MOOCs are based on several principles stemming from connectivist pedagogy. The principles include:Aggregation. The whole point of a connectivist MOOC is to provide a starting point for a massive amount of content to be produced in different places online, which is later aggregated as a newsletter or a web page accessible to participants on a regular basis. This is in contrast to traditional courses, where the content is prepared ahead of time.The second principle is remixing, that is, associating materials created within the course with each other and with materials elsewhere.Re-purposing of aggregated and remixed materials to suit the goals of each participant.Feeding forward, sharing of re-purposed ideas and content with other participants and the rest of the world.
The term MOOC was coined in 2008 by Dave Cormier, Manager of Web Communication and Innovations at the University of Prince Edward Island, and Senior Research Fellow Bryan Alexander NITLE in response to an open online course designed and led by George Siemens, at Athabasca University and Stephen Downes, Senior Researcher at The National Research Council (Canada). The course was called "Connectivism and Connective Knowledge" and was presented to 25 tuition-paying students in Extended Education at the University of Manitoba in addition to 2,300 other students from the general public who took the online class free of charge. All course content was available through RSS feeds, and learners could participate with their choice of tools: threaded discussions in Moodle, blog posts, Second Life, and synchronous online meetings.Recent developmentsA major breakthrough came in Fall 2011 when over 160,000 people signed up for a course in artificial intelligence offered by Sebastian Thrun and Peter Norvig through Thrun's start-up Know Labs (now Udacity).The Stanford Education Experiment Could Change Higher Learning Forever
In other words, the animal in the experiment learns to associate the bell with the opportunity to eat and begins to salivate to the bell in the absence of food. It is as though the animal came to think of the bell as "mouthwatering," although behaviorists never would have used terms like think of, because thinking is not a directly observable behavior.B. F. Skinner (1904 - 1990) is credited with the development of the operant-conditioning paradigm. Similar to instrumental conditioning, operant conditioning requires that an organism operate on the environment to achieve a goal. A behavior is learned as a function of the consequences of the behavior, according to a schedule of reinforcement or punishment. Skinner emphasized the influence of reinforcers. Reinforcers are events that follow a response and increase the likelihood that the response will be repeated, but they do not suggest the operation of a cognitive component such as reward (or pleasure). Cognitivism is the theory that humans generate knowledge and meaning through sequential development of an individual’s cognitive abilities, such as the mental processes of recognize, recall, analyze, reflect, apply, create, understand, and evaluate.Learning involves more than stimulus and response events; it involves the development of an organized body of knowledge or expectations about a given situation. Think of it ias the sequential development of mental processes.
Simply stated, it is a learning process which allows a student to experience an environment first-hand, thereby giving the student reliable, trust-worthy knowledge. The student is required to act upon the environment to both acquire and test new knowledge. The responsibility of the learning relies completely on the learner. The type of learner is self-directed, creative, and innovative. The purpose in education is to become creative and innovative through analysis, conceptualizations, and synthesis of prior experience to create new knowledge. The educator’s role is to mentor the learner during heuristic problem solving of ill-defined problems by enabling quested learning that may modify existing knowledge and allow for creation of new knowledge. The learning goal is the highest order of learning: heuristic problem solving, metacognitive knowledge, creativity, and originality.Socio ConstructivismThis also stresses the importance of the nature of the learner's social interaction with knowledgeable members of the society. Without the social interaction with other more knowledgeable people, it is impossible to acquire social meaning of important symbol systems and learn how to utilize them. The instructor becomes the Guide on the Side, not the Sage on the Stage. Teaching becomes facilitation!
As an evolution of online courses, early MOOCs departed from formats that rely on posted resources, learning management systems, and structures that mix the learning management system with more open web resources. MOOCs from private, non-profit institutions emphasized prominent faculty members and have expanded open offerings to existing subscribers (e.g., podcast listeners) into free and open online courses.
