Men and women farmers throughout history have coped with variability in climate, adjusting and innovating along the way. The challenge for farmers in the future will be to adapt to the large scale and long-term effects of climate change. Farmers will need to draw on existing skills, and be supported in new ways, in order to adapt to and even mitigate the changes. Gender – Eve Crowley Climate – Mark New Institutions and governance – Heike Schroeder Agrobiodiversity – Meine Van Noordwijk
Women comprise 43 percent of the agricultural labour force in developing countries, a share that ranges from 20 percent in Latin America to almost 50 percent in East and Southeast Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa. At the same time, as shown in this graph, agriculture is an important source of employment for women. In most developing regions, women who are employed are at least as likely as men to be in agriculture. In many countries, especially those with high levels of poverty and hunger, agriculture is the most important sector for women, providing work to more than 60 percent of all employed women. Yet, gender inequalities are pervasive on rural labour markets. Women are more likely to be in part-time, seasonal or low-wage jobs. And for many women, being employed is not an option at all, considering their responsibilities for child care, food preparation and other household chores such as fetching water and firewood. Helping women to contribute more effectively to, and benefit more fully from, the economic opportunities offered by agricultural and rural employment could generate significant gains for the sector and society as a whole. It will also be crucial for local, national and global efforts in climate change adaptation.
Women control 3-20 percent of agricultural land in developing countries. Women tend to have smaller plots of land than men, often of inferior quality, and typically with less-secure tenure. This means that women cannot achieve the same scale of production as men and have less incentive to invest in soil fertility, which lowers productivity.
Numerous studies have shown that women farmers have lower yields, typically in the range of 20 to 30 percent — not because they are less skilled than men, but because they do not have the same access to resources. These results are from Udry, 1995, but a large number of studies from many locations and different farming systems reach the same conclusion. Women achieve lower yields because they use fewer inputs.
Women are less likely than men to use improved technologies and purchased inputs, such as fertilizers, either because they cannot afford them or because they lack the necessary education and training. The gender gap is found across a wide range of resources, assets and inputs. RIGA data for: Land Fertilizers Livestock Education (wide gaps for FHH, but the gap has closed for primary school enrolment except in South Asia) Credit use Mechanical equipment Additional evidence confirms gaps in Improved seed varieties Extension services Agricultural education
Promoting gender equality needs to become a key component in the fight against poverty and hunger. Giving women the same access as men to agricultural inputs, for example, could increase production on women’s farms by 20 to 30 percent, or between 2.5 and 4 percent at national level. Such production increase could reduce the number of undernourished people in the world by 12 to 17 percent, or 100 to 150 million people. By putting more income in the hands of women, increasing gender equality in agriculture would also improve health, nutrition and education outcomes for children. Such social benefits are particularly important as they help build human capital, which will contribute to long-term economic growth and effective climate change adaptataion. So how can the gender gap be closed?
1) Increased productive in sustainable agricultural systems is need to feed 9 billion people by 2050 3) food and agriculture sector’s contribution to climate change is over 30 percent of annual greenhouse gas emissions (the c ontribution of different sectors to the ecological foot print varies: (carbon is now the greatest followed by cropland, then forest land, then grazinglands, fishing grounds and built up land. The contribution of these others has remained more or less constant, but of carbon it has grown signficantly. Since 1961 (over 80%) 4) it is vital to understand how to ensure food security when temperatures and sea level are rising, extreme events becoming more frequent and seasonal trends are difficult to predict .
Both men and women are aware of changes in the climate and household impacts (India and Australia) already have some strategies to adapt to climatic shifts, but often different responses and adaptation strategies (vary by gender, financial resources, households) Success of adaptation strategies depends on taking into account the differences between men’s and women’s vulnerabilities and resources due to cultural roles, values, tasks, experiences women and men have difference In skills/knowledge (about environment, animals, crops, and how to cope), roles/tasks, sometimes engage in different agricultural or grow different crops Due to pre-existing inequalities ( rural women’s lower access to financial, physical and human resources than men ) Poor women can more directly affected by CC, because In the absence of land and other assets, they tend to rely more than men on natural resources, and these are directly hit by climate change Women have fewer options for responding to the effects of climate change. Limited assets to start with mean if repeated disasters hit, they can deplete their buffers more rapidly and take longer to bounce back
Growing number of correlations between higher levels of carbon emissions and higher levels of human development, especially the income component of HDI (and to a lesser extent the non-income components) HDR 2011 Confirmed by time series data since the 1980’s, correlates human development improvements (especially income) and emissions growth S. Saharan Africa and Asia most affected by CC, partiuclarly by percipitation Some countries have been able to reduce inequalities, improve HDI and reduce carbon emssions and deforestation (Costa Rica) deforestation and water (Tunisia, Latvia, Lesotho) Carbon emissions measured as metric tons per capita Climate change impacts Livelihoods – Direct threat to those dependent on agriculture, forestry and fishing Health – High burden of disease from indoor & outdoor air pollution & fecal/water borne disease, risk of increase in insect-borne disease & malnutrition Education – Shocks and uncertainty, coping strategies keep children out of school; lack of electricity impedes homework Empowerment – Burden of coping strategies (wood & water, soil degradation) limits opportunities for societal participation by women Equity – women and children tend to fare worse in natural disasters , and minorities suffer disproportionally environmental ‘bads’ Do our development pathways need to be this way? Higher income, less poverty, higher carbon emissions?
