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MOOCS and the Future of Higher Education
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MOOCS and the Future of Higher Education

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A tutorial presented at the International Conference on Hybrid Learning, Toronto Canada, August 2013

A tutorial presented at the International Conference on Hybrid Learning, Toronto Canada, August 2013

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  • Actually MOOCs and "pre-MOOCs"
  • There is one driving force in this model: the information distributed by human-to-human meetings
  • The concept of visibility is not related to diffusion rate, it deals with the hype phenomenon, showing for instance how the media are filled with reports on the glorious future of an innovation - and how this interest can rapidly drop when the expectations are not fulfilled soon enough
  • Les Schmidt has mapped some important milestones onto a “ MOOC Hype Cycle ” (right) and has three arguments for why we are near the peak . Although I disagree with his arguments that the MOOC market is becoming commodotized (in fact it is getting more differentiated and more informed), I disagree more broadly that we are nearing the “ peak ” of “ visibility ” for MOOCs. I think this is incorrect. It seems highly likely in the next five years “ visibility ” will increase in terms of user participation in MOOCs, the focus on MOOCs in educational meetings, MOOC-related hirings, and the numbers and size of organisations focussed on the MOOC ecosystem.
  • The second challenge is that it is easy to conflate the hype cycle with an investment cycle. Dr Jean-Paul Rodrigue at Hofstra University developed  this graph  (left) showing the four phases of an investment bubble.  It may be a dangerous to assume that MOOCs will be driven by similar forces because no MOOCs has yet come close to demonstrating an effective business model, even in any rigorous theoretical way. Furthermore, despite a recent rise in VC investment in education , it is be ing made with very a long-view on return, with horizons up to ten years mentioned by fund leaders. Finally, VC inves tment for ms  a drop in the higher education ocean, a market massively dominated by well-established non-profits. Simply put, this all means that money can ’ t follow the hype to get into the market in a substantial way and, even more importantly, money wont be able to get out of the market. Good reason to think that an investment cycle, wont be the cause of a similar hype cycle.
  • The reason I want to mention this is for -Open University - issue of credit and completion rates - OER - access to resources - cMOOCs & xMOOCs - bifurcation into pedagogies
  • integrated forum, blog, comment, wiki, chat, social bookmarking, RSS, microblogging, widgets , and video commenting are the first set of tools
  • 1. self-selected groups amongst students 2. quickly set up groups 3. visit a group, join a group and know who is in a group 4. click a button and promote “ member ” to “ admin role ” 5. manage stream of communication from group activities 6. choose bits of activity in a group to watch and engage with 7. visit a forum and easily search for items 8. manage issues as to who is new, who is here 9. manage registration 10. flag as spam 11. tag
  • Not completely up-to-date but it doesn ’ t matter
  • - Posting/Tweeting/commenting onto the pages of relevant audiences (post using popular industry hashtags) - Set a course hashtag - you don ’ t need a Twitter account to do this
  • - MOOCs often criticized due to lack of fidelity to syllabus - make dynamic (e.g., via Dropbox)
  • -consider the nature of the course & audience -too many assignments can burn students out -which assignments are most critical and stagger them -do assignments require a great deal of outside research? -leverage online tools such as blogs, etc. -completion tends to drop off after the first round of peer reviews -all assignments do not need peer review -consider 2-3 peer reviewed assignments max -every assignment needs clear evaluation criteria; broad concept; questions that students can ask themselves when evaluating; number values and examples

MOOCS and the Future of Higher Education MOOCS and the Future of Higher Education Presentation Transcript

  • MOOCs and the Future of Higher Education, ICHL2013, Toronto Canada MOOCs and the Future of Higher Education Bebo White SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory Stanford University International Conference on Higher Learning 2013 bebo@slac.stanford.edu
  • MOOCs and the Future of Higher Education, ICHL2013, Toronto Canada Agenda • An analytical view of the MOOC phenomenon • The evolution of MOOCs - “a MOOC is not a MOOC is not a MOOC” • Bebo’s foray into the MOOC world • Elements of MOOC production, delivery, & design • A successful MOOC case study • Thoughts about the future of MOOCs (esp. in higher education) • Let’s make this an interactive discussion!