1. Aggregate: Every day you will receive an edition of ‘The Daily', which will highlight some of this content. Normally it will arrive first thing in the morning (if you are in North or South America), but not always. The Daily is created fresh each day – it is not prepared content. So delivery may varyYou are NOT expected to read and watch everything. Even we, the facilitators, cannot do that. Instead, what you should do is PICK AND CHOOSE content that looks interesting to you and is appropriate for you. If it looks too complicated, don't read it. If it looks boring, move on to the next item.2. Remix: Once you've read or watched or listened to some content, your next step is to keep track of that somewhere. How you do this will be up to you.You can keep a document on your own computer listing all the things you've accessed. Or, better yet, you can keep a record online somewhere. That way you will be able to share your content with other people.3. Repurpose: We don't want you simply to repeat what other people have said. We want you to create something of your own. This is probably the hardest part of the process.Remember that you are not starting from scratch. Nobody every creates something from nothing. Think of every bit of content you create not simply as content, but as practice using the tool. The content almost doesn't even matter – what matters is that you apply the tool.This will seem awkward at first, as any tool does. But with practice you'll become an accomplished creator and critic of ideas and knowledge. And that is the purpose of this course!4. Feed Forward: We want you to share your work with other people in the course, and with the world at large.First, use the change11 tag in anything you create. Our course tag is: #change11It is especially important to use this tag in del.icio.us and in Twitter. That is how we will recognize content related to this course.. But if you know how, please tell us your feed address.You can use the form here:
MOOCs are based on several principles stemming from connectivist pedagogy.Aggregation. The whole point of a connectivist MOOC is to provide a starting point for a massive amount of content to be produced in different places online, which is later aggregated as a newsletter or a web page accessible to participants on a regular basis. This is in contrast to traditional courses, where the content is prepared ahead of time.The second principle is remixing, that is, associating materials created within the course with each other and with materials elsewhere.Re-purposing of aggregated and remixed materials to suit the goals of each participant.Feeding forward, sharing of re-purposed ideas and content with other participants and the rest of the world.
How much time does it really take?How many participants are really learning?What can this mean for large scale professional development
, by Alexander McAuley, Bonnie Stewart, George Siemens and Dave Cormier (PDF in Adobe Connect File Pod)
Massive Open Online Learning
What’s aMOOC?Exploring the Possibilities of Massive Open Online LearningPhylise Banner . Society for Technical Communication . May 2013
Explorations• The MOOC concept, origins and maturitystages• Underlying learning theories andpractices• Applications for tech comm professionals• Educational opportunities for STC
What’s a MOOC?• Massive Open Online Course• Guided open learning opportunitywithin a semi-structured framework• Structure within which to serve free,open-access education• Modeled from social networks andcollaborative media sites
The Historical Perspective• 2002: MIT Open Courseware• 2006: Khan Academy• 2008: Connectivism and ConnectiveKnowledge at the University ofManitoba• 2011: Artificial Intelligence courseat Stanford
The Evolution of Theory• Behaviorism–Classical conditioning (Pavlov)–Operant conditioning (Skinner)• Cognitivism (Piaget)
The Evolution of Theory• Constructivism (Dewey)• Social Learning Theories–Socio-Constructivism–Connectivism
Principles of Connectivism(Siemens, 2004)• Learning and knowledge rests in diversityof opinions.• Learning is a process of connecting specializednodes or information sources.• Learning may reside in non-human appliances.• Capacity to know more is more critical thanwhat is currently known.• Nurturing and maintaining connections isneeded to facilitate continual learning.
Principles of Connectivism(Siemens, 2004)• Ability to see connections between fields, ideas,and concepts is a core skill.• Currency (up to date knowledge) is the intentof all connectivist learning activities.• Decision-making is itself a learning process.Choosing what to learn and the meaning ofincoming information is seen through the lensof a shifting reality. While there is a rightanswer now, it may be wrong tomorrow due toalterations in the information climate affectingthe decision.
A Teaching and Learning Generation• According to Downes, knowledgeis distributed, interconnected,personal, and a recognition of apattern in a set of introspectiveor behavioral events. (2006)
A Teaching and Learning GenerationWe have become accustomedto learning on our own withinself selected groups.So, what do those groupslook like?
Massive Communities of Learners• What does a MOOC look like?• What are the core components?• What differentiates one from another?• What does it mean to be a participant?• How is my learning progress measured?• Where can I find a MOOC for me?
Benefits• Open (and free) access for all• Connectivist exploration of knowledge• Flexibility in time/place• Networking and community cultivation• Lifelong learning opportunities• Large-scale professional developmentpossibilities
Challenges• Retention and completion rates• Assessment and validity• Self regulation• Organic network management• Chaos
New Roles and Opportunities• Exploration of a new instructionaldesign paradigm• Content development, curation,and delivery• Community formation, coordinationand facilitation• Lifelong learning!
The STC Tech Comm MOOCTopics of interest (22 SIGs):Tech Comm basicsUsabilityContent StrategyInformation Design & ArchitectureInstructional Design & LearningInformation VisualizationPolicies and ProceduresTechnical EditingAnd more …
The STC Tech Comm MOOCFeatured content developers/presenters:Mollye BarrettKai WeberDana WestBernard AschwandenPhylise Banner
The STC Tech Comm MOOC TeamFor more information about MOOCs,or to join the STC Tech Comm MOOCteam, please contact us via email:firstname.lastname@example.org@gmail.com
ResourcesThe MOOC Model for Digital Practicehttp://www.elearnspace.org/Articles/MOOC_Final.pdfConnectivism and Collective Knowledge 2011http://cck11.mooc.ca/MOOC Guide Wikihttp://moocguide.wikispaces.comThe Must-Have EdTech Cheat Sheethttp://edudemic.com/2012/07/edtech-cheat-sheet/