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Ethanol production

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ethanol production and product recovery from starchy materials

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Ethanol production

  1. 1. ETHANOL PRODUCTON
  2. 2. Anaerobic Fermentation of alcohol
  3. 3.  Ethanol is used as solvent chemical intermediate fuel Solvent:- Resins, pharmaceuticals , cosmetics ,household cleaning products, industrial solvent Fuel:- Used as a bio fuel , In internal combustion engines Chemical intermediate :- • petroleum derived chemicals • Butadiene production
  4. 4. Organisms for ethanol production:- Bacteria:- Many bacteria can produce ethanol Many produce end products • Other alcohol • organic acids • Polyols • Ketones gasses Many bac metabolize glucose by EMP pathway • Clostridium sps • Spirochaeta sps • Sarcina sps • Streptococcus sps
  5. 5. Yeast Primary interest are saccharomyces sps Organisms are selected by • High growth and fermentation rate • High ethanol yield • Osmotolerance • Low PH • High temp • Hardiness under physical and chemical stress • Ethanol and glucose tolerance(allows conversion of conc feeds to conc products)
  6. 6. RAW MATERIALS Saccharine Starch & Cellulose materials
  7. 7. SACCHARINE:- Simple, directly fermentable, 6 & 12 C molecules Glucose, fructose, maltose FRUITS:- Grapes – 15% Banana – 13.8% Apples – 12.2% Pineapples – 11.7% Pears – 10% Peaches – 7.6% Oranges – 5.4% Watermelon – 2.5%
  8. 8. MOLASSES:- Beet or cane molasses Contain 52 – 55 % fermentable sugars Molasses with above 15 – 20 % sugar cont will need to be dilute A ton yeild-70-80 gallons CANE SORGUM :- 14% fermentable sugar content Extraction requires heavy duty 13-14 gallons of alcohol / ton Acidification is necessary
  9. 9. SUGAR BEET :- Mostly preferred 15% sugar, 82% water, small amount of starch Juice Is extracted by crushing A ton yield 20 – 25 gallons of alcohol Enzymes improve the alcohol yield SUGAR CORN WASTE :- 7 – 15% sugar Sugar is extracted as same as sorghum 8 – 18% gallons of alcohol per ton Back slopping in the range of 20-25% Acidification is necessary
  10. 10. Sugar beet sugar corn
  11. 11. Starchy materials:- Materials that contain more complex carbohydrates Grains :- Grains must be milled, diluted & coked & fermented Contain large amounts of fermentable materials Alcohol yield is dependent on converted starch Jerusalem artichokes :- Abundant source of alcohol ( 16 – 18%) fermentable material A ton should yield about 25 gallons of alcohol Material should be crushed to pulp & cooked for 2- 3 hrs, dilution is not necessary ( 79 – 80% water)
  12. 12. grains artichokes potatoes sweet potato
  13. 13. PH is adjusted & fermentation is carried out Potato:- 15 -18% fermentable sugar A ton yield 20-25% of alcohol Cooked with steam under pressure After cooking mash is cooled to conversion for 15-20 min Once converted PH should be adjusted mash is fermented Sweet potato:- 27-28% fermentable sugar A ton should yield 40 gallons of alcohol Similar manner to potatoes Dilution is required (66%water)
  14. 14. Processing steps Starchy materials are of 2 categories 1. Encased by grain hulls 2. Starch is readily available Malting:- Seeds are moistened & allowed to sprout These seeds are powdered & the powder is called malt Milling:- Grains are milled to expose the starch Material is ground as fine as possible
  15. 15. But the fine flour is difficult to remove in distillation process . Pot stills may reduce the problem Cooking (preparation of mash):- Starch is liquefied by boiling under pressure To dissolve the water soluble starches Always done with steam under pressure at 100°c Use less water during cooking & water may be added to dilute the mash So cooling time may be saved New method :- Milling & cooking in one operation without use of water  The cooked malt is called mash
  16. 16. Conversion :- Conversion of starch to fermentable sugar (Maltose) by certain enzymes in the malt or by acid hydrolysis Enzyme extracts:- Commercially available 3 basic types : 1. α amylase - produce dextrose 2. Β amylase - produce maltose 3. Gluco amylase – reduce the remaining starch
  17. 17. Acid hydrolysis:- Conversion by the action of acid Requires acid proof equipment and high temp Dilute mineral acid(H₂SO₄) is added to grain slurry Then immediately neutralized with calcium hydroxide Mash cooling:- Mash is cooled after conversion & PH is checked Cooling coils are used for cooling Cooling time is reduced as much as possible
  18. 18. Fermentation Batch fermentation is commonly employed. Fermenter volume -- 600mᶟ. 3% inoculum(3×10⁶/ml) With in 12 days yeast produce 10% ethanol  when the process carried out at 35- 38°c , ph.4-4.5 max productivity was 1.9 g/h. 80%cells were removed in separator and brought back again into fermenter. When the high quality molasses is used, the max yield is 95%.
  19. 19. Continuous fermentation not commonly used In US 10 large scale plants among them 4 are used con fermentation Nutrient solution was molasses with di ammonium phosphate PH was adjusted to 5 with H₂SO₄ Fermentation temp -35°c After fermentation cells were separated by centrifugation and channeled back into the first fermenter
  20. 20. PRODUCT RECOVERY Cell biomass is separated by centrifugation or sedimentation. M.o desired end product – heated ( aggregate) readily separated from broth by sedimentation. Desired end product metabolite. intracellular - n.a , vit ,enz, a.b (gresofulvin) extracellular - a.a, acitic acid, citric acid, alcohol, [ penicillin, streptomycin]
  21. 21. Separation of cell biomass Flocculation flotation Filtration centrifugation flocculation:- Flocculating agent is added hydrocolloids inorganic salts organic poly electrolyte  produce large aggregate which still settle more readily
  22. 22. Flotation :- by introducing gas into liquid Cells gets adsorbed to the gas bubbles & rise to the foam layer at the top of vessel That can be collected & removed from the bioreactor Filtration:- Bacterial cultures – absolute filters  filamentous Fungi- depth filters static & cross flow filtration
  23. 23. Distillation Separation for a mixture of liquids It relies on differences in B.P of component liquids to be separated The mixture to be separated is added to the distilled pot & is heated Low B.P will vaporize first. this vapors passes into distilling head & then into condenser. With in the condenser the vapor is cooled & it liquefies. The resulting liquid is then collected in receiving flask
  24. 24. Ethanol B.P - 78.5°C Water B.P - 100°C Purification:- By chromatography HPLC GLC Applications solvent in the manufacture of varnishes and perfumes Preservative for biological specimens In the preparation of essence and flavorings
  25. 25. In many medicines and drugs. As a disinfectant and in tinctures. Used as a biofuel (99.2%). Medically ethanol is soporific. Used as antiseptic. Fluid in many alcohol thermometer. 92.4%ethanol is used as solvent in cosmetics pharmaceuticals and chemical industry Byproduct DDGS (distillers dried grain with solubles) Co₂– used for the production of dry ice and preparation of soft drinks Yeast biomass- animal fodder (contains proteins &vit)

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