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San antonio cleanfuels2007
 

San antonio cleanfuels2007

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    San antonio cleanfuels2007 San antonio cleanfuels2007 Presentation Transcript

    • Clean Fuels 2007: June 25-26, 2007: Fuels for Future Engines Tom Ryan, Institute Engineer Engine, Emissions and Vehicle Research Division Southwest Research Institute® San Antonio, Texas
    • Presentation Outline Current status of HD Legislation Diesel fuel properties and their effect on emissions Bio-diesel and its effect on emissions. HCCI Status Light-duty Diesel High Efficiency Gasoline 2
    • Presentation Outline Current status of HD Legislation Diesel fuel properties and their effect on emissions Bio-diesel and its effect on emissions. HCCI Status Light-duty Diesel High Efficiency Gasoline 3
    • US Heavy Duty Emissions 4
    • Progression Of Heavy-Duty Legislation And Technology In EEC 16 0.4 14 NOx (g/kW.h) 0.35 Particulates (g/kW.h PM (g/kW.h) 12 0.3 NOx (g/kW.h) 10 0.25 8 0.2 6 0.15 4 0.1 2 0.05 0 0 90 92 95 99 05 08 10 19 19 19 19 20 20 20 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, ro ro ro ro ro ro ro Eu Eu Eu Eu Eu Eu Eu 5 Commission HD Euro 6 validation report issued end 2006 Euro 6 has been proposed as 0.5 g/Kw.h NOx and 0.002 g/kW.h particulates
    • In-Cylinder Emissions Control Use In Production Engines To date NOx has To date particulates been controlled by have been controlled reducing combustion by increasing the oxidation temperature by rate of the fuel by these methods. these methods. Intercooling Turbocharging Combustion retard Higher injection Injection rate shaping pressure Exhaust gas recirculation Smaller nozzle holes (EGR) At US 2007 and Euro 4 these methods are reaching the limit of their practical effectiveness and other methods my be necessary. 6
    • Charge Air Cooling 1.05 The effect of intake NOx / [ NOx @ 50 oC ] 1.00 manifold temperature on 0.95 25% Load NOx is predictable. 0.90 0.85 75% Load 0.80 50% Load 100% Load 0.75 -5 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 Intake Manifold Temperature Co 7
    • Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) 1.0 >50% NOx 0.9 reduction is possible 75% Load 25% Load over transient cycle. 0.8 NOx / [ NOx baseline ] 0.7 7% Load A particulate 1800 rpm countermeasure for 0.6 EGR is required. 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0.0 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 EGR [%] 8
    • Presentation Outline Current status of EEC HD Legislation Diesel fuel properties and their effect on emissions Bio-diesel and its effect on emissions. HCCI Status Light-duty Diesel High Efficiency Gasoline 9
    • Weighted NOX vs. Total Aromatics Modern EGR Equipped Engine 2.7 WEIGHTED NOX [ g/(hp-hr) 2.6 2.5 2.4 2.3 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 TOTAL AROMATICS [ % ] NOx depends on fuel composition through the impact on the adiabatic flame temperature Aromatics increase the adiabatic flame temperature, and thus the NOx emissions 10
    • Alternative Renewable Fuels Biodiesel in the US may soon be made by petroleum refiners rather than by using the fatty acid methyl-ester approach. Bio-mass may also be refined using Bio-mass to liquid (BTL); Fischer-Tropsch process. A process has been developed Sweden to make Di-Methyl Ether (DME) from wood chips. UOP has a process for treating vegetable oil in the refinery 11
