Congressclassification. Journals are arranged by alphabet.3. Library of Congress Classification SystemThis system is used so that each book and journal areidentified by their subject, assigned an alphanumeric callnumber and placed on the shelves according to thatnumber with the similar resources for easy access andbrowsing. Major classification headings used in the area ofBusiness Information Systems are as follows:
  • 26. • HD 28-70 Management, Industrial Management • HF 5546-5548.85 Office Management • T 58.5-58.64 Information Technology • T 58.6-58.62 Management Information Systems • TA 7885-7895 Systems Engineering • TK 7885-7895 Computer Engineering and Hardware4. What is a Call Number?As mentioned before, books and some periodicals arearranged on the shelves according to the Library ofCongress Classification system. According to thissystem each book or periodical is assigned an alphanumericcall number based on its subject content. This specificcall number identifies the item and places it on the shelveswith the items on the same subject.5. How to Read a Call Number?Each call number has several parts. For example, thefollowing call numberQA76.9.C55T8472000ebgives us the following information:The first line QA defines the class or subclass. It defines thebroad subject area within class Q for Science and QArepresents the the subclass Mathematics.The second line 76.9 is the classification number. Whenbrowsing the shelves for this book, you need to read thisnumber as a whole number with a decimal component todetermine its location on the shelf. Combined with classand subclass, the classification number defines the subjectmatter more precisely. In the above example, QA76.9represents Calculating Machines which is a subdivision of QA-Mathematics which in turn is inthe broader subject field of Q for Science.The third line of the call number is called the CutterNumber. It is a combination of letters and numbers thatusually indicates author. However, sometimes it mayrepresent a subject division. Some items may have doublecutter numbers. Always interpret the numeric part of thecutter number as a decimal number when you browse theshelves. Thus, the numeric component of .C55 should be
  • 27. read as .638. Therefore, QA 76.9 .C55 T847 2000ebshould be shelved before QA 76.9 .C6 T847 2000eb.The year of publication of the item, in this case 2000eb, mayalso be present. The items are shelved in chronologicalorder which often distinguishes items by varying editionsof that item.5. Electronic Books- Your library provides access to electronicbooks via its web page athttp://www.tnstate.edu/interior.asp?mid=366&ptid=1Currently you can read general interest electronic books vianetLibrary or technical electronic books via Safari and Books 24x7 Inaddition you may find electronic books via the Library’sonline catalog.V. Explore Internet ResourcesThe Internet contains a vast number of electronic documentscreated by individuals and institutions that reside on computers(servers) world wide and are linked by hyper-links. Structure and attributes of the InternetWhile the Internet is one giant database, it has noorganizational structure. Most information on theInternet is free, however, some require a subscription.For example, you may access some newspapers freeand may be able to read news items in their entirety.Some may only allow you to read the abstracts of theheadline and require subscription for complete access.The most important to keep in mind about the Internetis that the information it offers is not screened or edited.Note: The databases your library offers on the web areScreened and edited. Search Tools for the Internet1. Search Engines- are used to search for vastamount of resources on the Internet. Theseengines are very useful when searching uniqueword or phrases. When choosing a searchengine you should keep in mind that eachsearch engine searches a different number andtype of sources. Following are the most popularInternet search engines:Google (http://www.google.com) – hasbeen voted as the Most Outstanding SearchEngine for three times. This crawler-basedservice provides comprehensive and relevant
