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How Climate Change Interacts with Inequity to Impact Nutrition

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Poster by Laura Cramer, CCAFS Science Officer for the Priorities and Policies for CSA Flagship. It was presented during the 5th Global Science Conference on Climate-Smart Agriculture in Bali on 8-10 October 2019.

The poster presents research related to a systematic review of the effects of climate change on nutrition and equity carried out by CCAFS with IFPRI/A4NH.

Published in: Environment
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How Climate Change Interacts with Inequity to Impact Nutrition

  1. 1. INTRO • Climate change is affecting patterns of inequity and inequality. People will experience climate change differently not only because of where they live, but because of who they are – because they grew up in poverty, or because of their gender, caste, ethnicity, age, sexuality or disability. • The climate crisis will continue to increase malnutrition among vulnerable populations via several pathways. • This research examines how climate change will affect malnutrition and inequity through the dimensions of fairness, justice and inclusion. METHODS 1. Systematic search in PubMed, Web of Science and CABI abstracts databases. 2. Search results (n=5,304) screened by title and abstract against eligibility criteria. 320 studies screened at a full text level. 47 studies included. 3. Information extracted: study design, climate change component, nutrition outcomes, pathways of interaction, and sources of inequity. The studies were scored on a scale of 0 to 3 on the three equity dimensions. Title: Subtitle Leeroy Jenkins, author2, author3, author4 Equity is a key mediator of climate change’s effects on nutrition. We need to expand the thin evidence base of equity dimensions. How Climate Change Interacts with Inequity to Impact Nutrition Leah Salm, Nicholas Nisbett, Laura Cramer*, Stuart Gillespie, Philip Thornton Fairness Justice Inclusion Definition Distribution of causes, outcomes, costs or benefits (including of attempted policy solutions) differing by socio-economic category (e.g. the PROGRESS+ categories) Norms, beliefs, institutions via which inequity occurs or is perpetuated over time Representation in different forms of decision making, particularly of groups listed in PROGRESS+ categories (including policy processes at local, national and international levels, traditional forms of government, civil society strengthening). Examples 1 (outcomes) agricultural productivity effects are greater on poorer groups, greater still on those with poor market access and/or in ecologically geographically marginal areas. 2 (causes) lack of access of particular socio- economic groups to goods and services known to shape nutritional pathways (e.g. health services, social protection, decent employment) 3 (policy effects) mitigation measures such as land use management having costs locally for particular groups in terms of land access that were not anticipated in policy 1 Gender/patriarchy/ assumptions about women’s roles, work caring practices etc. 2 racism, policy/ political/resource favouritism of particular ethnic majority groups or traditional holders of power 3 regard or disregard for forms of locally held beliefs, knowledge, practices (e.g. agricultural practices) 1 participatory planning in climate adaptation initiatives 2 strengthening parliamentary or local council representation of minority groups DISCUSSION • Equity mediates the negative impacts of climate change on nutrition outcomes. The literature we retrieved most often considers inequity in terms of the unfair distribution of vulnerability. • Less attention is given to how injustice and exclusion perpetuate inequity. This is an important gap to fill to broaden our understanding of deep-rooted inequities and how to reorient research and resources for equitable adaptation and mitigation action. • This work maps a linear pathway from GHG emissions to nutrition outcomes. In reality, these relationships are more complex, with multiple feedback loops connecting food production, diet, and coping strategies to further climate pressure. Improved understanding of these relationships should be a priority for future research. 0 5 10 15 20 25 Low income Lower-middle income Upper-middle income High income Global Number of studies Avg equity total score Number of papers by country income group and average equity score per group 0 5 10 15 20 East Asia and Pacific South Asia North America Latin America and the Caribbean Sub-Saharan Africa Middle East and North Africa Europe and Central Asia Global Undernutrition Micronutrient deficiency Overweight/ obesity Diet-related NCDs Diet quality/ diversity Included papers by nutrition outcome of focus 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Fairness Justice Inclusion Equity scores for each included paper P R O G R E S S + Place of residence Race/ ethnicity/ culture/ language Occupation/ Livelihood Gender Religion Education Socioeconomic Status/ Poverty Social Capital + Personal Characteristics (age, disability, sexual orientation etc) CLIMATE CHANGE AND NUTRITION META-FRAMEWORK *Presenter, contact info: l.cramer@cgiar.org A full paper is under preparation for submission to a peer-reviewed journal

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