  • MOOCs and the Future of Higher Education, ICHL2013, Toronto Canada Massive Open Online Course (this slide may not be necessary) • A course that is open, participatory, distributed, and connects students to a digital world interested in the same topic • Provides a massive network of tools and people for students and educators to build their technology skills and professional networks for life-long learning • Have attracted media interest due to huge enrollments and the involvement of “elite” institutions
  • MOOCs and the Future of Higher Education, ICHL2013, Toronto Canada
  • MOOCs and the Future of Higher Education, ICHL2013, Toronto Canada This is anThis is an example ofexample of diffusiondiffusion This is anThis is an example ofexample of diffusiondiffusion
  • MOOCs and the Future of Higher Education, ICHL2013, Toronto Canada A brief history of MOOCs (1) • 2004: George Siemens & Stephen Downes develop theory of Connectivism, “the thesis that knowledge is distributed across a network of connections, and therefore learning consists of the ability to construct and traverse those networks (Downes, 2012)
  • MOOCs and the Future of Higher Education, ICHL2013, Toronto Canada “The interesting question now is not ‘How can we use technology to do online what we cannot do in-class?’ The compelling principle now is: ‘Technology shouldn’t merely simulate traditional functionality; it should extend and transcend those functionalities’” (Sanders, Stanford)
  • MOOCs and the Future of Higher Education, ICHL2013, Toronto Canada Downes’ MOOC Model • Four essential elements for a successful MOOC: • Autonomy - students decide how much to participate • Diversity - students come from all backgrounds, different countries, different experiences • Openness - MOOCs should be free or of such low cost that nearly anyone can participate • Interactivity - Chats, social networking, video meetings, collaboration
  • MOOCs and the Future of Higher Education, ICHL2013, Toronto Canada A brief history of MOOCs (2) • 2002: MIT OpenCourseWare project formed • 2008: First MOOC presented at University of Manitoba with ~2200 registrants • 2008: Khan Academy starts up (actually in 2006) • 2010: Dave Cormier videos about MOOCs added toYouTube (Cormier, 2010) • 2011: MOOC for college prep skills helps freshmen prepare for college requirements (Cormier, 2011)
  • MOOCs and the Future of Higher Education, ICHL2013, Toronto Canada A brief history of MOOCs (3) • 2011 Thrun’s AI course at Stanford has 160k registrants • 2012: Harvard’s first MOOC has 370k registrants • 2012: Coursera, Udacity, & edX formed; offers first xMOOCs • 2012: NewYork Times calls 2012 “TheYear of the MOOC” • 2013: cMOOCs and xMOOCs too numerous to accurately count • More on history later
  • MOOCs and the Future of Higher Education, ICHL2013, Toronto Canada Are MOOCs a “fad” or be taken seriously? • The literature contains references to MOOC-ology and MOOC-ologists! • Diffusion models have been traditionally used in the context of sales(?) forecasting • An analytical approach to describe the spread of a diffusion phenomenon • Attempts to measure the interest and adoption of a phenomenon • Diffusion metaphors are often more persuasive than numerical data, analytical models, and formal reasoning (Eccles & Nohria, 1993) • Rogers’ S-curve • Gartner Group “Hype Cycle” • Investment Bubble Phases
  • MOOCs and the Future of Higher Education, ICHL2013, Toronto Canada Rogers’ S-curve Illustrates diffusion rates over time OER Thun & Norvig 2008 UofM Coursera, et.al. 2013 >3k These placements may be arbitrary
  • MOOCs and the Future of Higher Education, ICHL2013, Toronto Canada Gartner Group “Hype Cycle” Illustrates visibility over time
  • MOOCs and the Future of Higher Education, ICHL2013, Toronto Canada It’s interesting that despite the media hype, MOOCs do not appear...
  • MOOCs and the Future of Higher Education, ICHL2013, Toronto Canada
  • MOOCs and the Future of Higher Education, ICHL2013, Toronto Canada  It may be a dangerous to assume that MOOCs will be driven by similar forces because no MOOCs have yet come close to demonstrating an effective business model even in any rigorous theoretical way So, why the investments in xMOOCs?