  • 28. coverage of the web. It is highlyrecommended as a first stop in you hunt forwhatever you are looking for. For moreinformation about Google go tohttp://searchenginewatch.com.AllTheWeb.com(http://www.alltheweb.com)- is an excellentcrawler-based search engine. It providesboth comprehensive coverage of the weband outstanding relevancy. If you triedGoogle and did not find it, AllTheWebshould be next on your list.Yahoo (http://www.yahoo.com) – isInternet’s oldest director, launched in 1994.Yahoo began using crawler based listing in2002 for its main results. Yahoo isimportant because it enhances Google’slistings with information from its owndirectory may make search results morereadable. Yahoo will help you to narrow andrefine your query.AltaVista (http://www,altavista.com)-provides access to 31 million pages foundon 627,000 servers and four million articlesfrom 14,000 Usenet news groups.Ask Jeeves (http://www.askjeeves.com)-gained fame in 1998 and 1999 as being the“natural language” search engine that let yousearch by asking questions and respondedwith what seemed to be the right answer toeverything. Actually 100 editors monitoredthe search logs. They then went out on to theweb and located what seemed to be the bestsites to match the most popular queries.Today, Ask Jeeves depends on crawler-based technology to provide results to itsusers.HotBot (http://www.hotbot.com)- provideseasy access to the web’s four major crawler-based search engines: AllTheWeb, Google,Inktomi and Teoma. However, unlike “metasearch engine”, it cannot blend the resultsfrom all of these crawlers together.Nevertheless, it is a fast and easy way to getdifferent web search opinions in one place.HotBot has a strong following among
  • 29. serious searches for the quality andcomprehensiveness of its crawler-basedresults.Dogpile (http://www.dogpile.com) – is apopular metasearch site that sends a searchto a customizable list of search engines,directories and specialty search sites, thendisplays results from each search engineindividually.Search Engine Tips-When you get ready to search via a searchengine, always look for the “help” botton.You need to be on the look out for the typeof results you may get. For example, if youchoose AltaVista, keep in mind that it usesfree-text-indexing which means thatwhatever search term is entered, it is lookedfor anywhere in the entire document. As aresult, you may retrieve hundreds orthousands of documents that may have verylittle or no relevancy for your search.Search Features-Search Engine Math Commands are asfollows:Command How Supported ByMust include + All enginesterm____________________________________Must exclude - All enginesterm____________________________________Must include ““ All enginesphrase____________________________________Match all Automatic at All enginesterms____________________________________ Via AllTheWeb, Advanced AltaVista. Search Google,Yahoo________________________Match any OR Alta Vista,Terms Ask Jeeves, Google, HotBot,
  • 30. Yahoo, AllTheWeb___________________________________Try to be specific- tell a search engineexactly what you are looking for. Forexample, imagine you want to find pagesthat have references to both servers andhard drive technology on the same page. Youcould search this way by using the +addition symbol:+hard+drives+serversYou will find only pages that contain bothwords, hard, drives and servers.You will find pages that have all three of thewords on them. This search is helpful if youwant to narrow or refine your search.You may want to use Quotation marks, “ “to multiply terms through a phrase searchand retrieve only pages that have all thewords in the exact order you want.For example,“hard drives servers”will retrieve pages that use “robot arms use”in the exact order.Power Searching Commands are:Command How Supported byTitle Search title: AltaVista, AllTheWeb intitle: Google, Teoma allintitle: Google___________________________________ host: AltaVista site: Google, YahooSite Search url.host: AllTheWeb domain HotBot none: HotBot, Yahoo____________________________________ url: AltaVista url.all: AllTheWebURL Search allinurl: Google inurl
  • 31. u: Yahoo none: HotBot___________________________________ link: AltaVista, GoogleLink Search linkdomain: HotBot linkall: AllTheWeb, none: HotBot, Yahoo____________________________________ * Yahoo ? AOLWildcard % Northern Lights None: AllTheWeb, Google, Hotbot____________________________________Anchor None: Google,Search HotBot____________________________________ Types of Web SitesInternet offers a vast number of web sites thatprovide varied information such as news,advertisement, entertainment, and personal data.You can distinguish the nature of web sites bylooking at their URL domains. URL stands forUniform Resource Locator, an Internet addresswhich tells a browser where to find an Internetresources. For example, the URL for your library ishttp://www.tnstate.edu/library.There are 4 broad categories of web sites you candistinguish by their URL domain. They are:Educational institution-Domain: .edu (http://www.tnstate.edu)Government site-Domain: .gov (http://www.senate.gov)Organizations or associations-Domain: .org (http://www.ala.org)Commercially based sites-Domain: .com (http://www.cocacola.com)Network oriented sitesDomain: .net (http://www.butler.net) Categories of Information on the Internet
