Introduction to cells


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Intro to Cell Organelles

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Introduction to cells

  1. 1. Quickflart! 10/11• What is a good one – sentence definition of a cell?
  2. 2. Introduction to Cells
  3. 3. What is a cell?…membrane bound structure, it is the smallest unit of life.
  4. 4. Important people who helped discover cells1) Robert Hooke – looked at cork cells named the 1665 structure “cell”2) Anton von Leeuwenhoek looked at pond water, was 1st to look at living cells!1700
  5. 5. MicroscopesOnly been around for about 250 years.Several types: Light microscope Electron microscope (SEM & TEM)
  6. 6. Light microscope
  7. 7. Euglena under light microscope
  8. 8. Electron Microscope
  9. 9. Euglena under SEM (Scanning Electron Microscope)
  10. 10. What are the 3 parts to the Cell Theory?1) All living things are made of at least 1 cell.2) Cells are the basic unit of structure & function of life.3) Cells only come from other living cells.
  11. 11. Are there differences between cells?1) Different shapes2) Different sizes3) Different internal organization
  12. 12. Quackstort! 10/15• Write the three parts of the cell theory.• Use your notes if you can’t remember.• Smile.• Table of Contents - Write: Prokaryotes & Eukaryotes
  13. 13. Different cell shapes
  14. 14. How is the internal organization different? Cells are either Prokaryotic or Eukaryotic!!
  15. 15. Prokaryote• No nucleus• Has DNA & circular chromosome• No membrane-bound organelles• Can only be unicellular• Ex: bacteria
  16. 16. Typical prokaryote
  17. 17. Eukaryote• Has nucleus• Has DNA & rod shaped chromosomes• Has many membrane-bound organelles• Can be unicellular or multicellular• Ex: fungus, plants, my dog, Mr. R
  18. 18. Typical Eukaryote (animal cell)
  19. 19. Typical Eukaryote (plant cell) Nucleolus Rough Nucleus endoplasmic Smooth reticulum endoplasmic reticulum Ribosomes {Absent in Chloroplastanimal Cell Wall cells Central Vacuole Golgi apparatus Vesicle Plasma Membrane Mitochondrion Cytoskeleton { Microfilament Microtubule
  21. 21. Cell OrganellesCell organelles are small structures within the cell, each has a specific job.Not all cells will have every organelle!
  22. 22. NucleusThe control centerContains the DNAControls all the cell functionsHas a nuclear membraneSome have a nucleolus inside
  23. 23. Nucleus
  24. 24. Endoplasmic Reticulum2 types: smooth ER (no ribosomes) rough ER (with ribosomes)Snuggles up to the nucleusHelps with movement of substances within the cell, Smooth ER also helps make steroids & break down toxins.
  25. 25. ER
  26. 26. Golgi ApparatusHelps finish proteins and package them for shipment out of the cell.
  27. 27. Golgi Apparatus
  28. 28. RibosomesMake proteins.Can be “floating free” in the cytoplasm or attached to rough ER.
  29. 29. Proteins (NOT an organelle)• Proteins are the building blocks that make up all of the structures in the cell.
  30. 30. LysosomesLysosomes are vesicles that contain digestive enzymes that:Breaks down old cell parts & some wastes.Also destroys any invaders (like bacteria)
  31. 31. MitochondriaMost of the energy cell’s need is made here! (cell respiration)Changes “food” into energy.
  32. 32. Mitochondria
  33. 33. Cytoplasm/CytoskeletonCytoplasm = jelly like substance in the cellCytoskeleton = made up of microtubules & microfilimentsBoth are important for providing structural support in intracellular movement.
  34. 34. Cytoplasm/Cytoskeleton
  35. 35. Cell Membrane/Plasma MembraneDouble layer of lipids with carbs & proteins.Helps maintain cell shape and homeostasis.
  36. 36. Cell membrane
  37. 37. Plant cells Plant cells have the sameorganelles & a few new ones!
  38. 38. Plant cells
  39. 39. Chloroplast…used for photosynthesis**has its own DNACells in plant leaves have LOTS of chloroplasts!
  40. 40. Chloroplasts
  41. 41. Cell WallRigid structure, mostly made of cellulose.Outside of the cell membrane.Helps support the cells (and plant)
  42. 42. Cell wall
  43. 43. Some other cell parts to be aware of…1) Cilia – hair-like structures usually help cells move2) Pili – hair-like structures that help bacteria stick to surfaces and share DNA with other bacteria.3) Flagella (flagellum) – whip-like tail, helps cell move
  44. 44. 3) Vacuoles – hold or store wastes, water, food. Plants usually have 1 large vacuole and many smaller ones, animal cells have small ones.4) Centrioles – only in animal cells, help with cell division
  45. 45. Cells – general informationCell size is limited by the ratio of surface area to volume.Cell with particular functions will have more of some organelles & less of some organelles.