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BiologyExchange.co.uk Shared Resource
BiologyExchange.co.uk Shared Resource
BiologyExchange.co.uk Shared Resource
BiologyExchange.co.uk Shared Resource
BiologyExchange.co.uk Shared Resource
BiologyExchange.co.uk Shared Resource
BiologyExchange.co.uk Shared Resource
BiologyExchange.co.uk Shared Resource
BiologyExchange.co.uk Shared Resource
BiologyExchange.co.uk Shared Resource
BiologyExchange.co.uk Shared Resource
BiologyExchange.co.uk Shared Resource
BiologyExchange.co.uk Shared Resource
BiologyExchange.co.uk Shared Resource
BiologyExchange.co.uk Shared Resource
BiologyExchange.co.uk Shared Resource
BiologyExchange.co.uk Shared Resource
BiologyExchange.co.uk Shared Resource
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BiologyExchange.co.uk Shared Resource

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Transcript

  • 1. Recap Nucleic acids
  • 2. Chromosomes <ul><li>A chromosome consists of:- </li></ul><ul><ul><li>DNA </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Coiled around protein balls </li></ul></ul>
  • 3.  
  • 4. DNA is a polymer <ul><li>The monomer is a nucleotide </li></ul>
  • 5. 4 different bases
  • 6. Nucleotides join together <ul><li>To form a chain </li></ul><ul><li>Sugar to phosphate to sugar to phosphate…. </li></ul><ul><li>Joined by strong covalent bonds </li></ul><ul><li>The chain twists to form a helix </li></ul>
  • 7. Bases pair <ul><li>Bases on one strand of DNA pair with complementary bases on the other strand. A with T and C with G </li></ul><ul><li>Two chains join together to form a double helix </li></ul>
  • 8.  
  • 9.  
  • 10. RNA <ul><li>We look at two forms:- </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Messenger RNA – mRNA </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Transfer RNA – tRNA </li></ul></ul>
  • 11. Differences between DNA and RNA <ul><li>The sugar in DNA is deoxyribose </li></ul><ul><li>The sugar in RNA is ribose </li></ul>
  • 12. Differences between DNA and RNA <ul><li>The nitrogenous bases in DNA are Cytosine; Guanine; Adenine; Thymine </li></ul><ul><li>The nitrogenous bases in RNA are Cytosine; Guanine; Adenine; Uracil </li></ul>
  • 13. Differences between DNA and RNA Shorter; Present in nucleus and cytoplasm; Short term; Some bases paired and some unpaired Longer; Only found in the nucleus; Long lasting; Many bases are paired RNA DNA
  • 14. mRNA <ul><li>Single strand of nucleotides with no base pairing </li></ul>
  • 15. tRNA <ul><li>Single strand that is twisted back on itself so that some areas have paired bases </li></ul>
  • 16. tRNA
  • 17.  
  • 18. tRNA ‘clover leaf’ shape ; (allow reference to loop / folded structure) tRNA standard length ; tRNA has an amino acid binding site ; tRNA has anticodon available / three exposed bases ; tRNA has hydrogen bonds (between base pairs) ;

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