Impressionism Print Out

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Impressionism Print Out

  1. 1. Impression Sunrise from the 1874 Impressionist Show
  2. 2. Pre-Raphaelites <ul><li>The Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood (also known as the Pre-Raphaelites ) was a group of English painters, poets and critics, founded in 1848 by John Everret Millais, Dante Gabriel Rossetti and William Holman Hunt. </li></ul><ul><li>Against the what they perceived as the mechanistic approach to art from the Mannerists on. Felt raphael’s classical influence to be bad. </li></ul><ul><li>Often considered the first avant-garde movement in art </li></ul><ul><li>The Brotherhood's early doctrines were expressed in four declarations: </li></ul><ul><li>To have genuine ideas to express; </li></ul><ul><li>To study Nature attentively, so as to know how to express them; </li></ul><ul><li>To sympathise with what is direct and serious and heartfelt in previous art, to the exclusion of what is conventional and self-parading and learned by rote; </li></ul><ul><li>And, most indispensable of all, to produce thoroughly good pictures and statues. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Christ In the House of His Parents, John Everett Millais, 1850
  4. 4. The Barbizon School <ul><li>Name derived from a village in Northern France </li></ul><ul><li>Rejected Classical Landscape style and insisted on Direct Observation </li></ul><ul><li>Inspired by Constable (Salon of 1824) </li></ul><ul><li>Closely allied with Realists, pre-cursors to the Impressionists </li></ul><ul><li>Artists included Millet and Courbet as well as Jean-Baptiste-Camille Corot and Theodore Rousseau </li></ul>
  5. 5. Ville d’Avray, 1867
  6. 6. Impressionism Timeline <ul><li>1863 – Le Dejeuner sur l’herbe & the Salon des Refuses (50 women artists, 13%) </li></ul><ul><li>100 or more women at the official salon yearly </li></ul><ul><li>1865 – Olympia accepted and jeered. American Civil War ends </li></ul><ul><li>1866- Baudelaire dies, Monet at the Salon </li></ul><ul><li>1867 - Maximillian is executed. “Salon of Newcomers” (Renoir, Monet, Pissaro, Degas) </li></ul><ul><li>1870 – Franco-Prussian War </li></ul><ul><li>1871 – France defeated </li></ul><ul><li>Napolean III unseated, Adolphe Theirs becomes President of the Third Republic </li></ul><ul><li>Kaiser Wilhelm crowned Emperor of Germany at Versailles </li></ul><ul><li>1874 – The First “Impressionist Exhibtion” </li></ul>
  7. 7. Impressionist Artists of Note <ul><li>Eduoard Manet </li></ul><ul><li>Claude Monet </li></ul><ul><li>Berthe Morisot </li></ul><ul><li>Auguste Renoir </li></ul><ul><li>Camille Pissaro </li></ul><ul><li>Edgar Degas </li></ul><ul><li>James McNeil Whistler </li></ul><ul><li>Mary Cassatt </li></ul><ul><li>August Rodin </li></ul>
  8. 8. Eduoard Manet <ul><li>1832 – 1883 </li></ul><ul><li>Considered the Godfather of the Impressionists </li></ul><ul><li>Never Showed in an Impressionist Exhibition </li></ul><ul><li>Well educated, close friends with Baudelaire and Zola </li></ul><ul><li>Achieved both Notoriety and some recognition through the official Salon </li></ul><ul><li>Became Friends with Monet and painted some “au plein air” </li></ul><ul><li>Influenced other Impressionists through his unique technique </li></ul>
  9. 9. Realism <ul><li>Manet, Luncheon on the Grass </li></ul><ul><li>A modern response to Giorgione and Raphael </li></ul><ul><li>Rejected by the official salon and exhibited in the Salon of the Refuses </li></ul><ul><li>Models are obviously posing, no unity of figures and landscape </li></ul><ul><li>She is undressed rather than nude </li></ul><ul><li>Two men dressed in contemporary clothes contrasts with the nudity of the foreground female </li></ul><ul><li>Nude figure directly engages us </li></ul><ul><li>Still life very unrealistic </li></ul><ul><li>Sketchy broad brushstrokes </li></ul><ul><li>Triangular composition </li></ul><ul><li>Flattening of perspective </li></ul>
