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CELL NOTES
CELL NOTESOrganisms - living creatures. Any life form
that can survive on its own.
Organ systems - made up of organs - wor...
Tissues - made up of cells - work together to
make organs function. Example: skin tissue
made up of different kinds of ski...
Humans are multicellular organisms.
Cell Theory:
1. Every living thing is made up of one or
more cells.
2. The cell is the...
Prokaryotic Cells
• Cells that do not
have a nucleus
• Another name for
prokaryotic cells is
Bacteria
• ONLY unicellular –...
Eukaryotic Cells
• Cells that DO have a
nucleus
• Most eukaryotic cells
belong to multicellular
organisms
• There are some...
Prokaryotic vs. Eukaryotic
No Nucleus Nucleus
No Membrane – covered
Organelles
Membrane – covered
Organelles
Circular DNA ...
CELL MEMBRANE
• Keeps good stuff in (nutrients, water), and bad stuff out (waste,
toxins, viruses, bacteria).
• Made from ...
Cell Membrane
Honors students – it’s framed in yellow – so yes – I want you
to draw it (and label it). Traditional 7th gra...
Cell Wall
• Hard Wall made of
cellulose.
• Rigid & Stiff
• Provides strength &
support to cell
• Only in plant and bacteri...
NUCLEUS
• Is the control center of the cell
• Stores information (DNA) on how to run the cell and
build new structures.
• ...
• Machine that reads RNA strand and builds proteins
by assembling amino acids.
• Proteins are the building blocks for all ...
Ribosomes
• Honors – draw and label!
ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM
• Smooth E.R. breaks down toxins, and makes lipids which
are used for membranes. Doesn’t have riboso...
Rough E.R. (endoplasmic reticulum)
Model of how proteins are made and shipped out of the cell.
Rough
E.R. Exocytosis
(cell burps
out proteins)
Nuclear pore
R...
MITOCHONDRIA
• The Powerhouse of the cell
• Uses oxygen and food (glucose) to make ATP
• ATP = energy (Adenosine triphosph...
ATP SYNTHASE
No,
you
don’t
have
to
draw
this.
ATP SYNTHASE – hundreds of these machines in each mitochondrion CLICK FOR LINK
CLICK FOR A
VIDEO – It’s cool –
I promise!
• Make food using the energy from the sun.
• Change H2O & CO2 to C6H12O6 (glucose)
• Contain the green pigment chlorophyll...
Chloroplasts
• Make food using the energy from the sun.
• Change H2O & CO2 to C6H12O6 (glucose)
• Contain the green pigmen...
• Processes & transports materials out of the cell.
• Places a new coating of lipid membrane on the materials.
• “Packagin...
• Stores water, minerals & other fluids.
• Only found in plant cells – animal cells have tiny ones.
Central
Vacuole
Central Vacuole
Gap Junctions
• Channels
between
neighboring
cells
• Allow for the
transport of
ions, nutrients
& other
substances
• Allow...
• Membrane covered storage containers
• Formed when part of the cell membrane surrounds an object
& pinches it off.
any ki...
• Digests food particles, wastes, cell parts &
foreign invaders.
digestive
enzymes
PEROXISOME
• Vesicle containing
digestive enzymes
• Breaks down large
molecules of food
All cells
Gap junctions
Typically
smaller than
plant cells
Cell Membranes
Nucleus
Ribosomes
Mitochondria
Golgi Comp...
• Future test questions.... answer in complete
sentences.
• What are organelles?
• What are three differences between plan...
Cell Biology Notes
Cell Biology Notes
Cell Biology Notes
Cell Biology Notes
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Cell Biology Notes

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Middle School/High School Cell Biology Slideshow

