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NUCLEIC
ACIDS
THE CELL’S INFO
Chromosomes are made of DNA
and proteins
The genetic material
of the cell is in its
chromosomes
The DNA winds over
protein...
DNA CHEMICAL STRUCTURE
DNA: DeoxiriboNucleic Acid
Its a polynucleotide.
Phosphate group
Organic or
nitrogen
containing bas...
ORGANIC BASES
THE DOUBLE HELIX
Anti parallel strands
Hydrogen bonds
between bases
A=T 2 H bonds
C = G 3 H bonds
The two
strands
held by ...
Features of the DNA Double
Helix
 Two DNA strands form a helical spiral.
 The two polynucleotide chains run in opposite ...
RNA: ribonucleic acid
Like DNA, the RNA molecule, is built up by nucleotides linked together in a
chain. There are some di...
DIFFERENT TYPES OF RNA
messenger-RNA, which transfer the information about the aminoacid sequence
from the DNA to the prot...
DIFFERENT TYPES OF RNA
ribosomal-RNA, which builds up the ribosome together with proteins.
rRNA
tRNA
transfer-RNA, which t...
DIFFERENT TYPES OF RNA
ribosomal-RNA, which builds up the ribosome together with proteins.
rRNA
tRNA
transfer-RNA, which t...
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Nucleic Acids

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Nucleic Acids

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Nucleic Acids

  1. 1. NUCLEIC ACIDS THE CELL’S INFO
  2. 2. Chromosomes are made of DNA and proteins The genetic material of the cell is in its chromosomes The DNA winds over proteins (HISTONES) to form chromosomes DNA the “double helix” is a polynucleotide
  3. 3. DNA CHEMICAL STRUCTURE DNA: DeoxiriboNucleic Acid Its a polynucleotide. Phosphate group Organic or nitrogen containing base pentose sugar ONE NUCLEOTIDE deoxiribose DNA ribose RNA
  4. 4. ORGANIC BASES
  5. 5. THE DOUBLE HELIX Anti parallel strands Hydrogen bonds between bases A=T 2 H bonds C = G 3 H bonds The two strands held by H bonds then curl, forming a double helix
  6. 6. Features of the DNA Double Helix  Two DNA strands form a helical spiral.  The two polynucleotide chains run in opposite directions  The bases of the individual nucleotides are on the inside of the helix, stacked on top of each other like the steps of a spiral staircase.  The DNA molecule has a uniform diameter. Purines pair up with pyrimidines.  The two base pairs can occur in any order within the DNA molecule.  In general, DNA containing a higher proportion of GC bp are more stable  The information in it is redundant. If one base is lost, the complementary base on the opposite strand still contains the information.
  7. 7. RNA: ribonucleic acid Like DNA, the RNA molecule, is built up by nucleotides linked together in a chain. There are some differences though:  While the DNA consists of two complementary strands attached to one another, forming a double helix. The RNA molecule is single stranded, and folded in various shapes.  The sugar in DNA is deoxyribose. In RNA it is ribose.  In RNA thymine is replaced by uracyl.  There are three major types of RNA
  8. 8. DIFFERENT TYPES OF RNA messenger-RNA, which transfer the information about the aminoacid sequence from the DNA to the protein synthesis. mRNA
  9. 9. DIFFERENT TYPES OF RNA ribosomal-RNA, which builds up the ribosome together with proteins. rRNA tRNA transfer-RNA, which transfer aminoacids to the ribosome for protein synthesis.
  10. 10. DIFFERENT TYPES OF RNA ribosomal-RNA, which builds up the ribosome together with proteins. rRNA tRNA transfer-RNA, which transfer aminoacids to the ribosome for protein synthesis.

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