  • 32. 1. Free Web Sites with Valuable InformationIt is recommended that you should do yourresearch by using your library’s electronicand print resources accessible from theLibrary’s web page. However, you may findsome valuable information on the web in theareas listed below:Current Company Information- You canread information about a company from itsweb site. However, the information youobtain may be slanted to favor thatcompany. You can use the search engines ordirectories on the Internet to find theinformation you need. Always keep in mindthat your library has pertinent and unbiasedinformation available for you via electronicand print resources. For example, you canuse the search engine Google to look upinformation about Lockheed AircraftCompany. You will find 786,000 hits orresults. If you look up IBM via the samesearch engine, you will find 22,100,000 hits.Current Events or Topics- Web is veryuseful in finding information about currentevents because it provides immediateinformation on very recent events. Forexample, you can find the most recentpictures of NASA experiments on the webbefore the print version arrives.State and Federal Government Information-Most state and government agencies havetheir own web sites that provide informationabout their offices, policies, census data,congressional hearings and others. Forexample, you can find information aboutTennessee Department of Transportation byeither looking for it via a search engine onthe Internet or via your library’s web siteunder Tennessee Resources. If you needinformation about the Federal Government,you can either search via a search engine oryou can go to your library’s web site and
  • 33. look under U.S. Government Resources.Information About and From Associations,Organizations and Others- If you arelooking for information about an associationpertaining to contact information, or shareinformation, you may find the web site andget in touch with the organization. Forexample, you may want to see the type ofinformation is provided by the AmericanSociety for Engineering Education (ASEE).You can search for the web site via Google oranother search engine. When you locate web siteyou will see the following information:Information and news about the organization,information about the engineering profession,awards program, calendar, advertising, conferenceschedules, contact person, engineering resources,fellowships, international activities, membershipservices, public policy, publications and marketing.The url for this organization is http://www.asee.org WWW Resources at TSU-1. Virtual Reference-2. Tennessee Resources3.Government Resources Web Sites in Business Information SystemsVI. Evaluate Research Materials Criteria to Evaluate Research Materials in Engineering-After you have located various materials on yourtopic, you should evaluate them to determine theirusefulness, quality and authority. Keep in mind thatevaluating the information you have located is oneof the major skills of library research process. Inevaluating information in the field of Engineering,you should apply the ten criteria below:1. Author’s qualifications or credentials-Is the author practicing in the field? Is hean authority in the field? How manyarticles or books he has written on thetopic?2. The Timeliness of the Publication- Is theinformation timely or out-of-date for yourtopic? When was the information created?Check the publication dates. Is theinformation updated regularly, if so, howoften is it updated? Some information are
  • 34. updated daily, some weekly and monthly.Is the information still valid for yourtopic? If you need the very currentinformation then timeliness is a must foryou. But, if you are looking for thehistorical perspective of your topic, thentimeliness may not be crucial.3. Accurate and Factual Information Supportedby Evidence- Does the information youhave located come from authoritativesources? If the information came from ajournal in a database, is the journalrefereed? Refereed journals orpublications are the ones that containinformation reviewed by several expertsin the field. Is there a review aboutthe book you will use as a source? Howthoroughly the information is edited andreviewed? If you obtained theinformation from a web site, how stableor permanent is the information? Someinformation will remain accessible andvalid over time than the others. Is thecoverage of your topic complete? To findabout this question, you may check thetable of contents, index, or abstract orsummary of the source. Are the factualstatements well documented or footnotedso you can verify them for accuracy?4. Primary vs. Secondary Sources- You canlocate your information from two typesof materials:Primary Sources: These are the first-hand or eye-witness accounts of anevent. They include, newspaper stories,reports of experiments, statistics,government documents, autobiographiesand letters. For example, AT&TTechnical Reports, NASA Reports, andothers.Secondary Sources: These are thesources that analyze, relate, evaluate orcriticize based on information oninformation gathered from PrimarySources.5. Reputation of the Publisher- Check out the
