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Structural isomerism

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  • 1. Structural Isomerism Exclusively Developed by K. Chandana For my sincere online students. For further enquiry write to chandanakota1@gmail.com
  • 2. Isomers
    • Structural Isomers: Isomers ,which have same molecular formula, but different structural formula are called structural isomers.
    • Different Structural formula means
      • Different bond pattern or
      • Different arrangement of  bonds or
      • Different connectivity of atoms.
    • The key to organic chemistry is crystal clear understanding of different terms used.
  • 3. Isomers
    • Example
    • 1-chloropropane and 2-chloropropane has different structural formula.
  • 4. Isomers
    • Example
    • cis -2-butene and trans -2-butene has same structural formula.
  • 5. Isomers
    • Type of Structural Isomers.
      • 1. Chain Isomerism
      • 2. Positional Isomerism
      • 3. Functional Isomerism
      • 4. Metamerism.
      • 5. Tautomerism
  • 6. Isomers
    • Chain Isomerism: Isomers which have same functional groups but different arrangement of carbon skeleton in principal chain or side chains are chain isomers.
    • Note 1. No of atoms same
          • 2.No. of D.U same.
          • 3. Functional groups Same.
          • 4. Carbon skeleton different
  • 7. Isomers
    • Example1.Ethylbenzene and o-Xylene.
            • 2. Butanoicacid and 2-methylpropanoicacid,
  • 8. Isomers
    • Positional Isomerism: Isomers which have same functional groups ,same arrangement of carbon skeleton but different position of functional groups or substituents.
    • Note 1. No of atoms same
          • 2.No. of D.U same.
          • 3. Functional groups Same.
          • 4. Carbon skeleton Same
          • 5.Position of F.G, differs
  • 9. Isomers
    • Example 1. 1-butanol & 2-butanol
            • 2. O-Xylene & m-Xylene.
  • 10. Isomers
    • Functional Isomers: Isomers which have different functional group.
    • Note 1. No of atoms same
          • 2. No. of D.U same.
          • 3. Functional groups differs
  • 11. Isomers
    • Example 1. 1-butanol & Ethoxyethane
            • 2. Ethanal and Oxirane.
  • 12. Isomers
    • Metamers: Isomers which have different carbonchain lenth along a functional group withhetro atom (Ex- Ethers, Esters, secondary amines, tertiary amines , Secondary amides etc.
    • Note 1. No of atoms same
          • 2. No. of D.U same.
          • 3. Functional groups same.
          • 4. Number of carbon differs along hetro atoms.
  • 13. Isomers
    • Example 1. Methoxypropane & Ethoxyethane
            • 2. Ethylethanoate and Methylpropanoate.
  • 14. Isomers
    • Tautomers: A type of functional Isomers which exist in rapid equilibrium in solution are called functional isomers.
    • Tautomers are interconvertable in solution
    • Tautomers usually differs in position of H atom at  carbon.
    • Interconversion of tautomers can be catalysed.
    • Tautomers can’t be seperated in solution at normal temperature.
    • The more stable form dominates in equillibrium.
  • 15. Isomers
    • Only the stable tautomeric form is counted while counting isomers.
    • Type-1 Keto- Enol tautomerism.
    • Example Cyclohexanone and cyclohexenol
  • 16. Isomers
    • Type-2 Nitro-Acinitro
    • Example nitrocyclohexane and acinitrocyclohexene
  • 17. Isomers
    • Type-3 Imine - En-amine
    • Example cyclohex-1-en-1-amine
            • and cyclohexanimine
  • 18. Isomers
    • Type-4 Cyano - isocyano
    • Example Cyanicacid and isocyanicacid.
  • 19. Isomers
    • Type-4 Cyano - isocyano
    • Example Cyanicacid and isocyanicacid.
  • 20. Isomers
    • There are several types of tautomerism, which will be discussed in details in carbanion section of reaction mechanism.
  • 21. Exercise-1
    • Identify the relationship between given pair of compounds.
  • 22. Exercise-1
    • Answer:- Functional isomers.
  • 23. Exercise-2
    • Identify the relationship between given pair of compounds.
  • 24. Exercise-2
    • Answer- Chain isomerism.
  • 25. Exercise-3
    • Identify the relationship between given pair of compounds.
  • 26. Exercise-3
    • Answer :- Different compounds
    • Number of carbon as well as functional group differs.
  • 27. Exercise-4
    • Identify the relationship between given pair of compounds.
  • 28. Exercise-4
    • Answer :- Metamers.
    • Number of carbon along hetro atom differs.
  • 29. Exercise-5
    • Identify the relationship between given pair of compounds.
  • 30. Exercise-5
    • Answer :- Functional isomers
    • A has Aldehydes group but B has ketone.
  • 31. Exercise-6
    • Identify the relationship between given pair of compounds.
  • 32. Exercise-6
    • Answer :- Positional isomers
  • 33. Exercise-7
    • Identify the relationship between given pair of compounds.
    • A .Hexane-2-ol
    • B. Heptane-2-ol
  • 34. Exercise-7
    • Answer :- Homologous compounds.
    • Compounds with different carbon but with same functional groups are called homologous compounds.
  • 35. Exercise-8
    • Identify the relationship between given pair of compounds.
    • A. Methylcyclopropane
    • B. Cyclobutane
  • 36. Exercise-8
    • Answer :- Chain isomers
  • 37. Exercise-9
    • Identify the relationship between given pair of compounds.
    • A. 1-Butene
    • B. cyclobutane
  • 38. Exercise-9
    • Answer :- Functional isomers (Some literature also mention ring chain isomerism.)
  • 39. Exercise-10
    • Identify the relationship between given pair of compounds.
  • 40. Exercise-10
    • Answer :- Metamers.
  • 41. Concept Developed by
    • K.Chandana.
    • [email_address]
  • 42. Concept Developed by
    • Previous Presentation
    • DU and isomerism
    • Next Presentation.
    • How to find no of structural isomers