Incorporate gender-sensitive approaches in support and information provision (stronger institutions for better future adaptation) Build on existing knowledge Distinguish end users and their needs Work with alternative organizations (i.e. cooperatives) Involve those who will implement projects from the beginning
This way, those working to ensure that farmers’ knowledge for coping with climate variability is incorporated into long-term planning, will have the tools for assessing the gender dimensions. This approach needs to be replicated elsewhere, other regions, other countries. Methodology to incorporate gender differences in knowledge and coping strategies into long-term planning FAO methodology ( gender-sensitive interviews, analysis of local institutions, bridging quantitative meteorological and qualitative social data) Partnership including development specialists, climate change experts, policymakers, and emergency aid workers, to ensure that climate-related policy and development outreach to farmers put farmers in the middle and address both men’s and women’s perspectives and needs.
payment for ecosystem services to build more resilient ecosystems ( Services include, control of pests and disease, regulation of microclimate, decomposition of wastes, regulating nutrient cycles and crop pollination ) What does aggregate of women’s production mean for the system, which uses less wastage? who are involved in tree nurseries? who uses low input techniques that creates a diverse production mosaic in agricultural systems (good for climate change)
Reducing gender inequalities in access to rural resources, services, decision making land and natural resources (policies, good practices, gender and land database) decent rural employment research and technological innovations institutions
harvesting, processing and supply chain technologies and institutions that reduce losses and waste and generate income for women this latter has received relatively limited attention so far, but growing evidence from FAO shows that as much as 15% of annual food grain production in SS Africa alone is lost to post harvest. This is an amount which is equivalent to US$ 4 billion and would meet the minimum annual food requirements of 48 million people. Addressing waste across the entire food chain must be a critical pillar of future national food strategies including investing in post harvest technology, crop protectants and storage containers, research and piloting (to reduce losses from decay, pest, fungi or microbe infestation, physical losses) which in turn result in low prices and lack of access to markets for poor quality grain, or nutritional losses arising from poor quality or contaminated food. In addition, governments could help tackle food losses by reducing market costs by investing in infrastructure such as roads, electricity and water. This loss also contributes to high food prices and has environmental costs: land, water and non-renewable resources such as fertilizer and energy are used to produce, process, handle and transport food that no one consumes. (i.e. small-scale rice-drying technology, pedal threshers, rice mills, have successfully move from Asia to parts of Africa) sustainable production technologies with greater gains for women plus contributions to carbon include: soil and nutrient management water harvesting and use pest and disease control (integrated pest management) genetic diversity
If climate smart aagriculture requires lower carbon emissions and women’s farming practices involve lower inputs and less carbon, shouldn’t we use their agricultural practices as a model and learn more about what they are doing, rather than bring them up to the carbon standard of men?