  • 35. publisher of the source. If the publisheris a university press then it is likely tobe scholarly. Even though you cannotalways guarantee quality based on thepublisher’s reputation, it may be a signthat the publisher has a regard for thetype of sources it publishes. Forexample, University of Texas Press,Cambridge University Press, ElsevierPress, John Wiley and Sons andBlackwell Science are scholarlypublishers in Science and Engineeringand other areas.6. Type of Publication- is the source scholarly,popular, trade or governmentpublication? Is the journal scholarly orpopular? You need to make adistinction because it indicates differentlevels of complexity in introducingideas.Scholarly Journals- the WebstersThird International Dictionarydefinition of a scholarly journal is apublication that is concerned withacademic study, especially research;exhibiting the methods and attitudesof a scholar; and having a mannerand appearance of a scholar. Thesejournals usually have a serious lookand contain various graphs, chartsand other statistical information. Thearticles in these journals always citetheir resources in the form offootnotes or bibliographies. Theauthors of the articles are scholars inthe field or someone who has doneresearch in the field. The languageused is discipline related. Scholarlyjournals aim to report on originalresearch or experimentation anddisseminate it for scholarly use.Examples of Scholarly Journalsinclude, Advanced EngineeringMaterials, International Journal ofNetwork Management, Journal ofRobotic Systems, Advanced
  • 36. Engineering Informatics,Engineering Fracture Mechanics andothers.General Interest and NewsPublications- These publicationsare attractive in appearance, theirformat can be a journal or anewspaper. The articles contained inthese sources may be written byeditorial staff, scholars or free lancewriters. The language used is for thegeneral public. They are publishedby commercial entities, individualsand/or professional organizations.The aim of these sources is toprovide information to a broadaudience of concerned citizens.Some examples are PopularMechanics, Scientific American,New York Times, NationalGeographic and others.Popular Journals- these sources areattractive in appearance. Theycontain many photographs,drawings. They very rarely citesources and information they containare usually second or third hand. Thearticles are in general with very littledepth. The popular journals are forentertaining the reader, sellingproducts or promoting a viewpoint.Some examples are People Weekly,Traditional Homes, Vogue, GoodHousekeeping, Southern Living,Essence and others.Sensational, Tabloid Publications- useelementary language that is oftensensational. They aim to arousecuriosity with flashy headlines.Some examples are NationalInquirer, Globe, Weekly WorldNews, Star, and others. Criteria to Evaluate the Web ResourcesYou can find a vast amount of information on theInternet, however, not all resources are equallyvaluable or even reliable. Your challenge is to sift
  • 37. through the vast amount of information andpinpoint those sources that are reliable and relevantfor your topic. As a rule the, informational webpages present factual information. For example, theweb pages with URL addresses that end with .eu or.gov provide reliable information since they aresponsored by educational institutions or governmentagencies. You may consider the following points inevaluating web sources:1. Scope- How complete is theinformation covered? Is theinformation given in detail?2. Content- Is the information accurateor factual and reflects theopinion of the author? Does theauthor list his/her sources forverification? Is the informationbiased? Does the informationclearly provide the name(s) ofperson(s) or organizationsresponsible for the content ofthe information? Is the authorqualified to provide theinformation? How current isthe information? Do you seedates as to when it was writtenand when it was last revised oror updated? Are there links toother related resources? If so,are they up-to-date? Is the texttwell written andcommunicated clearly?3. Graphics and Multimedia Design- Is thePage attractive andInteresting to look at?4. Navigation- is the web resource easy touse? Is it user friendly? Can you accessthe resource via standard computerequipment and software?VII. Write the Research Paper1. Organization of InformationNow that you have gathered the pertinentinformation, it is time to organize it. You may lookat the organization of your information as if you areorganizing your desk drawer or closet. Similar items