  • MOOCs and the Future of Higher Education, ICHL2013, Toronto Canada
  • MOOCs and the Future of Higher Education, ICHL2013, Toronto Canada
  • MOOCs and the Future of Higher Education, ICHL2013, Toronto Canada Back to a definition MOOC is not a “Massive Open Online Course,” it is not a course. It is “massive open digitally-mediated course-compatible resources (MODMCCRs) (Marc Sanders, Stanford) MOOCs are a symptom of the LIL (learner-initiated learning) movement; BYOD reflects a move towards LIL (Trent Batson)
  • MOOCs and the Future of Higher Education, ICHL2013, Toronto Canada A little more history the UK Open University, which has no academic admission requirements, has awarded over a million highly regarded degrees to its students. Entry to the Open University is easy; exit with a degree is difficult (Sir John Daniel) the UK Open University, which has no academic admission requirements, has awarded over a million highly regarded degrees to its students. Entry to the Open University is easy; exit with a degree is difficult (Sir John Daniel) In a world of abundant content, courses can draw from a pool of open educational resources (OER) and provide their students with better and more varied teaching than individual instructors could develop by themselves (Sir John Daniel) In a world of abundant content, courses can draw from a pool of open educational resources (OER) and provide their students with better and more varied teaching than individual instructors could develop by themselves (Sir John Daniel)
  • MOOCs and the Future of Higher Education, ICHL2013, Toronto Canada
  • MOOCs and the Future of Higher Education, ICHL2013, Toronto Canada
  • MOOCs and the Future of Higher Education, ICHL2013, Toronto Canada an educational system should ‘provide all who want to learn with access to available resources at any times in their lives; empower all who want to share what they know to find those who want to learn it from them; and finally furnish all who want to present an issue to the public with the opportunity to make their challenge known (Illich, 1971) the MOOCs attracting media attention today are “at the intersection of Wall Street and Silicon Valley” (Caulfield, 2012) cMOOCs xMOOCs
  • MOOCs and the Future of Higher Education, ICHL2013, Toronto Canada (Source: Campus Technology)
  • MOOCs and the Future of Higher Education, ICHL2013, Toronto Canada But wait, there’s more - “blended MOOCs” • Attempts to implement the “flipped classroom” pedagogical model • Outside class: students participate in a MOOC (either a cMOOC or xMOOC) • Inside class: students discuss content, problem solve, do projects and lab work • Changes the role of the instructor • Simplifies (?) assessment • “can be integrated deeply into a traditional campus-based education, providing the economic and pedagogical benefits of networked learning while preserving the desirable attributes of traditional face-to-face, place-based education” (Caulfield & Collier)
  • MOOCs and the Future of Higher Education, ICHL2013, Toronto Canada • Who do they benefit - the students or the sponsoring institution? • Can they remain free? • cMOOCs or xMOOCs ? Again, are MOOCs a fad?
  • MOOCs and the Future of Higher Education, ICHL2013, Toronto Canada Common Pros & Cons (1) • Advantages • Free unless college credit is available • Learning is informal & at student’s own pace • Computer & Internet access are only resources required • Students can share work, assess others, & receive feedback from others • World-class instructors without high tuition of elite institutions
  • MOOCs and the Future of Higher Education, ICHL2013, Toronto Canada Common Pros & Cons (2) • Disadvantages • xMOOCs involve costs, sometimes significant • No real-time engagement (face-to-face) • Technical difficulties • Academic dishonesty possible • Students must learn to be responsible for their own learning
  • MOOCs and the Future of Higher Education, ICHL2013, Toronto Canada Remember “empower all who want to share what they know to find those who want to learn it from them” (Ilich, 1971) Do MOOCs really make this possible? Is it possible to experiment with “the MOOC world?”
