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Cell notes website


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Notes Cell Organelles

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Cell notes website

  1. 1. CELL NOTES
  2. 2. CELL NOTESOrganisms - living creatures. Any life form that can survive on its own. Organ systems - made up of organs - work together to make an organism function. Example: digestive system Organs - made up of tissues - work together to make organ systems function. Example: stomach made of muscle tissue and skin tissue
  3. 3. Tissues - made up of cells - work together to make organs function. Example: skin tissue made up of different kinds of skin cells. Cells are microscopic - too small to be seen without a microscope. Every living thing has at least one cell. Humans are made of almost 100 trillion cells. If a single cell can live on its own, it is called a unicellular organism.
  4. 4. Humans are multicellular organisms. Cell Theory: 1. Every living thing is made up of one or more cells. 2. The cell is the smallest, most basic unit of life in all living things. 3. All cells come from existing cells.
  5. 5. Prokaryotic Cells • Cells that do not have a nucleus • Another name for prokaryotic cells is Bacteria • ONLY unicellular – never multicelluar
  6. 6. Eukaryotic Cells • Cells that DO have a nucleus • Most eukaryotic cells belong to multicellular organisms • There are some unicellular eukaryotes (amoeba, euglena, paramecium)
  7. 7. Prokaryotic vs. Eukaryotic No Nucleus Nucleus No Membrane – covered Organelles Membrane – covered Organelles Circular DNA (in a circle) Linear DNA (in a line) Bacteria 100 x smaller than eukaryotes All other cells 100 x bigger than prokaryotes
  8. 8. CELL MEMBRANE • Keeps good stuff in (nutrients, water), and bad stuff out (waste, toxins, viruses, bacteria). • Made from lipids (phospholipid bilayer) no, you don’t have to draw this picture
  9. 9. Cell Membrane Honors students – it’s framed in yellow – so yes – I want you to draw it (and label it). Traditional 7th grade students – you can draw and label it too – but it’s optional – you don’t have to.
  10. 10. Cell Wall • Hard Wall made of cellulose. • Rigid & Stiff • Provides strength & support to cell • Only in plant and bacteria cells. • Small holes, called plasmodesmata, allow transfer of nutrients, waste, and water.
  11. 11. NUCLEUS • Is the control center of the cell • Stores information (DNA) on how to run the cell and build new structures. • Largest Organelle in the cell No, don’t copy this picture
  12. 12. • Machine that reads RNA strand and builds proteins by assembling amino acids. • Proteins are the building blocks for all structures built in the cell. • Ribosomes are also called“Protein Factories” • Ribosomes are the smallest organelles in the cell No, don’t copy this picture Yes, copy this picture
  13. 13. Ribosomes • Honors – draw and label!
  14. 14. ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM • Smooth E.R. breaks down toxins, and makes lipids which are used for membranes. Doesn’t have ribosomes. • Rough E.R. has ribosomes, and packages proteins for release from the cell. • Rough E.R. is an “Assembly line” that constructs & transports proteins No, don’t copy this picture, but copy this one!
  15. 15. Rough E.R. (endoplasmic reticulum)
  16. 16. Model of how proteins are made and shipped out of the cell. Rough E.R. Exocytosis (cell burps out proteins) Nuclear pore Ribosome Secretor y vesicle Cell membrane Expelled protein Nucleus Golgi Transpor t Vesicle with proteins insideProteins Smooth E.R.
  17. 17. MITOCHONDRIA • The Powerhouse of the cell • Uses oxygen and food (glucose) to make ATP • ATP = energy (Adenosine triphosphate) • Cellular respiration happens here. No, don’t copy this picture Yes, draw this picture One mitochondrion
  18. 18. ATP SYNTHASE No, you don’t have to draw this
  19. 19. ATP SYNTHASE – hundreds of these machines in each mitochondrion CLICK FOR LINK
  20. 20. • Make food using the energy from the sun. • Change H2O & CO2 to C6H12O6 (glucose) • Contain the green pigment chlorophyll. ChloroplastsLook! A chloroplast! Inner & Outer Membranes Thylakoids Lamellae Stroma
  21. 21. Chloroplasts • Make food using the energy from the sun. • Change H2O & CO2 to C6H12O6 (glucose) • Contain the green pigment chlorophyll.
  22. 22. • Processes & transports materials out of the cell. • Places a new coating of lipid membrane on the materials. • “Packaging center” of the cell
  23. 23. • Stores water, minerals & other fluids. • Only found in plant cells – never in animal cells. Central Vacuole
  24. 24. Central Vacuole
  25. 25. • Membrane covered storage containers • Formed when part of the cell membrane surrounds an object & pinches it off. any kind of cargo: food, waste, protein molecules...
  26. 26. • Digests food particles, wastes, cell parts & foreign invaders. digestive enzymes
  27. 27. All cells only plant cells haveCell Membranes Nucleus Ribosomes Mitochondria Golgi Complex Lysosomes Vesicles E.R. (Endoplasmic Reticulum) Cytoskeleton Cell Walls Central Vacuole Chloroplasts
  28. 28. Animal Cell
  29. 29. • Future test questions.... answer in complete sentences. • What are organelles? • What are three differences between plant cells and animal cells? • What are four differences between eukaryotic cells and prokaryotic cells?