  10. 11. Realism <ul><li>Manet, Bar at the Folies-Bergere </li></ul><ul><li>Melancholy and absent gaze at customer ordering a drink </li></ul><ul><li>Mirrors reflect the world around her </li></ul><ul><li>Artificiality of perspective </li></ul><ul><li>Strong verticals down center </li></ul><ul><li>Impressionist brushwork </li></ul><ul><li>Fruit and flowers defined by a few brushstrokes </li></ul><ul><li>Is the woman in the back a reflection of the main figure in a mirror? </li></ul>
  11. 12. Influence of Japanese prints <ul><li>1867 Exposition Universelle in Paris introduced Japanese culture to Europe. European artists were inspired by the following characteristics of Japanese woodblock prints: </li></ul><ul><li>1 Flat quality that lacked perspective </li></ul><ul><li>2 Flat areas of color </li></ul><ul><li>3 Odd angles of composition </li></ul><ul><li>4 Curving lines </li></ul><ul><li>5 Charm, without sentimentality </li></ul><ul><li>6 Lack of shadow </li></ul>
  12. 13. Hokusai is generally more appreciated in the West than in Japan. His prints, as well as those by other Japanese printmakers, were imported to Paris in the mid-19th century. They were enthusiastically collected, especially by such impressionist artists as Claude Monet , Edgar Degas , and Henri Toulouse-Lautrec , whose work was profoundly influenced by them
  13. 14. Claude Monet <ul><li>1840 - 1926 </li></ul><ul><li>The archetypal Impressionist </li></ul><ul><li>Interested in in the transient nature of light and effects of color </li></ul><ul><li>Spent time in England with Pissar during Franco-Prussian War and studied Constable and Turner </li></ul>
  14. 15. <ul><li>Monet, Impression: Sunrise </li></ul><ul><li>Painting inadvertently founded the name of Impressionism </li></ul><ul><li>Form and substance vanish </li></ul><ul><li>Light transforms objects and surfaces into atmospheric spaces </li></ul><ul><li>Color was not the property of an object, but the light controls color intensity </li></ul><ul><li>Color affected by time or day and movement of the sun </li></ul><ul><li>Monet worked outdoors, plein-air </li></ul>
  15. 16. Impression Sunrise from the 1874 Impressionist Show
  16. 17. <ul><li>Monet, Rouen Cathedral </li></ul><ul><li>One of Monet’s paintings in a series </li></ul><ul><li>Cf. Muybridge </li></ul><ul><li>Fixed composition and view in most of the series </li></ul><ul><li>Subtle gradations of tone and color </li></ul><ul><li>Limited palette, subtle handling of paint </li></ul><ul><li>Gothic cathedral, religious and cultural significance </li></ul><ul><li>Stone work of cathedral dissolves in light </li></ul>
  17. 18. Berthe Morisot <ul><li>1841-1895 </li></ul><ul><li>First Woman to Join the Impressionist Painters </li></ul><ul><li>Friend and Model for Manet who influenced her highly </li></ul>
  18. 19. <ul><li>Morisot, Villa at the Seaside </li></ul><ul><li>Shaded verandah at a summer resort </li></ul><ul><li>Figures are informally grouped </li></ul><ul><li>Private balcony </li></ul><ul><li>Discreetly fashionably dressed women </li></ul><ul><li>Woman sits elegantly covered to avoid a tan </li></ul><ul><li>Brisk broad brushstrokes </li></ul><ul><li>Women neither spectacles nor on parade </li></ul><ul><li>Plein-air </li></ul>
  19. 20. Pierre-Auguste Renoir <ul><li>1841-1919 </li></ul><ul><li>One of the best loved Impressionist, largely due to subject matter – children, pretty women and flowers </li></ul>