    • Stoichiometric Adiabatic Flame Temperature W EIGHTED NOx [g/(hp-hr)] 2.70 2.65 2.60 2.55 2.50 2.45 2.40 2.35 2.30 12.6 12.8 13.0 13.2 13.4 13.6 13.8 14.0 FUEL HYDROGEN [%] • NOX emissions show a strong relationship to hydrogen content. 12
    • Fuel Effects on NOx (modeling results) 10 The flame temperature 8 NOx (g/hp/h) effects NOx. 6 4 2 Diesel H/C=1.8 0 Methane H/C = 4.0 Adiabatic Flame Temperature (K) 2950 2900 2850 2800 2750 2700 2650 2600 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 13 4.5 Hydrocarbon/Carbon Ratio
    • Relationship Between PM and Fuel Composition Combustion Reactor 22 20 Experiments Show Clear 18 Relationship Between Soot Soot (mg/m3) 16 and Composition 14 12 Basic Fuel Parameter is the 10 Fuel H/C Ratio 8 6 4 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8 1.9 Fuel H/C Ratio 14
    • Alternative Fuel Properties Alternative Fuel Properties 2-D Diesel Property Units Biodiesel DME FT Diesel U.S. Cetane Number 55 44 55 90+ Sulfur < 15 333 0 0 Nitrogen ppm 18 114 0 0 Aromatics % mass 0 34 0 0 Distillation T10 °C 331 217 217 T50 °C 343 263 -24 263 T90 °C 352 317 300 Specific Gravity 0.88 0.85 0.661 0.771 Viscosity cSt 6.0 2.6 0.227 @ 20°C 2.6 Oxygen % mass 11 0 34.74 0 Heating Value kJ/kg 37120 42424 29300 31983 15
    • Presentation Outline Current status of EEC HD Legislation Diesel fuel properties and their effect on emissions Bio-diesel and its effect on emissions. HCCI Status Light-duty Diesel High Efficiency Gasoline 16
    • Biodiesel Tests at SwRI- Hydrocarbon Emissions Biodiesel Tests at SwRI- Hydrocarbon Emissions B100 = 100% biodiesel B20 = 20% biodiesel, 80% diesel Oxygen in biodiesel reduces hydrocarbons 0.35 0.30 0.25 HC (G/HP-HR) 0.20 0.15 0.10 0.05 0.00 Cummins N14 DDC Series 50 Cummins B5.9 TEST ENGINE 17 B100 B20 Diesel
    • Biodiesel Tests at SwRI- CO Emissions Biodiesel Tests at SwRI- CO Emissions B100 = 100% biodiesel B20 = 20% biodiesel, 80% diesel 2.5 Oxygen in biodiesel reduces hydrocarbons 2.0 CO (G/HP-HR) 1.5 1.0 0.5 0.0 Cummins N14 DDC Series 50 Cummins B5.9 TEST ENGINE B100 B20 2D 18
    • Biodiesel Tests at SwRI- NOx Emissions Biodiesel Tests at SwRI- NOx Emissions 6.0 5.0 4.0 NOx (G/HP-HR) 3.0 2.0 1.0 0.0 Cummins N14 DDC Series 50 Cummins B5.9 TEST ENGINE 19 B100 B20 2D
    • Effect of biodiesel fuels on particulates PM versus Oxygen Concentration 0.12 2003 Detroit Diesel Series 60 tested on US 0.10 heavy-duty transient Diesel fuel test. 0.08 PM (g/hp-hr) Biodiesel fuels show 0.06 significant particulate reductions because of 0.04 higher oxygen content. Biodiesel 0.02 SwRI SAE Paper 2005-01-3671 0.00 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 Oxygen Concentration (%m/m) 20
    • Effect of Biodiesel on Lubricity 800 High Frequency Reciprocating Rig (HFRR) 700 Biodiesel can 600 significantly improve 2% Biodiesel 500 lubricity of diesel fuel, 2% specified in (µm) 400 some parts of US. 300 200 DF2 100 DF1 0 0.01 0.1 1 10 100 Biodiesel (%) 21
    • Presentation Outline Current status of EEC HD Legislation Diesel fuel properties and their effect on emissions Bio-diesel and its effect on emissions. HCCI Status Light-duty Diesel High Efficiency Gasoline 22
    • Diesel Combustion Start of Injection Controls Timing of Ignition High Temp. Diffusion Flame Creates NOx Incomplete Combustion in Fuel Rich Zones 23 Causes Soot Formation
    • Spark Ignition Combustion Ignition Controlled by Spark Timing High Temperature Flame Front Moves Through Air and Fuel Mixture Creating NOx 24 Pre-ignition (knock) limits torque and efficiency.
