Structure of nucleic acid


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Structure of nucleic acid

  1. 1.  1o Structure - Linear array of nucleotides  2o Structure – double helix  3o Structure - Super-coiling, stem-loop formation  4o Structure – Packaging into chromatin
  2. 2.  Can determine the sequence of DNA base pairs in any DNA molecule  Chain-termination method developed by Sanger  Involves in vitro replication of target DNA  Technology led to the sequencing of the human genome
  3. 3. DNA Replication • DNA is a double-helical molecule • Each strand of the helix must be copied in complementary fashion by DNA polymerase • Each strand is a template for copying • DNA polymerase requires template and primer
  4. 4.  Primer: an oligonucleotide that pairs with the end of the template molecule to form dsDNA  DNA polymerases add nucleotides in 5'-3' direction
  5. 5. Chain Termination Method • Based on DNA polymerase reaction • 4 separate rxns • Each reaction mixture contains dATP, dGTP, dCTP and dTTP
  6. 6.  Each reaction also contains a small amount of one dideoxynucleotide (ddATP, ddGTP, ddCTP and ddTTP).  Each of the 4 dideoxynucleotides are labeled with a different fluorescent dye.  Dideoxynucleotides missing 3’-OH group. Once incorporated into the DNA chain, chain elongation stops)
  7. 7. Chain Termination Method • Most of the time, the polymerase uses normal nucleotides and DNA molecules grow normally • Occasionally, the polymerase uses a dideoxynucleotide, which adds to the chain and then prevents further growth in that molecule
  8. 8.  Random insertion of dd-nucleotides leaves (optimally) at least a few chains terminated at every occurrence of a given nucleotide
  10. 10. Chain Termination Method • Run each reaction mixture on electrophoresis gel • Short fragments go to bottom, long fragments on top • Read the "sequence" from bottom of gel to top • Convert this "sequence" to the complementary sequence • Now read from the other end and you have the sequence you wanted - read 5' to 3'
  11. 11.  DNA is double stranded with antiparallel strands  Right hand double helix  Three different helical forms (A, B and Z DNA.
  12. 12. Comparison of A, B, Z DNA • A: right-handed, short and broad, 2.3 A, 11 bp per turn • B: right-handed, longer, thinner, 3.32 A, 10 bp per turn • Z: left-handed, longest, thinnest, 3.8 A, 12 bp per turn
  13. 13. A-DNA B-DNA Z-DNA
  14. 14. Z-DNA • Found in G:C-rich regions of DNA • G goes to syn conformation • C stays anti but whole C nucleoside (base and sugar) flips 180 degrees
  15. 15.  Double Strand DNA can be denatured by heat (get strand separation)  Can determine degree of denturation by measuring absorbance at 260 nm.
  16. 16.  Conjugated double bonds in bases absorb light at 260 nm.  Base stacking causes less absorbance.  Increased single strandedness causes increase in absorbance
  17. 17.  Melting temperature related to G:C and A:T content.  3 H-bonds of G:C pair require higher temperatures to denture than 2 H-bonds of A:T pair.
  18. 18.  Super coiling  Cruciform structures
  19. 19. Supercoils • In duplex DNA, ten bp per turn of helix (relaxed form) • DNA helix can be over-wound. • Over winding of DNA helix can be compensated by supercoiling
  20. 20.  Supercoiling prevalent in circular DNA molecules and within local regions of long linear DNA strands  Enzymes called topoisomerases or gyrases can introduce or remove supercoils  In vivo most DNA is negatively supercoiled.  Therefore, it is easy to unwind short regions of the molecule to allow access for enzymes
  21. 21. Each super coil compensates for one + or – turn of the double helix
  22. 22. Cruciforms occur in palindromic regions of DNA Can form intrachain base pairing Negative supercoiling may promote cruciforms
  23. 23.  In chromosomes, DNA is tightly associated with proteins
  24. 24. Chromosome Structure • Human DNA’s total length is ~2 meters! • This must be packaged into a nucleus that is about 5 micrometers in diameter • This represents a compression of more than 100,000!
  25. 25.  It is made possible by wrapping the DNA around protein spools called nucleosomes and then packing these in helical filaments
  26. 26. Nucleosome Structure • Chromatin, the nucleoprotein complex, consists of histones and nonhistone chromosomal proteins • % major histone proteins: H1, H2A, H2B, H3 and H4
  27. 27.  Histone octamers are major part of the “protein spools”  Nonhistone proteins are regulators of gene expression
  28. 28. •4 major histone (H2A, H2B, H3, H4) proteins for octomer •200 base pair long DNA strand winds around the octomer •146 base pair DNA “spacer separates individual nucleosomes •H1 protein involved in higher-order chromatin structure. •W/O H1, Chromatin looks like beads on string
  29. 29. Solenoid Structure of Chromatin
  30. 30.  Single stranded molecule  Chemically less stable than DNA  presence of 2’-OH makes RNA more susceptible to hydrolytic attack (especially form bases)  Prone to degradation by Ribonucleases (Rnases)
  31. 31.  Has secondary structure. Can form intrachain base pairing (i.e.cruciform structures).  Multiple functions
  32. 32.  Ribosomal RNA (rRNA) – integral part of ribosomes (very abundant)  Transfer RNA (tRNA) – carries activated amino acids to ribosomes.
  33. 33.  Messenger RNA (mRNA) – endcodes sequences of amino acids in proteins.  Catalytic RNA (Ribozymes) – catalzye cleavage of specific RNA species.
  34. 34. (a) (b)