Pp Chap30


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  • Some suggest this painting by Daumier was painted in response to the Revolution of 1848 in Paris.
  • Titian's Ven us of Urbino (1538-39)
  • Source: http://www.jssgallery.org/Other_Artists/Cabanel/Cabanel_Birth_of_Venus.htm Alexandré Cabanel (French)     The Birth of Venus, 1863    same year as Manet's Olympia    typical classical composition   
  • 1863 Le Dejeuner sur L’Herbe
  • Pp Chap30

    1. 1. Realism and its Effect on European and American Painting Chapter 30 Humanities 103 Instructor Beth Camp
    2. 2. Romanticism to Realism <ul><li>What main ideas or events caused painters to adopt a more realistic style? </li></ul><ul><li>Which of the following paintings seem more influenced by realism or romanticism? </li></ul><ul><li>Can you identify differences between American and European realist painting? </li></ul>
    3. 3. Realistic Themes 1800-1850 <ul><li>Reaction against sentimentality of Romanticism </li></ul><ul><li>Reaction against militarism, industrialism, colonialism </li></ul><ul><li>Concern for natural landscapes, rural and urban = Show nature as it truly is </li></ul><ul><li>Social realism (women, working class themes) </li></ul>
    4. 4. Ideals of Realism <ul><li>“ A painter should paint only what he can see . . . . Show me an angel and I’ll paint one.” </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Courbet (qtd. in Fiero 94) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
    5. 5. French Realists <ul><li>Gustave Courbet, 1819-1877 </li></ul><ul><li>Honore Daumier, 1808-1879 </li></ul><ul><li>Which of the following paintings seem more influenced by realism or romanticism? </li></ul>
    6. 6. Gustave Courbet, 1819-1877 <ul><li>Began and dominated French realism </li></ul><ul><li>Early portraits (1844-1854) </li></ul><ul><li>A socialist, the 1848 revolution in France inspired his A Burial at Ornans (1849-1850) </li></ul><ul><li>Participant in Exhibit of the Refused </li></ul>
    7. 7. Gustave Courbet, 1819-1877 <ul><li>Critics attacked Courbet’s work as vulgar and lacking in spiritual content. </li></ul><ul><li>Janson says Courbet’s passionate advocacy of social change (socialism) is what distinguishes his work as realism (702). </li></ul><ul><li>Do you agree with these two comments? </li></ul>
    8. 8. Courbet: The Wounded Man, 1844-1854 Does this painting have a romantic or realist feeling?
    9. 9. Courbet: The Meeting (1854) Courbet painted himself on the right – and his patron on the left. Critics attacked Courbet’s assertiveness and his bohemian dress. Does this change your reaction?
    10. 10. Gustave Courbet, 1819-1877 <ul><li>“In our so very civilized society it is necessary for me to live the life of a savage. I must be free even of governments. The people have my sympathies. I must address myself to them directly.” </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Courbet in a letter to a friend, 1850 </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
    11. 11. Courbet <ul><li>Courbet: The Stone Breakers, 1849. </li></ul><ul><li>Subject = average workers painted life sized (painting 5’3” by 8’6”) </li></ul><ul><li>Heavy impasto (against academic tradition) </li></ul><ul><li>No emphasis on Romantic feeling </li></ul><ul><li>Notice contrast in age of workers – too old and too young. </li></ul>
    12. 12. Honore Daumier, 1808-1879 <ul><li>French caricaturist, painter, sculptor </li></ul><ul><li>Imprisoned for his political cartoons against royalist government; made 4,000 lithographs </li></ul><ul><li>Known during his life as political and social satirist </li></ul><ul><li>After his death, paintings more recognized </li></ul>
    13. 13. Daumier: The Third-Class Carriage, 1863-1865 What makes this painting realist?