Gender, Climate Change and Sustainable Intensification - E. Crowley, Y. Lambrou and M. Tapio-Bistrom
Gender, Climate Change and Sustainable Intensification: major research challenges Eve Crowley, Deputy Director Yianna Lambrou, Senior Officer Marja-Liisa Tapio-Bistrom, Senior Officer CCFAS, Bonn 10-11 June 2011
Women are a key resource in agriculture and CC adaptation Source: ILO. Share of employed population by sector and gender
… because they use fewer inputs (e.g. fertilizer)
Economic and social gains from closing the gender gap <ul><li>Productivity gains </li></ul><ul><ul><li>20 to 30 percent on women’s farms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2.5 to 4 percent at national level </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Food security gains </li></ul><ul><ul><li>12 to 17 percent reduction in the number of hungry </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>100 to 150 million people lifted out of hunger </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Broader economic and social gains </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Better health, nutrition and education outcomes for children </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Builds human capital, which promotes economic growth </li></ul></ul>
Main message <ul><li>Gender inequality imposes real costs on the agricultural sector, food security, economic growth and broader social welfare. </li></ul><ul><li>Closing the gender gap is not just the right thing to do: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>it makes economic sense </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Yet women’s lower inputs use means less carbon emission/land conversion/petrol-based inputs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Can this model be scaled up as a basis for sustainable intensification and climate change adaptation </li></ul></ul>
Greater gender equality is critical for climate-smart agriculture that yields <ul><li>sustainable increases in productivity </li></ul><ul><li>resilience (adaptation) </li></ul><ul><li>reduces/removes greenhouse gases (mitigation) and </li></ul><ul><li>enhances achievement of national food security and development goals </li></ul>
Gender differences mediate climate impacts <ul><li>skills/knowledge about the environment, animals, crops </li></ul><ul><ul><li>due to cultural values and experience roles/tasks </li></ul></ul><ul><li>vulnerability and impacts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>exposure to risk, opportunities, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>due to pre-existing inequalities (access to assets) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>can be more directly affected (if poor), because rely more on natural resources </li></ul></ul><ul><li>response and adaptation strategies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>fewer options </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>a ccess to different coping strategies and safety nets </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>thinner buffer, weaker resilience </li></ul></ul>
Different responses (India) <ul><li>Women </li></ul><ul><li>eat less </li></ul><ul><li>migrate for work close by (57% vs 38% men) </li></ul><ul><li>Men </li></ul><ul><li>psychological stress </li></ul><ul><li>migrate for work further away (47% vs. 18% women) </li></ul><ul><li>let land remain fallow </li></ul><ul><li>work on publicly funded construction projects </li></ul><ul><li>buy less nutritious rice from the government </li></ul>Common responses Different options (India) <ul><li>Women </li></ul><ul><li>face discrimination, limited landholding, less access to information and institutional support </li></ul><ul><li>Men </li></ul><ul><li>have access to information on cropping patterns (47% vs. 21% women) </li></ul>
Social equality is also important <ul><li>Correlations (UNDP, HDI 2011): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>higher levels of carbon emissions and higher levels of human development (especially income) (also true for time series) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Regions are affected differently (S. Saharan Africa and Asia most affected by CC - precipitation) </li></ul><ul><li>Some countries have successfully reduced social and economic inequalities and environmental impacts simultaneously (Costa Rica, Tunisia) </li></ul>
Research and development principles <ul><li>Build accountability for gender equality in programmes (budgets, capacities, monitoring, incentives) </li></ul><ul><li>Support gender equitable climate-smart agricultural investments </li></ul><ul><li>Set and track targets for women’s participation at all levels </li></ul>
Research principles <ul><li>Distinguish end users and their needs, involve those who will sustain/implement projects from the beginning </li></ul><ul><li>Build on existing knowledge/institutions </li></ul><ul><li>Consult both men and women in vulnerability analysis, evaluations of methodologies, participatory policy processes </li></ul><ul><li>Incorporate gender-sensitive approaches in service and information provision </li></ul><ul><li>Set + track targets for women’s participation </li></ul><ul><li>Build in accountability for gender ($, M&E, incentives, capacities) </li></ul>CCFAS, Bonn 10-11 June 2011
Some existing gendered tools for CCAFS <ul><li>Generic toolkit to integrate gender into CC research and planning (adapted SEAGA methodology to address climate change, tested Uganda, Bangladesh, Ghana) (FAO-CCAFS) </li></ul><ul><li>Methodology to incorporate gender differences in knowledge and coping strategies into long-term planning (tested India, FAO) </li></ul>CCFAS, Bonn 10-11 June 2011
Research challenges- Cross ecosystem/community/aggregate impact of women’s production systems <ul><li>Data needs: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>economics of climate smart practices, including impacts of climate financing systems such as carbon payments </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>differentiated impacts and differentiated choices, monitoring and measuring farmer resilience (biophysical and socio-cultural) and changes in farming practices and informal economy, impacts on the 4 food security pillars </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Institutional needs: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>building transparency and good climate-agriculture-food security governance to buffer climate and market volatility impacts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>financing options to fund mitigation mechanisms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>strengthening regional expertise/networks + capacities </li></ul></ul>CCFAS, Bonn 10-11 June 2011
Research challenges- Community, household <ul><li>Data needs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>management of climate related risks in households at local, regional and national levels </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>impacts of climate smart agricultural practices on both intra and inter household food security </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>best policies and practices to reduce gender inequalities in access to rural resources, services, decision making </li></ul></ul>
Research gaps- climate smart sustainable intensification technologies <ul><li>harvesting, processing and supply chain technologies and institutions that reduce losses and waste and generate income for women </li></ul><ul><li>best public services, infrastructure, domestic energy and water technologies to free-up women’s time and enhance income </li></ul><ul><li>how best to scale up sustainable production technologies which generate equal or greater gains for women, while maintaining their apparently comparatively low carbon foot print. </li></ul>