Hydrogen Production


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Hydrogen Production

  1. 1. Hydrogen Production The Energy of Tomorrow Grounded by The Technology of Today
  2. 2. <ul><li>One of the greatest problems facing the development of hydrogen-powered cars remains the production of hydrogen. </li></ul><ul><li>With the technology that we currently possess, hydrogen production is either expensive and impractical or just as bad for the environment as current fossil fuels. </li></ul><ul><li>Scientists continue to work on new and viable means of producing energy-usable hydrogen. </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>STEAM </li></ul><ul><li>REFORMING </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
  4. 4. Steam Reforming “Hydrogen! Hydrogen! My planet for some hydrogen!” <ul><li>The most widely used means of practical hydrogen production is through steam reforming. </li></ul><ul><li>Steam reforming involves reacting methane with steam at high temperatures (750°-800° C). </li></ul><ul><li>This produces a synthesis gas made up of H 2 and </li></ul><ul><li> Carbon Monoxide  </li></ul>
  5. 5. Steam Reforming cont. <ul><li>To convert the CO into further Hydrogen, the steam reforming process has a second step, in which the Carbon Monoxide is reacted with steam over a nickel catalyst. </li></ul><ul><li>This second steaming occurs in two stages: The High Temperature Shift, which occurs at temperatures of 350° C, and the Low Temperature Shift, which occurs at 210° C. </li></ul><ul><li>The by-product? </li></ul><ul><li> CARBON DIOXIDE  </li></ul>
  6. 6. Steam Reforming: THE EQUATION <ul><li>Part 1 </li></ul><ul><li>CH 4 +H 2 O —» CO + 3H 2 </li></ul><ul><li>To produce more hydrogen from the Carbon Monoxide </li></ul><ul><li>Part 2 </li></ul><ul><li>CO + H 2 O —» CO 2 + H 2 </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>ELECTROLYSIS </li></ul><ul><li>+  </li></ul>
  8. 8. Electrolysis E for effort <ul><li>A further means of Hydrogen production is ELECTROLYSIS. </li></ul><ul><li>Electrolysis is the process in which an ionic compound is broken down into its component elements by passing an electric current through it. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Electrolysis cont. <ul><li>This process can be used to break down water into hydrogen and oxygen. </li></ul><ul><li>The equation is below: </li></ul><ul><li>2H 2 O —» 2H 2 + O 2 </li></ul>
  10. 10. Problems with Electrolysis <ul><li>The main problem with electrolysis is that it is adapted only to small quantities of water, completely impractical for powering a fuel cell. </li></ul><ul><li>For it to be viable, there would need to be vast leaps in the field of maximizing electrolysis output while miniaturizing the process. </li></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>BACTERIA </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>In the Future . . . </li></ul>
  12. 12. Bacteria It’s coming . . . We swear . . . <ul><li>An experimental, but very promising prospect in hydrogen production is in harnessing hydrogen-producing bacteria. </li></ul><ul><li>The advantage of this process would be that the only fuel source that would have to be stored would be the alimentation of the bacteria. </li></ul><ul><li>Some promising examples of research in this field are . . . </li></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>Modified E. Coli Virus </li></ul><ul><li>On January 31, 2008, it was announced in Science Daily that Thomas Wood, a Professor at Texas A&M, had genetically modified a sample of E. Coli virus to produce Hydrogen gas when fed natural sugars from corn crops. </li></ul><ul><li>The current form of this virus can produce 140 times the amount produced by normal nitrogen-fixing process. </li></ul><ul><li>Professor Wood continues to work on these specimens, with the goal of improving the output of the virus with a smaller input of sugar. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Nitrogen-fixing bacteria <ul><li>A more down-to-earth bacteria fuel is the use of nitrogen-fixing bacteria. The process of nitrogen fixation is a vital part of plant growth, and produces hydrogen among other products. Technology for identifying this bacteria is patent pending. </li></ul>
  15. 15. CONCLUSION <ul><li>The technology to produce viable hydrogen has been around for a long time. </li></ul><ul><li>The technology to produce viable hydrogen practically and eco-neutrally </li></ul><ul><li>is a long way away. </li></ul><ul><li>Barring an unexpected leap forward in human thinking and scientific process, usable methods of hydrogen production are due around 2012. </li></ul>