  • MOOCs and the Future of Higher Education, ICHL2013, Toronto Canada My foray into MOOCs (1) • MOOCs are a ‘new’ technology but rather a ‘new’ application of a suite of existing technologies (rather like Web 2.0) • I wanted to experiment with MOOCs • “Constructivist MOOC” - distributed approach using a selection of available tools in their “native” guise • AYouTube channel (for lectures) • WordPress, GoogleDocs, Dropbox etc. (for content) • Facebook, Google+,Twitter, wikis, etc. (for the social side) • SurveyMonkey, etc. (for assessment, rating, etc.) • etc., etc......sounds easy... • But coordinating all such tools plus developing content is hard! A platform would be helpful...”Instructivist MOOC” - consolidated/unified approach presenting course elements in a single “wrapper”
  • MOOCs and the Future of Higher Education, ICHL2013, Toronto Canada My foray into MOOCs (2) • I wanted to create an online course on Web Science though have some doubts re: current curriculum efforts on WS • Explored the possibilities of • Social Media Classroom/Colab ( http://socialmediaclassroom.com/) - used by Howard Rheingold • Moodle • Google Course Builder
  • MOOCs and the Future of Higher Education, ICHL2013, Toronto Canada Social Media Classroom (SMC) • A free and open source (Drupal based) Web service that provides teachers and students with an integrated set of social media that each course can use for its own purposes • Classroom also includes curricular material, syllabi, lesson plans, resource repositories, screencasts and videos • Collaboratory (Colab) is the Web service portion • Free to install or SMC-hosted • Sounds great...but they ran out of $$ and are on hiatus - stay tuned
  • MOOCs and the Future of Higher Education, ICHL2013, Toronto Canada Moodle for MOOCs? (1) • A well known and very well supported LMS (Learning Management System) • Web-based • Supports media (e.g., video) • Strong social services (based on connectivism) • Capability for quizzes • Good course management services - tracking progress, grading, ratings • Can easily run as an instance under Amazon Web Services (AWS)
  • MOOCs and the Future of Higher Education, ICHL2013, Toronto Canada
  • MOOCs and the Future of Higher Education, ICHL2013, Toronto Canada Moodle for MOOCs (2) • Sounds good - so I queried the Moodle Forum and here’s what I was told: • “Moodle has been a MOOC since long before the MOOC buzzword was invented” • Concerns about growth and scaleability - load balancing could help • Lack of “automated peer assessment” and “calibrated peer assessment” • “Let’s wait for open source edX” • “Poor interactivity and engagement design” • “If you want to use Moodle for a big online class, for example, with the use of groups, you can split classes and delimit discussions to specific clusters, use external materials, broadcast a lecture, etc.” • “Too many MOOC-like functions require plugins”
  • MOOCs and the Future of Higher Education, ICHL2013, Toronto Canada
  • MOOCs and the Future of Higher Education, ICHL2013, Toronto Canada
  • MOOCs and the Future of Higher Education, ICHL2013, Toronto Canada Google Course Builder • Open source project based on the Google App Engine • Grew out of “Power Searching with Google” course (155k registrants) run by Google Research • Requires competence in HTML, JavaScript, & App Engine; template-based • Strong support, user forum, Google+ hangouts, etc. • Free up to a limit, then as a paid app (e.g., “Power Searching with Google” cost ~$20/day)
  • MOOCs and the Future of Higher Education, ICHL2013, Toronto Canada xMOOC Initiatives
  • MOOCs and the Future of Higher Education, ICHL2013, Toronto Canada
  • MOOCs and the Future of Higher Education, ICHL2013, Toronto Canada
  • MOOCs and the Future of Higher Education, ICHL2013, Toronto Canada The easy way...
  • MOOCs and the Future of Higher Education, ICHL2013, Toronto Canada
  • MOOCs and the Future of Higher Education, ICHL2013, Toronto Canada (ref: Pea et.al.) learner background & intentions: - variety of student purposes for course engagement - student experience - byproduct of course topic, instructor, institution, and novelty of medium
  • MOOCs and the Future of Higher Education, ICHL2013, Toronto Canada Four prototypical learner trajectories in MOOCs • Completing learners: attempt the majority of the assessments offered in the class • Auditing learners: attempt assessments infrequently, if at all, but watch lectures throughout the course • Disengaging learners: attempt assessments at the beginning of the course but then move to sparsely watching lectures or disappear course entirely • Sampling learners: briefly explore the course by watching a few videos, either at the beginning of the course or while it is underway • ----No-shows: enroll but never actively engage with any of the course materials (study indicated 30%-43%) (ref: Schneider, Stanford, 2013)
  • MOOCs and the Future of Higher Education, ICHL2013, Toronto Canada (ref: Pea et.al.) technology infrastructure: - social media & technology tools - interactivity - data collection & analytics
  • MOOCs and the Future of Higher Education, ICHL2013, Toronto Canada MOOC Tools & Pedagogy the correlation between online learning tools used in MOOCs and Bloom’s Taxonomy (Morrison, 2012)
  • MOOCs and the Future of Higher Education, ICHL2013, Toronto Canada (ref: Pea et.al.) evidence-based improvement: - evaluating design decisions around ILE and technology infrastructure - measurement of desired learning outcomes
  • MOOCs and the Future of Higher Education, ICHL2013, Toronto Canada ?