  20. 21. <ul><li>Renoir, Le Moulin de la Galette </li></ul><ul><li>Energetic dancing by the middle class in Paris </li></ul><ul><li>Dappling of light and shade </li></ul><ul><li>Artfully blurred figures in the picture </li></ul><ul><li>Casual and unposed natural placement of figures </li></ul><ul><li>Suggested space goes beyond the boundaries of the painting </li></ul><ul><li>People go about their business, don’t pose </li></ul><ul><li>Influence of candid photography in the casualness of groupings and the cut off figures at the edges </li></ul>
  21. 22. Camille Pissaro <ul><li>1830 –1903 </li></ul><ul><li>Big Proponet of Plein Air painting </li></ul><ul><li>Mentor to Cezanne </li></ul><ul><li>Only Painter to show in ALL Impressionist exhibitions (8 in total) </li></ul>
  22. 23. The Stage Coach at Louveciennes 1870
  23. 24. Edgar Degas <ul><li>1834-1917 </li></ul><ul><li>Master of drawing the Human Figure in Motion </li></ul><ul><li>Known for use of pastels </li></ul><ul><li>Ballet Dancers and Horses </li></ul>
  24. 25. <ul><li>Degas, Ballet Rehearsal </li></ul><ul><li>Enjoyed depicting ballet movements </li></ul><ul><li>Composition inspired by Japanese prints: center of painting empty, spiral staircase at left cut off, ballerina being dressed at right cut off </li></ul><ul><li>Strong diagonals unify composition </li></ul><ul><li>Light feathery brushstrokes define dresses </li></ul><ul><li>Effect of light from window on the floor and on shapes </li></ul><ul><li>Faces in darkness or cut off </li></ul>
  25. 26. James Abbot McNeil Whistler <ul><li>1834-1903 </li></ul><ul><li>American (New England), moved to Russia at age 9 then back to CT (Pomfret) then to Paris then to England </li></ul><ul><li>Friend of Rossetti (pre-Raphaelites) and Oscar Wilde </li></ul>
  26. 27. 1875 <ul><li>Whistler, Nocturne in Black and Gold: The Falling Rocket </li></ul><ul><li>Reaches to the limit of abstraction </li></ul><ul><li>Fireworks in London over the Thames River </li></ul><ul><li>Clouds of black and dark blue represent the smoke of the rockets </li></ul><ul><li>Left: large tree looms in darkness </li></ul><ul><li>Art critic called the painting “a pot of paint in the public’s face.” Whistler sued for libel </li></ul><ul><li>Signed the painting with a Japanese anagram </li></ul><ul><li>Color effects decorate the painting </li></ul>
  27. 28. Mary Cassatt <ul><li>1844-1926 </li></ul><ul><li>Friend of Degas, showed with Impressioinists in 1879, 1880, 1881 and 1886 </li></ul><ul><li>Born American but lived in Paris most of her adult life </li></ul><ul><li>Contributed to the Interest of American Impressionism </li></ul>
  28. 29. La Toilette c. 1891 <ul><li>Cassatt, The Bath </li></ul><ul><li>Not like other Impressionists, not a landscape or still life painter </li></ul><ul><li>Figures are never actors, nor do they appear to be models posing </li></ul><ul><li>Mother and child theme her specialty </li></ul><ul><li>Has a tenderness foreign to Impressionism </li></ul><ul><li>Figures seen from unusual angles as in Japanese prints </li></ul><ul><li>Flatness of background forms </li></ul><ul><li>Solidity of main figures </li></ul><ul><li>Japanese decorative details in background </li></ul>
  29. 30. Auguste Rodin <ul><li>1840 –1917 </li></ul><ul><li>Stunning Strength and realism </li></ul><ul><li>Confronts distress and moral weakness as well as noble themes </li></ul><ul><li>Emphasis on Hands and feet in his works </li></ul><ul><li>A turn away from the smooth neo-classical styling common in sculpture </li></ul>
  30. 31. The Burghers of Calais 1884-86

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