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Cell Biology Notes

  1. 1. CELL NOTES
  2. 2. CELL NOTESOrganisms - living creatures. Any life form that can survive on its own. Organ systems - made up of organs - work together to make an organism function. Example: digestive system Organs - made up of tissues - work together to make organ systems function. Example: stomach made of muscle tissue and skin tissue
  3. 3. Tissues - made up of cells - work together to make organs function. Example: skin tissue made up of different kinds of skin cells. Cells are microscopic - too small to be seen without a microscope. Every living thing has at least one cell. Humans are made of almost 100 trillion cells. If a single cell can live on its own, it is called a unicellular organism.
  4. 4. Humans are multicellular organisms. Cell Theory: 1. Every living thing is made up of one or more cells. 2. The cell is the smallest, most basic unit of life in all living things. 3. All cells come from existing cells.
  5. 5. Prokaryotic Cells • Cells that do not have a nucleus • Another name for prokaryotic cells is Bacteria • ONLY unicellular – never multicelluar
  6. 6. Eukaryotic Cells • Cells that DO have a nucleus • Most eukaryotic cells belong to multicellular organisms • There are some unicellular eukaryotes (amoeba, euglena, paramecium)
  7. 7. Prokaryotic vs. Eukaryotic No Nucleus Nucleus No Membrane – covered Organelles Membrane – covered Organelles Circular DNA (in a circle) Linear DNA (in a line) Bacteria 100 x smaller than eukaryotes All other cells 100 x bigger than prokaryotes
  8. 8. CELL MEMBRANE • Keeps good stuff in (nutrients, water), and bad stuff out (waste, toxins, viruses, bacteria). • Made from lipids (phospholipid bilayer) no, you don’t have to draw this picture
  9. 9. Cell Membrane Honors students – it’s framed in yellow – so yes – I want you to draw it (and label it). Traditional 7th grade students – you can draw and label it too – but it’s optional – you don’t have to.
  10. 10. Cell Wall • Hard Wall made of cellulose. • Rigid & Stiff • Provides strength & support to cell • Only in plant and bacteria cells. • Small holes, called plasmodesmata, allow transfer of nutrients, waste, and water.
  11. 11. NUCLEUS • Is the control center of the cell • Stores information (DNA) on how to run the cell and build new structures. • Largest Organelle in the cell No, don’t copy this picture
  12. 12. • Machine that reads RNA strand and builds proteins by assembling amino acids. • Proteins are the building blocks for all structures built in the cell. • Ribosomes are also called“Protein Factories” • Ribosomes are the smallest organelles in the cell No, don’t copy this picture Yes, copy this picture
  13. 13. Ribosomes • Honors – draw and label!
  14. 14. ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM • Smooth E.R. breaks down toxins, and makes lipids which are used for membranes. Doesn’t have ribosomes. • Rough E.R. has ribosomes, and packages proteins for release from the cell. • Rough E.R. is an “Assembly line” that constructs & transports proteins No, don’t copy this picture, but copy this one!
  15. 15. Rough E.R. (endoplasmic reticulum)
  16. 16. Model of how proteins are made and shipped out of the cell. Rough E.R. Exocytosis (cell burps out proteins) Nuclear pore Ribosome Secretor y vesicle Cell membrane Expelled protein Nucleus Golgi Transpor t Vesicle with proteins insideProteins Smooth E.R.
  17. 17. MITOCHONDRIA • The Powerhouse of the cell • Uses oxygen and food (glucose) to make ATP • ATP = energy (Adenosine triphosphate) • Cellular respiration happens here. No, don’t copy this picture Yes, draw this picture One mitochondrion
  18. 18. ATP SYNTHASE No, you don’t have to draw this.
  19. 19. ATP SYNTHASE – hundreds of these machines in each mitochondrion CLICK FOR LINK CLICK FOR A VIDEO – It’s cool – I promise!
  20. 20. • Make food using the energy from the sun. • Change H2O & CO2 to C6H12O6 (glucose) • Contain the green pigment chlorophyll. ChloroplastsLook! A chloroplast! Inner & Outer Membranes Thylakoids Lamellae Stroma No, you don’t have to draw these...
  21. 21. Chloroplasts • Make food using the energy from the sun. • Change H2O & CO2 to C6H12O6 (glucose) • Contain the green pigment chlorophyll. Yes, you get to draw this. Honors, label it please. Honors – it’s yellow. Draw and label this one too. 
  22. 22. • Processes & transports materials out of the cell. • Places a new coating of lipid membrane on the materials. • “Packaging center” of the cell Golgi Apparatus
  23. 23. • Stores water, minerals & other fluids. • Only found in plant cells – animal cells have tiny ones. Central Vacuole
  24. 24. Central Vacuole
  25. 25. Gap Junctions • Channels between neighboring cells • Allow for the transport of ions, nutrients & other substances • Allow cells to communicate with each other.
  26. 26. • Membrane covered storage containers • Formed when part of the cell membrane surrounds an object & pinches it off. any kind of cargo: food, waste, protein molecules...
  27. 27. • Digests food particles, wastes, cell parts & foreign invaders. digestive enzymes
  28. 28. PEROXISOME • Vesicle containing digestive enzymes • Breaks down large molecules of food
  29. 29. All cells Gap junctions Typically smaller than plant cells Cell Membranes Nucleus Ribosomes Mitochondria Golgi Complex Lysosomes Vesicles E.R. (Endoplasmic Reticulum) Cytoskeleton Cell Wall Central Vacuole Chloroplasts Plasmodesmata Typically larger than animal cells Plant cells only Animal cells only
  30. 30. • Future test questions.... answer in complete sentences. • What are organelles? • What are three differences between plant cells and animal cells? • What are four differences between eukaryotic cells and prokaryotic cells?

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