  • MOOCs and the Future of Higher Education, ICHL2013, Toronto Canada Issues in “pulling off” a MOOC • Production • Delivery • Design • These are independent of whatever MOOC platform chosen!
  • MOOCs and the Future of Higher Education, ICHL2013, Toronto Canada MOOC Production (1) • Recording - equipment (e.g., camera, microphone, lighting, green screen vs. screen flow, HD) • Editing - software • Recording needs in software choice (e.g., green screens, Powerpoint, screen annotation) • Editing expertise and/or learning curve • Who does this? Time & $$
  • MOOCs and the Future of Higher Education, ICHL2013, Toronto Canada MOOC Production (2) • Use of media • Clip art or obtained images - address copyright/permissions; unless images are royalty-free or purchased, attributions must be provided; registration size draws attention! • Photographs - have individuals in photos signed release forms? necessary to avoid legal/privacy issues
  • MOOCs and the Future of Higher Education, ICHL2013, Toronto Canada MOOC Production (3) • Accessibility • Transcripts and captioning for all videos -YouTube provides free & paid services, but usually transcripts need to be edited; who will do this? • How will students in countries withoutYouTube access videos? • YouTube alternatives (e.g.,Youku.com, 56.com) • Dropbox not a good solution for videos - disables links to stored videos when they receive too many visits • Post (and link to) videos on Amazon S3 or other cloud service? • Translations?
  • MOOCs and the Future of Higher Education, ICHL2013, Toronto Canada MOOC Production (4) • Productivity & Collaboration • Create single accounts (or shared folders) to which all collaborators upload products (e.g., 1 YouTube account for course videos and 1 Dropbox account for course materials) • Create a dynamic course planning document (e.g., on GoogleDocs) to manage tasks, timelines, work products, upload deadlines, etc.); construct planning document to reflect any required fields or submissions formats of the platform
  • MOOCs and the Future of Higher Education, ICHL2013, Toronto Canada
  • MOOCs and the Future of Higher Education, ICHL2013, Toronto Canada MOOC Delivery (1) • Course promotion • Map out audiences • Prepare blurbs & press releases • Reach out to relevant blogs & news sources • Reach out via social media • Coordinate with communications departments
  • MOOCs and the Future of Higher Education, ICHL2013, Toronto Canada MOOC Delivery (2) • Social media • Course pages accounts on Twitter, Facebook, Google+, etc. • Who will set up, manage, post? advantages of students vs. staff • Risks (e.g., copyright, content, etc.) • Ongoing continuity across future courses
  • MOOCs and the Future of Higher Education, ICHL2013, Toronto Canada MOOC Delivery (3) • Platform • Functions, assets, limitations • Training for instructors/TAs • Communication during course • Platform info, FAQs, how-tos • Student communication - e-mail, voting in forums • Clarify level of communication that students can expect • Clarify who to contact for what • Set daily communication requirements/strategies (e.g., spend X minutes/day on forums) • Meetups, office hours? • Trouble reports
  • MOOCs and the Future of Higher Education, ICHL2013, Toronto Canada MOOC Delivery (4) • Course norms & expectations • Honor Code - does the platform have one? • Visibility - what is public/private? open only to enrollees? access to student work? access to scores/assessment? • Intellectual Property - who owns what (students & all); licensing? • Citing external resources - provide expectations & resources • Plagiarism - define, expectations, consequences, resources • Promote & model a positive ILE in all communications • Prevent & respond to cases of students using the course and taking advantage of teammates to further individual interests
  • MOOCs and the Future of Higher Education, ICHL2013, Toronto Canada MOOC Delivery (5) • Surveying students • What information will be collected? What are goals for collecting that data? • When will surveys occur considering attrition rate and end-of-course biases? • Consider course demands when scheduling a survey
  • MOOCs and the Future of Higher Education, ICHL2013, Toronto Canada MOOC Design (1) • Consider instructional goals • “reach vs. rigor” • Syllabus • “Contract” - often referred to • Design/update to include global and online environmental considerations • Reading assignments • Will reading be assigned? If so, is all reading free and available online? • If using scholarly articles not available online, consider copyright, distribution, & cost to students • Consider availability of book reading assignments
  • MOOCs and the Future of Higher Education, ICHL2013, Toronto Canada
  • MOOCs and the Future of Higher Education, ICHL2013, Toronto Canada MOOC Design (2) • Assignment/assessment schedule • Number & types of assignments • Use peer review strategically • Criteria for evaluation, rubrics • Timeline & planning • Schedule, schedule, schedule!