    14. 14. Daumier Daumier: The Uprising , 1860
    15. 15. Edouard Manet, 1832-1883 <ul><li>Early paintings accepted by Academy until 1863: Salon de Refuses </li></ul><ul><li>Not a radical artist; horrified by war. Protest paintings mixed with scenes of daily life. </li></ul><ul><li>By 1874, leader of avant garde (Impressionists) </li></ul><ul><li>Work has a “snapshot” quality with optical contradictions </li></ul>
    16. 16. Changing Perceptions of Venus <ul><li>Classical paintings of Venus, inspired by Greek sculpture, have been nude. </li></ul><ul><li>How does Manet’s version of Venus compare to: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Venus by Renaissance artist, Titian (1538) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Venus by Romantic painter Cabanel (1863) </li></ul></ul>
    17. 17. Titan: Venus of Urbino (1538-39) <ul><li>Even for the time of the Renaissance, this Venus challenged traditional values. The model looks directly at the viewer; the sleeping dog implies “fidelity” has gone to sleep. </li></ul>
    18. 18. Alexandré Cabanel (French). The Birth of Venus , 1863, the same year as Manet's Olympia. Popular and typical classical composition.  
    19. 19. Manet: Olympia (1865) This painting scandalized the public; her direct gaze and ribbon necklace is the mark of a prostitute; the black cat closer to a witch’s familiar.
    20. 20. On Manet and Olympia <ul><li>If a “. . . feebly imaginative artist has to paint a courtesan of today and takes his “inspiration” . . . from a courtesan by Titan . . . It is only too likely that he will produce a work which is false . . . From the study of a masterpiece of that time and type he will learn nothing of the bearing, the glance, the smile or the living “style” of one of [today’s] creatures.” </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Baudelaire, qtd. in Stokstad 1010 </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>What’s next? Manet’s controversial Le Dejeunder sur L’Herbe , 1863. Why is this painting so shocking to 19 th Century audiences?
    21. 21. Manet
    22. 22. Manet <ul><li>The Balcony, </li></ul><ul><li>1868-1869 </li></ul>
    23. 23. Manet
    24. 24. Manet
    25. 25. Manet
    26. 26. Manet <ul><li>Detail of “The Bar </li></ul><ul><li>at the Folies- </li></ul><ul><li>Bergere” (1882) </li></ul>
    27. 27. Rejection of Realism? <ul><li>Some painters protested the harsh realism by returning to Romanticism with the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood. One example of their work by John Everett Millais of Ophelia , painted in 1852. </li></ul>
    28. 29. American Realism <ul><li>Thomas Eakins, 1844-1916 </li></ul><ul><li>Winslow Homer, 1836-1910 </li></ul><ul><li>Can you identify differences between American and European realist painting? </li></ul>
    29. 30. Thomas Eakins, 1844-1916 <ul><li>Outstanding American painter of 19th Century, studied in Paris 3 years, deeply influenced by Spanish realists </li></ul><ul><li>His subsequent “realist” portraits and landscapes drew little attention </li></ul><ul><li>Concentrated on “rowing” pictures 3-1/2 years 1870s </li></ul>
    30. 31. Thomas Eakins, 1844-1916 <ul><li>“ A boat is the hardest thing I know of to put into perspective. It is so much like the human figure, there is something alive about it. It requires a heap of thinking and calculating to build a boat.” </li></ul>
    31. 32. Eakins: Max Schmitt in a Single Shell, 1871
    32. 33. Eakins: The Bathers (1858)
    33. 34. Eakins <ul><li>The Gross </li></ul><ul><li>Clinic, 1875 </li></ul>
    34. 35. Winslow Homer, 1836-1910 <ul><li>Began his career as freelance illustrator 1857 </li></ul><ul><li>Scenes of life behind the lines a sharp contrast to grim photographs of Civil War </li></ul><ul><li>Visited France; returned to paint rural scenes </li></ul><ul><li>1881-1882 stay in fishing village transformed his paintings </li></ul>
    35. 36. Homer: “Lifeline” 1844
    36. 37. Homer, “The Gulf Stream” 1899 How does this picture by Homer compare to Fiero’s Figure 27.6 The Slave Ship by Turner?
    37. 38. What characterizes Realism? <ul><li>Who are the key artists, composers or thinkers? What did they contribute? </li></ul><ul><li>Based on what you know now, how would you describe the difference between “romanticism” and “realism”? </li></ul><ul><li>How would you describe the difference between American and European realism? </li></ul>
    38. 39. Sources <ul><li>Slides from Mark Hardin’s ARTCHIVE </li></ul><ul><li>Marilyn Stokstad. Art History . New York: Harry N. Abrams, Publisher, 1995. </li></ul><ul><li>H. W. Janson, History of Art , 5 th ed. Harry N. Abrams, Publisher, 1994. </li></ul>