  • 38. are grouped together for easy access. In writingyour research paper, you may group yourinformation by similar concepts. For example, ifyou are using the web to gather information, youmay bookmark them under a concept. One of thebest ways to organize information is to create anoutline, kind of a skeleton that you will later fillwith information. In an outline information isarranged by hierarchy and sequence. This is doneby identifying Main Topics, Subtopics,detailed information under subtopics,Conclusion and Bibliography.. An outline wouldalso contain forward, preface and table of contents.An outline may look like this:I. Main TopicA. Sub-Topic1. Detail2. Detail3. DetailB. Sub-Topic1. Detail2. Detail3. DetailC. Sub-Topic1. Detail2. DetailFor example, the book titled “Achieving Maximum Value from Information Systems “ byDan Remenyi and Michael Sherwood-Smith has the followingoutline:Chapter I- An Introduction to Active Benefit Realisation 1. Introduction 2. ABR and Its Scope 3. Summary and ConclusionsChapter II- IS Management: The Need for a Post-Modern Approach 1. Introduction 2. Information Systems in the Context of Business Theory 3. Pre-Modernism, Modernism and Post-Modernism 4. Factors Affecting the Need for a Post-Modern Approach to Information Systems Management 5. Post-Modern Information Systems ManagementChapter III Some Aspects of Information Systems Evaluation 1. Introduction 2. What Is Evaluation? 3.Types of Evaluation 4. Summary and ConclusionConclusion
  • 39. BibliographyIn this example, the title is Behavior-basedRobotics; Intelligent Robots and AutonomousAgents. The author organized the information intofour Main Topics. They are WhenceBehavior, Animal Behavior, Robot Behavior andBehavior-based Architectures. The informationrelevant to the main topics are sub-topics and theyare are Toward Intelligent Robots, Precursers,Spectrum of Robot Control, Related Issues,What’s Ahead, What Does Animal BehaviorOffer Robots, Neuroscientific Basis forBehavior, Psychological Basis for Behavior, etc.2. Citing Sources and Ethical Issues-While writing your paper, no doubt, you will needoutside support for your thesis or point of view.That is, you will use quotes from other researchers.When you incorporate someone else’s ideas ormaterial in your paper, you are obligated to givecredit to the original author. You can give this creditby citing other authors’ works in your paper. Thesecitations must be complete and they include books,journal or newspaper articles, Internet sources. Etc.Failure to cite the source material is unethical and itcalled “ plagiarism “.You can cite your sources properly by using avariety of formats available in the followingcategories:Science- CBE (Council of Biology Editors)Social Sciences- APA ( AmericanPsychological Association)Humanities- MLA (Modern LanguageAssociation)History- ChicagoTipsYou should pick a style that fits your researchtopic and use it consistently.Make sure that you provide a complete citation sothat persons reading your research can locate theinformation you are citing.Examples-Footnotes:Print materials-Electronic resources-Bibliographies:Print materials-
  • 40. American Psychological Association (APA) StyleBooks-The bibliographic citation for a book isgenerally document as follows:Braga, N. (2002). Robotics, mechatronics,and artificial intelligence:experimental circuit blocks fordesigners.Boston: Newnes.( Notice that the title of the book is inItalics)Journals-Dario, Paola, Guglielmelli, E. and Lascki, C.(2001). Humanoids and personalrobots: design and experiments.Journal of Robotic Systems, 18,673-690.(Notice that the title of the journal is inItalics)Modern language Association (MLA)Books-Braga, Newton C. Robotics,Mechatronics, and artificialintelligence:experimental circuit blocks fordesigners. Boston: Newnes, 2002.( Notice that the author’s name is givenin full and the publication date of thebook is entered at the end of thecitation. There are two spaces aftereach period)Journals- (scholarly)Dario, Paola, Guglielmelli, E. andLascki, C. “Humanoids andPersonal Robots: Design andExperiments.” Journal of RoboticSystems 18. 12 (December 2001):673-690.( Notice that the title of the article is inquotation marks, both the volume andthe issue number and the month orseason and year of the publication isgiven. The month or the season and theyear of publication are in parenthesis)Electronic resources-