  • MOOCs and the Future of Higher Education, ICHL2013, Toronto Canada Case study • MyWeb Science MOOC is scheduled for 1st quarter 2014 • I’ve participated in 6 MOOCs, finished 4 • A favorite one was “The Power of Prototyping” (Klemmer, Stanford, 2012) • Has shared his analysis
  • MOOCs and the Future of Higher Education, ICHL2013, Toronto Canada
  • MOOCs and the Future of Higher Education, ICHL2013, Toronto Canada
  • MOOCs and the Future of Higher Education, ICHL2013, Toronto Canada
  • MOOCs and the Future of Higher Education, ICHL2013, Toronto Canada
  • MOOCs and the Future of Higher Education, ICHL2013, Toronto Canada
  • MOOCs and the Future of Higher Education, ICHL2013, Toronto Canada
  • MOOCs and the Future of Higher Education, ICHL2013, Toronto Canada
  • MOOCs and the Future of Higher Education, ICHL2013, Toronto Canada
  • MOOCs and the Future of Higher Education, ICHL2013, Toronto Canada
  • MOOCs and the Future of Higher Education, ICHL2013, Toronto Canada
  • MOOCs and the Future of Higher Education, ICHL2013, Toronto Canada MOOCs & PD
  • MOOCs and the Future of Higher Education, ICHL2013, Toronto Canada
  • MOOCs and the Future of Higher Education, ICHL2013, Toronto Canada Conclusions & thoughts on the future of MOOCs (1) • “The MOOC Hype Cycle” may be overly pessimistic • The MOOC phenomenon has successfully initiated new discussions on • The value of open education resources • Alternative strategies to address the rising costs of higher education • Learning “at the speed of need” • Resources for distant/continuing education (i.e., “the digital divide”) • “Crowdsourcing education” (e.g., group learning/instruction, peer assessment)
  • MOOCs and the Future of Higher Education, ICHL2013, Toronto Canada Conclusions & thoughts on the future of MOOCs (2) • Experimentation will continue with the various “flavors” of MOOCs - not just xMOOCs and cMOOCs • New business models around MOOCs will attract new participants • More educational institutions will “jump on the MOOC bandwagon” either with local MOOCs (e.g., joining alliances like edX) or adopting flipped curricula using external MOOCs • What about “MOOCs for the masses?” Should it be as easy for an individual to teach a MOOC as it is to author a Web page or a blog? Tools? (e.g.,WordPress, GoogleDocs)
  • MOOCs and the Future of Higher Education, ICHL2013, Toronto Canada Conclusions & thoughts on the future of MOOCs (3) • Greater use of MOOCs for professional development and business training will occur (replacing the old Webinar concept) • Numerous issues must continue to be addressed • Impact on role of faculty • Institutional investment in free MOOCs • Registration fee models • Academic credit • Robustness of assessment techniques • Copyright & licensing issues • Archiving & searching • Security & privacy • Technology requirements
  • MOOCs and the Future of Higher Education, ICHL2013, Toronto Canada Meanwhile, the number of MOOCs continues to grow But with obvious geographical gaps!
  • MOOCs and the Future of Higher Education, ICHL2013, Toronto Canada Stay tuned: MOOCs remain in the news
  • MOOCs and the Future of Higher Education, ICHL2013, Toronto Canada
  • MOOCs and the Future of Higher Education, ICHL2013, Toronto Canada
  • MOOCs and the Future of Higher Education, ICHL2013, Toronto Canada Is this a new model forIs this a new model for higher education?higher education? Is this a new model forIs this a new model for higher education?higher education?
  • MOOCs and the Future of Higher Education, ICHL2013, Toronto Canada Closing thought - the potential of MOOCs should not be driven by big interests
  • MOOCs and the Future of Higher Education, ICHL2013, Toronto Canada Q & A bebo@slac.stanford.edu