    • HCCI Fuel & Air Charge Undergoes Compression Spontaneous Reaction Throughout Cylinder Low Temperature Reaction Creates Low NOx 25 Neither diesel nor gasoline are ideal fuels
    • Only certain fuels are suitable for HCCI EPAIT is Elevated Pressure Auto-Ignition Temperature; neither diesel or regular gasoline have suitable EPAIT for HCCI 26
    • The Fuels Dimension Full time HCCI on a ~1.1 liter/cylinder engine. A barrel of oil can yield Engine driven supercharger more low-octane gasoline Power limited by supercharger speed than high-octane. Gasoline ~80 (R+M)/2 BSFC (g/kW-hr) 12 210 215 0.050 220 10 230 H-D Euro 6 proposed 240 0.040 at 0.50 g/kW.h NOx BMEP (bar) 260 8 NOx (g/kW.h) 280 0.030 300 345 0.020 6 0.010 4 0.000 0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 2 BMEP (kPa) 1000 1250 1500 1750 2000 27 RPM
    • Presentation Outline Current status of EEC HD Legislation Diesel fuel properties and their effect on emissions Bio-diesel and its effect on emissions. HCCI Status Light-duty Diesel High Efficiency Gasoline 28
    • Zones in Rich-Low Temperature Combustion. • LTC (Low Temperature Combustion) • HCCI (Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition) • PCCI (Premixed Controlled Compression Ignition) SAE 2001-0-0655 ; Toyota & ExxonMobil 6 5 Soot Soot Equivalence Ratio φ A SAE 970873 ; Dec 4 A B Local 3 B 2 C D D 1 C NO NO 6 0 1400 1800 2200 2600 3000 29 Local Temperature K
    • Diesel Tier II Bin 5/2 3 liter, 4 cylinder engine, 1958 kg SUV 4 speed AT cycle emissions simulated from steady state measurements using RAPTOR™ vehicle model. FTP75 composite US06 composite 12 18 RAPTOR Sim ulation Steady-state full load SwRI representation 16 curve 10 14 8 NGD3.0E Engine BMEP (bar) for 8 12 BMEP (bar) 5 10 6 Standard/PCCI 7 Standard/PCCI 6 4 8 6 2 4 6 5 2 7 4 3 RAPTOR Simulation 2 LTC (LPL EGR) SwRI Representation 3 2 4 LTC (LPL EGR) FTP-75 Cycle 1 1 LTC (HPL EGR) LTC (HPL EGR) 0 0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 3500 4000 4500 Engine Speed (rpm ) Engine Speed (rpm) 30
    • Diesel Tier II Bin 5/2 without NOx aftertreatment? 3 liter, 4 cylinder engine, 1958 kg SUV 4 speed AT cycle emissions simulated from steady state measurements using RAPTOR™ vehicle model. Bin 5 Bin 2 Engine out Miles/ 120,000 120,000 NOx Gallon miles miles (g/mile) FTP75 NOx limit NOx limit composite US06 FTP75 0.070 0.020 0.022 26.0 composite US06 0.140 0.140 0.121 19.9 18 12 RAPTOR Sim ulation Steady-state full load 16 curve SwRI representation 10 8 14 NGD3.0E Engine BMEP (bar) for 8 12 BMEP (bar) 5 10 6 7 Standard/PCCI 6 Standard/PCCI 8 4 2 6 4 6 5 2 7 4 3 RAPTOR Simulation 2 LTC (LPL EGR) SwRI Representation 3 2 4 LTC (LPL EGR) FTP-75 Cycle 1 1 LTC (HPL EGR) LTC (HPL EGR) 0 0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 3500 4000 4500 Engine Speed (rpm ) Engine Speed (rpm) 31
    • Presentation Outline Current status of EEC HD Legislation Diesel fuel properties and their effect on emissions Bio-diesel and its effect on emissions. HCCI Status Light-duty Diesel High Efficiency Gasoline 32
    • Progress on High Efficiency Gasoline – 4.5L Engine 1800 0.07 Excellent Load Range 1600 BMEP 0.06 BMEP (kPa), BSFC (g/kW-hr) Engine-Out BSNOx (g/kW-hr) Emissions potential 1400 0.05 very good. Ultra-low 1200 0.04 NOx with HC and CO 1000 0.03 typical of SI ranges 800 NOx 0.02 Key technologies: 600 0.01 1. EGR 400 bsfc 0 207 210 209 214 220 2. Boost 200 -0.01 3. High Compression 0 -0.02 4. Advanced Ignition 1000 1400 1900 2400 2900 5. Controls Engine Speed (rev/min) Peak loads demonstrated to 18 bar, with good engine speed range. Fuel consumption diesel-competitive. Engine-out NOx 33 well-below any production system. 3-way catalyst-capable for full engine operating range.
    • High Efficiency Gasoline Technology Development ISFC Sensitivity to EGR at 8 bar BMEP, 45'C 205 Engine stability 200 maintained. Igniter #1 COV < 5% 195 Igniter #2 Traditional ISFC (g/kW hr) 190 Igniter #3 185 Improved fuel economy at high 180 EGR Levels 175 Plasma 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 % EGR 34 Extensive Igniter Studies to identify/develop new, high- performance, reliable, and durable ignition systems.
    • Diesel vs. Gasoline Engine Costs 6 liter Medium-Duty Engine High efficiency gasoline is less costly than diesel engine technology: Remove SCR -$2,500 Remove Catalyzed DPF -$2,000 Remove Common Rail Fuel System -$1,000 Add variable valve timing +$200 Add High Energy Ignition +$150 Add EGR Distribution +$150 Add 3-way Catalyst +$250 Net Gasoline saving +$4750 35
    • Summary Bio-diesel has advantages in engine emissions and durability over petroleum based fuel. Low temperature diesel combustion may allow NOx aftertreatment to be avoided. Full time HCCI is possible with low octane gasoline. The high efficiency gasoline engine can almost meet the performance and fuel economy of the diesel at much less cost. 36